Water Sensitive Urban Design and Decentralised Systems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "New Sensors, New Technologies and Machine Learning in Water Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 3892

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Sustainable Industries & Liveable Cities and College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Ballarat Road, Footscray, Melbourne, VIC 3011, Australia
Interests: urban water; wastewater and stormwater systems; decentralised systems; hydraulic and hydrology; integrated urban water management; sustainability assessment; water resources; water sensitive urban design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Sustainable Industries & Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Ballarat Rd, Footscray, Melbourne, VIC 3011, Australia
Interests: decentralised and on-site sewerage systems; integrated urban water management; water sensitive urban design; irrigation systems; wastewater recycling; system thinking as applied to the urban water cycle, metabolism of ecologically sensitive subdivision (water, energy and nutrient balances); quantitative microbial risk assessment of alternative urban water supplies, etc.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urbanisation, population growth and climate change strongly influence the planning of urban water systems and their management. Urban developments are facing a shortage of fresh water resources, while increased volumes of wastewater and stormwater adversely impact on the ecology of the receiving water environment.

Water Sensitive Urban Design and Decentralised Water Systems can play an important role in more sustainable planning, design, implementation, operation and maintenance of the urban water cycle.

WSUD and Decentralised systems can deliver multiple benefits including water conservation, stormwater quality improvement, flood control, landscape amenity and a healthy living environment. These systems can be provided as stand-alone systems or in combination with centralised systems. However, these systems are still relatively novel and face knowledge gaps that impede their mainstream uptake. Knowledge gaps occur especially in institutional aspects of their implementation as well as for various economic, social and  technical issues.

This special issue will cover planning, design, implementation, operation, maintenance, technical, economic, social and institutional aspects of the implementation of WSUD and decentralised systems.

Dr. Ashok Sharma
Prof. Dr. Ted Gardner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD)
  • Green Infrastrcture (GI)
  • Low Impact Development (LID)
  • sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)
  • decentralised systems (DS)
  • climate resiliant
  • system design
  • economics and life cycle costing
  • operation and maintenance

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 5371 KiB  
Article
The Carbon Emission Intensity of Rainwater Bioretention Facilities
by Deqi Wang, Xuefeng Liu, Huan Li, Hai Chen, Xiaojuan Wang, Wei Li, Lianbao Cao, Jianlin Liu, Tingting Zhang and Bigui Wei
Water 2024, 16(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010183 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 807
Abstract
To investigate the quantitative relationship between the volume capture of rainfall and carbon emissions from bioretention facilities, this study introduces the concept of the carbon intensity of volume capture of rainfall. The influence of four key factors—climatic conditions, aquifer height, permeability coefficient, and [...] Read more.
To investigate the quantitative relationship between the volume capture of rainfall and carbon emissions from bioretention facilities, this study introduces the concept of the carbon intensity of volume capture of rainfall. The influence of four key factors—climatic conditions, aquifer height, permeability coefficient, and facility area—was investigated using a residential neighborhood in Tianshui, China, as an example. The results reveal that the carbon intensity value is influenced not only by external environmental changes but also by the inherent attributes of bioretention facilities, such as aquifer height, permeability coefficient, and facility area. The maximum carbon intensity value for the volume capture of rainfall was −0.0005 kg CO2/m3, while the minimum was −0.0852 kg CO2/m3, representing a substantial difference of approximately 169 times. Orthogonal experiments identified the facility area as the most significant influencing factor on carbon intensity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.0520. The area of bioretention facilities can be prioritized to meet deployment requirements, taking into account volume capture reduction effects and carbon emissions. For facilities with a high carbon intensity, an emphasis should be placed on enhancing carbon reduction benefits, and various initiatives can be implemented to achieve this goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Sensitive Urban Design and Decentralised Systems)
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23 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Stormwater Treatment Using Natural and Engineered Options in an Urban Growth Area: A Case Study in the West of Melbourne
by Peter Sanciolo, Ashok K. Sharma, Dimuth Navaratna and Shobha Muthukumaran
Water 2023, 15(23), 4047; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234047 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 677
Abstract
The expected increase in urbanization and population in coming years is going to increase the impervious land area, leading to substantial increases in stormwater runoff and hydrological challenges, and presents significant challenges for urban potable water supply. These are worldwide challenges that can [...] Read more.
The expected increase in urbanization and population in coming years is going to increase the impervious land area, leading to substantial increases in stormwater runoff and hydrological challenges, and presents significant challenges for urban potable water supply. These are worldwide challenges that can potentially be ameliorated by harvesting stormwater for potable use or for other uses that can reduce the pressure on potable water supply. This study sought to assist the local water authority in planning for future potable water supply through a review of the scientific literature to determine the likely chemical and microbial characteristics of stormwater, the treatment train (TT) requirements, and the likely costs of treatment to achieve potable standards for the high-growth metropolitan region of Melbourne, Australia. Literature stormwater quality statistical data and treatment process performance data were used to model the expected product water microbial and chemical quality after treatment using a number of advanced TT options. The results of the modelling were compared with literature microbial log reduction targets (LRTs) for the potable use of stormwater and with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). It was found that a reverse osmosis (RO)-based TT with microfiltration pre-treatment and post-RO advanced oxidation and chlorination in storage reservoirs is a conservative stormwater potable use treatment option. A less conservative and less expensive ozone-and-biologically active filtration (O3/BAF)-based TT option is also proposed if RO concentrate disposal is deemed to be too challenging. These results could be useful in climate change adaptation involving the evaluation of options for the mitigation of future population-growth- and climate-change-driven water supply challenges, as well as urbanization-driven stormwater hydrology and receiving water pollution challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Sensitive Urban Design and Decentralised Systems)
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18 pages, 4253 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Cooling Effect of Blue-Green Spaces: Implications for Urban Heat Island Mitigation
by Pritipadmaja, Rahul Dev Garg and Ashok K. Sharma
Water 2023, 15(16), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162983 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is a significant concern in today’s rapidly urbanising cities, with exacerbating heatwaves’ impact, urban livelihood, and environmental well-being. This study aims to assess the cooling effect of blue-green spaces in Bhubaneswar, India, and explore their implications for [...] Read more.
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is a significant concern in today’s rapidly urbanising cities, with exacerbating heatwaves’ impact, urban livelihood, and environmental well-being. This study aims to assess the cooling effect of blue-green spaces in Bhubaneswar, India, and explore their implications for mitigating UHI effects. Satellite images were processed with Google Earth Engine (GEE) to produce information on the blue-green spaces’ land surface temperatures (LST). The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Normalised Difference Water Index (MNDWI) were employed to quantify the presence and characteristics of these blue-green spaces. The findings revealed significant spatial variations in the LST, with higher temperatures observed in bare land and built-up areas and lower temperatures in proximity to the blue-green spaces. In addition, a correlation analysis indicated the strong influence of the built-up index (NDBI) on the LST, emphasising the impact of urbanisation on local climate dynamics. The analysis demonstrated the potential of blue-green spaces in reducing surface temperatures and mitigating UHI effects. Based on these results, strategic interventions were proposed, such as increasing the coverage of green spaces, optimising access to water bodies, and integrating water-sensitive design principles into urban planning to enhance the cooling effects and foster a more sustainable and resilient urban environment. This study highlighted the importance of leveraging remote sensing and GEE for urban UHI analyses. It provides valuable insights for policymakers and urban planners to prioritise nature-based solutions for heat mitigation in Bhubaneswar and other similar cities. Future research could delve deeper into a quantitative assessment of the cooling benefits of specific blue-green infrastructure interventions and explore their socio-economic impacts on urban communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Sensitive Urban Design and Decentralised Systems)
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