Solute Transport Model and Remediation Technology for Groundwater Contamination

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 3190

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: groundwater; thioarsenic; environmental remediation; solute transport model; arsenic; chromium; water contamination and protection; carbon-based polymer material

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: solute transport; modeling; anomalous diffusion; fractional derivative model; hydrologic exchanges; surface water-groundwater hydrodynamic coupling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater contamination has become an environmental problem for several decades and it has attracted worldwide concern. Contaminant hydrogeology is a research field that addresses migration, transformation, and the fate of contaminants in groundwater systems. In recent years, solute transport models and remediation technology have been getting more attention with the emergence of new contaminants, the upgrade of contamination characterization technologies, and the development of computing science.

This Special Issue, ‘Solute Transport Model and Remediation Technology for Groundwater Contamination’, aims to review and address the recent advances and challenges of contaminant hydrogeology, present improvements in solute transport modeling, and discuss progress in remediation technology. This Issue awaits submissions of original research articles delivering state-of-the-art modeling analysis and new findings on remediation technology to offer new perspectives for potential readers.

Prof. Dr. Huimei Shan
Dr. Song Wei
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • groundwater contaminants
  • groundwater quality management
  • solute transport modeling
  • water security
  • remediation technology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3869 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Aqueous Iron on River Sand’s Arsenic Adsorption: Characteristics and Mechanisms
by Zheying Li, Sanxi Peng, Huimei Shan, Qian Liao, Hai Zhou and Zhicheng Zhao
Water 2024, 16(8), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16081107 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Iron-containing minerals are key factors controlling arsenic (As) transport in groundwater environments. However, few studies have observed the effect of aqueous Fe [Fe(aq)] on As behavior in a water environment. In this study, river sand in the riparian zone was collected for batch [...] Read more.
Iron-containing minerals are key factors controlling arsenic (As) transport in groundwater environments. However, few studies have observed the effect of aqueous Fe [Fe(aq)] on As behavior in a water environment. In this study, river sand in the riparian zone was collected for batch experiments to analyze the effect of Fe(aq) on the adsorption of As on river sand, utilizing characterization analyses to identify the reaction mechanism. The results showed that (1) as the concentration of Fe(aq) in the reaction system increased from 0.1 to 20 mg/L, the equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe) of river sand for As(III) and As(V) gradually increased. For concentrations of Fe(aq) equal to or greater than 1 mg/L, the Qe for As(V) exceeds that for As(III), whereas at a Fe(aq) concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the Qe for As(III) is higher than that for As(V). (2) Compared to the reaction system without added Fe(aq), the adsorption of As(V) onto river sand was inhibited, while the adsorption of As(III) was enhanced under conditions with low concentrations (0.1, 1 mg/L) of Fe(aq). (3) At higher Fe(aq) concentrations (5, 20 mg/L), the adsorption of both As(V) and As(III) by river sand was more effective than in systems without Fe(aq). Characterization tests confirmed this, while Fe(II) reduced As(V), and Fe(aq) adhered to the surface of river sand to form Fe(OH)3 colloids, thereby facilitating the adsorption of As onto river sand. Full article
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22 pages, 3960 KiB  
Article
Phosphorus Sources and Transport Pathways in the North Chaohu Lake Catchment of China
by Lulu Wang, Hongbin Zhan, Jiazhong Qian, Ruigang Zhang, Qing Zhang and Houchun Guan
Water 2024, 16(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020244 - 10 Jan 2024
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Abstract
To understand the cause of the high content of phosphorus in the North Chaohu Lake Catchment of China, the distribution of the total phosphorus in groundwater and the dissolution of rock phosphorus near Chaohu Lake were investigated, and a few interesting findings have [...] Read more.
To understand the cause of the high content of phosphorus in the North Chaohu Lake Catchment of China, the distribution of the total phosphorus in groundwater and the dissolution of rock phosphorus near Chaohu Lake were investigated, and a few interesting findings have been revealed. Firstly, four main processes affecting the groundwater quality in North Chaohu Lake Catchment were identified with the results of factor analysis, including anthropogenic activities and the dissolution of carbonate rocks, phosphorus, and fluorine-bearing minerals. Secondly, the dissolution of rock phosphorus can be well described using the one-dimensional diffusion equation, with a semi-infinite boundary condition, and the Langmuir kinetic equation. A relatively low ambient temperature (less than 25 °C) was probably responsible for the small diffusion coefficient compared to that of the previous studies. Thirdly, the high-potential maximum dissolution of rock phosphorus (Cmax) indicated that the dissolution of rock phosphorus could pose a risk to the ambient water body, and Cmax was found to be independent of the total rock phosphorus content. Full article
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16 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Study on the Spatiotemporal Variation in and Driving Mechanism of Water Quality in Baiyangdian Lake
by Yang Liu and Qianqian Zhang
Water 2024, 16(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010166 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Analyzing 165 data from five national control sites in Baiyangdian Lake, this study unveils its spatiotemporal pattern of water quality. Utilizing machine learning and multivariate statistical techniques, this study elucidates the effects of rainfall and human activities on the lake’s water quality. The [...] Read more.
Analyzing 165 data from five national control sites in Baiyangdian Lake, this study unveils its spatiotemporal pattern of water quality. Utilizing machine learning and multivariate statistical techniques, this study elucidates the effects of rainfall and human activities on the lake’s water quality. The results show that the main pollutants in Baiyangdian Lake are TN, TP, and IMN. Spatially, human activities are the main drivers of water quality, with the poorest quality observed in the surrounding village area. The temporal dynamics of water quality parameters exhibit three distinct patterns: Firstly, parameters predominantly influenced by point source pollution, like TN and NH4+-N, show lower concentrations during flood periods. Secondly, parameters affected by non-point source pollution, such as TP, show higher concentrations during flood periods. Thirdly, irregular variations were observed in pH, DO, and IMN. The evaluation of Baiyangdian Lake’s water quality based on the grey relationship analysis method indicates that its water quality is good, falling within Classes I and II. Time series analysis found that the dilution effect of rainfall and the scouring action of runoff dominate the temporal variation in water quality in Baiyangdian Lake. The major pollution sources were identified as domestic sewage, followed by agricultural non-point source pollution and the release of internal pollutants. Additionally, aquaculture emerged as a significant contributor to the Lake’s pollution. This research provides a scientific basis for controlling the continuous deterioration of Baiyangdian Lake’s water quality and restoring its ecological function. Full article
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17 pages, 7560 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution and Factors Influencing the Various Forms of Iron in Alluvial–Lacustrine Clayey Aquitard
by Juan Chen, Rui Liu, Yantao Jian and Teng Ma
Water 2023, 15(22), 3934; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223934 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
The compression release of pore water in clayey aquitards has a significant impact on groundwater quality. Iron is an active variable element that mediates biochemical reactions in groundwater systems, but its transformation mechanisms in clayey aquitards remain unclear. The sediment and pore water [...] Read more.
The compression release of pore water in clayey aquitards has a significant impact on groundwater quality. Iron is an active variable element that mediates biochemical reactions in groundwater systems, but its transformation mechanisms in clayey aquitards remain unclear. The sediment and pore water samples from the shallow clayey aquitard (thickness = ~20 m) in the Chen Lake area of China were collected in three boreholes. The spatial distribution and influencing factors of Fe occurrence in the aquitard were revealed using hierarchical extraction, statistical analysis, and simulation calculations. The results indicate that the background value of alluvial–lacustrine sediments primarily affects the Fe concentration of clayey sediments. The dissimilatory reduction in free Fe oxide was the main source of Fe ions in pore water, resulting in a major percentage of Fe2+ in the total Fe concentration (0.07−5.91 mg/L). The abundant organic matter in organic-rich clay promoted a dissimilatory reduction in Fe (III) oxides, while the Fe concentrations of sediment and pore water were lower in the sand-rich stratum because of its weak adsorption capacity. The impact of human reclamation activities on the aquitard was mainly concentrated in the shallow layer (>3 m), resulting in water drainage and O2 and CO2 input, which induced the crystallization of poorly crystalline Fe oxides. The input of reactive organic matter from reclaimed crops promoted the dissimilatory reduction in Fe oxides and the enrichment of Fe in deep pore water. The copious Fe2+ in deep stratum pore water tended to interact with CO32− and S2− to form coprecipitation with Fe (II). The concentrations of As, Cr, Sr, Zn, and Mn in pore water followed a similar variation trend to the Fe ion concentration, and their release could be attributed to the reduction dissolution of sediment Fe (III) oxides. Full article
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