Special Issue "Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II)"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Piera Di Martino
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Interests: pharmaceutical technology; cosmetology; formulation; hydrogels; nanoparticles; natural sources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The second issue of “Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food” is dedicated to the sustainable development of natural active ingredients and their application in cosmetics and foods. In the last few years, researchers focused their attention on the exploitation of natural sources such as waste from agriculture or food chains to recover active ingredients of added value. This is an opportunity to promote sustained development in a circular way. Pure active ingredients or mixes of substances may be recovered thanks to different green procedures that avoid organic solvents or energy-consuming processes. The development of advanced and innovative extraction procedures is demanding, as is the development of analytical procedures necessary for a full characterization of these active ingredients. This Special Issue welcomes original works or reviews reporting the sustainable development of new active ingredients for cosmetics and food applications.

Prof. Dr. Piera Di Martino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green ingredients
  • Green chemistry
  • Green extraction methods
  • Natural active ingredients
  • Sustainable development
  • Analytical methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Anti-Acne Vulgaris Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Mesua ferrea L. Flowers
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040107 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. In the present study, we reported the anti-acne vulgaris effect of the Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) flower extract. The extract was evaluated for three anti-acne-causing bacteria properties including Cutibacterium acnes (C. [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. In the present study, we reported the anti-acne vulgaris effect of the Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) flower extract. The extract was evaluated for three anti-acne-causing bacteria properties including Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results indicated that the M. ferrea flower extract could be considered as the bactericidal agent against S. epidermidis and S. aureus with MIC values of 0.78 and 6.25 mg mL−1 and MBC values of 1.56 and 12.50 mg mL−1 and the bacteriostatic agent against C. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 3.12 and 25.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The extract at a concentration of 25 µg mL−1 also presented potent anti-inflammatory activity with a significant decrease of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α productions in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells stimulated by LPS. In addition, the extract showed moderate to weak anti-oxidative capacities against DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and NO assays and also showed weak anti-tyrosinase activity. M. ferrea flower extract may serve as the alternative natural anti-acne formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
New Antioxidant Ingredients from Brewery By-Products for Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040096 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of different types of handcrafted beers (Ego, Alter, Fiat Lux, Triplo Malto, Ubi, and Maior), as well as the starting materials (malts, hops, and yeast), the intermediate products, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of different types of handcrafted beers (Ego, Alter, Fiat Lux, Triplo Malto, Ubi, and Maior), as well as the starting materials (malts, hops, and yeast), the intermediate products, and the waste products (spent malts, hops, and yeast), in view of their use in innovative cosmetic formulations. Extractions from starting and spent samples were taken from water or 70° alcohol. The total phenol content (Folin Ciocalteau Essay) of all the brewing products depended on the specific product under investigation. The highest values were found in starting hops (ranging from approximately 93 to 155 mg GAE/g, according to the extraction solvent), intermediate ones in starting malt and starting yeast, and the lowest values in wort. The total phenol content in the final beers originates from the phenols that were extracted from the different ingredients, namely the starting malts, hops and yeast, but non-negligible values were still observed in spent products. The method used for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (DPPH), ferric-ion reducing antioxidant parameter (FRAP), and radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power (ABTS) strongly influenced the results. In general, the results reflected the trend observed for the total phenol content: that beers are progressively enriched by phenols originating from all the starting ingredients, and that spent products still possess non-negligible antioxidant activity. It is interesting to note that waste yeast frequently showed higher values than those of the starting material; it can be inferred that yeast is able to absorb phenols from the beer during brewing. By considering the interest in exploiting waste derived from processing foods, the biological activity of waste Alter brewery products has been evaluated on a cell culture of keratinocytes (spent products of malt, hop, and yeast). Preliminary in vitro assays in keratinocyte HaCaT cells were carried out to assess the potential bioactivity of spent extracts. Among the spent extracts, the spent hop and yeast extracts showed the ability to improve the mitochondrial activity and prevent oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, two features in skin ageing. In conclusion, this study offers evidence that waste from handcrafted beers can be an interesting source of phenols for the preparation of skin anti-aging cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Characterization of Polysaccharidic Associations for Cosmetic Use: Rheology and Texture Analysis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030062 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
As public attention on sustainability is increasing, the use of polysaccharides as rheological modifiers in skin-care products is becoming the first choice. Polysaccharide associations can be used to increase the spreading properties of products and to optimize their sensorial profile. Since the choice [...] Read more.
As public attention on sustainability is increasing, the use of polysaccharides as rheological modifiers in skin-care products is becoming the first choice. Polysaccharide associations can be used to increase the spreading properties of products and to optimize their sensorial profile. Since the choice of natural raw materials for cosmetics is wide, instrumental methodologies are useful for formulators to easily characterize the materials and to create mixtures with specific applicative properties. In this work, we performed rheological and texture analyses on samples formulated with binary and ternary associations of polysaccharides to investigate their structural and mechanical features as a function of the concentration ratios. The rheological measurements were conducted under continuous and oscillatory flow conditions using a rotational rheometer. An immersion/de-immersion test conducted with a texture analyzer allowed us to measure some textural parameters. Sclerotium gum and iota-carrageenan imparted high viscosity, elasticity, and firmness in the system; carob gum and pectin influenced the viscoelastic properties and determined high adhesiveness and cohesiveness. The results indicated that these natural polymers combined in appropriate ratios can provide a wide range of different textures and that the use of these two complementary techniques represents a valid pre-screening tool for the formulation of green products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Development of New Extracts of Crocus sativus L. By-Product from Two Different Italian Regions as New Potential Active Ingredient in Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020051 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
This project aimed to apply eco-friendly extraction methods to Crocus sativus L. by-product (flowers without stigmas i.e., tepals composed of petals and sepals) to recover extracts with high antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content, to be used in cosmetic products. Flowers grown in two [...] Read more.
This project aimed to apply eco-friendly extraction methods to Crocus sativus L. by-product (flowers without stigmas i.e., tepals composed of petals and sepals) to recover extracts with high antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content, to be used in cosmetic products. Flowers grown in two different Italian regions (Sample 1—Alba in Piemonte, north of Italy and Sample 2—Sibillini in Marche, centre of Italy) were subjected for the first time to different eco-friendly microwave-mediated green solvents extractions (MGSE) andquali-quantitative determination in antioxidant molecules. Firstly, the extracts from Sample 1 were selected according to their total phenol content (TPC) by Folin–Ciocalteu’s assay and antioxidant capacity (AC) by spectrophotometric assays. Then, according to preliminary results, MGSE carried out in ethanol 70°, water, and glycerin were selected as the most performing methods and applied to both Samples 1 and 2. The best results were obtained using green solvents, such as water or ethanol 70°, for the samples coming from Marche. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, belonging to anthocyanins and flavonols classes, was performed by using UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Concerning flavonols content, the most abundant analyte is kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and the extract in water from Sample 1 showed the higher amount of flavonols, reaching the concentration of 25.35 mg of kaempferol 3-O-glucoside equivalent per gram of tepals DW of raw material. Among anthocyanins, the most abundant was delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside and the high concentration of anthocyanin was detected in water and ethanol extract. Two new compounds, myricetin-di-glucoside and primflasine, were identified for the first time in Crocus sativus L. by-product by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The green batches obtained by extraction were thus characterized and evaluated for their biological potential and safety in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The extracts were not cytotoxic up to 0.03 mg/mL. The water and ethanol 70° extracts were the most effective in counteracting oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and UVA exposure and reduced cytotoxicity induced by UVB exposure. The water extract was also able to significantly reduce cytotoxicity induced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-induced damage. Taken together, these results suggest a potential use of these waste materials as cosmeceutical preparations such as antiaging, and as anti-skin irritation formulation by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review

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Review
Valorization of Wine-Making By-Products’ Extracts in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040109 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The increased demand for conscious, sustainable and beneficial products by the consumers has pushed researchers from both industries and universities worldwide to search for smart strategies capable of reducing the environmental footprint, especially the ones connected with industrial wastes. Among various by-products, generally [...] Read more.
The increased demand for conscious, sustainable and beneficial products by the consumers has pushed researchers from both industries and universities worldwide to search for smart strategies capable of reducing the environmental footprint, especially the ones connected with industrial wastes. Among various by-products, generally considered as waste, those obtained by winemaking industries have attracted the attention of a wide variety of companies, other than the vineries. In particular, grape pomaces are considered of interest due to their high content in bioactive molecules, especially phenolic compounds. The latter can be recovered from grape pomace and used as active ingredients in easily marketable cosmetic products. Indeed, phenolic compounds are well known for their remarkable beneficial properties at the skin level, such as antioxidant, antiaging, anti-hyperpigmentation and photoprotective effects. The exploitation of the bioactives contained in grape pomaces to obtain high value cosmetics may support the growing of innovative start-ups and expand the value chain of grapes. This review aims to describe the strategies for recovery of polyphenols from grape pomace, to highlight the beneficial potential of these extracts, both in vitro and in vivo, and their potential utilization as active ingredients in cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
Sustainable Sources from Aquatic Organisms for Cosmeceuticals Ingredients
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020048 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Long life expectancy of populations in the developing world together with some cultural and social issues has driven the need to pay special attention to health and physical appearance. Cosmeceuticals are gaining interest in the cosmetic industry as their uses fulfills a double [...] Read more.
Long life expectancy of populations in the developing world together with some cultural and social issues has driven the need to pay special attention to health and physical appearance. Cosmeceuticals are gaining interest in the cosmetic industry as their uses fulfills a double purpose: the requirements of a cosmetic (clean, perfume, protect, change the appearance of the external parts of the body or keeping them in good condition) with a particular bioactivity function. The cosmetics industry, producing both cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, is currently facing numerous challenges to satisfy different attitudes of consumers (vegetarianism, veganism, cultural or religious concerns, health or safety reasons, eco-friendly process, etc.). A currently growing trend in the market is the interest in products of low environmental impact. Marine origin ingredients are increasingly being incorporated into cosmeceutical preparations because they are able to address several consumer requirements and also due to the wide range of bioactivities they present (antioxidant, whitening, anti-aging, etc.). Many companies claim “Marine” as a distinctive marketing signal; however, only a few indicate whether they use sustainable ingredient sources. Sustainable marine ingredients might be obtained using wild marine biomass through a sustainable extractive fishing activity; by adopting valorization strategies including the use of fish discards and fish by-products; and by sustainably farming and culturing marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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