Topic Editors

Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
Prof. Dr. Jianping Wang
Qinghai Insititute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, China
Prof. Dr. Jinlong Zhou
College of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xinjiang Agriculture University, Urumqi 830052, China

Hydrosphere under the Driving of Human Activity and Climate Change: Status, Evolution and Strategies

Abstract submission deadline
31 October 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
21838

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our planet is experiencing unprecedented, rapid, and drastic changes induced by human beings and the climatic system. These changes have been propagating significant influences on various aspects of the earth system, further threatening the survival of human beings. Among all the spheres of the earth system, the hydrosphere is the most fundamental one to the existence of nearly all life on earth, the maintenance of the eco-environment on which life depends, as well as the development of human society. It can be said that the history of human development is a journey of water exploration, water management, and water utilization. Meanwhile, the hydrosphere is also the most sensitive sphere of the earth system to external changes. The rapid development of human society has greatly damaged the availability of water resources in both quantity and quality aspects in the past hundreds of years. Apart from the anthropogenic factors, the warming climate has been recognized as the widest and most profound factor influencing the state of the hydrosphere and water resource availability globally. It is no exaggeration to say that the hydrosphere on earth is suffering from the great pressures from human society and global warming and undergoing unprecedented drastic changes. Water crises and water-related geohazards will become more and more frequent during this process. The present topic aims to gather the latest innovative insights into the status of the hydrosphere, its evolution driven by anthropogenic activity and climate warming, and corresponding strategies, policies, and technologies. Specifically, this topic intends to offer a broad overview of the latest achievements focusing on water circulation, surface water and groundwater interaction, water resources, water quality, geothermal water, water (including surface water and groundwater) behaviors and related geohazards, water resource management, and water resource policy and knowledge dissemination. All types of manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications) are welcome.

Dr. Yong Xiao
Prof. Dr. Jianping Wang
Prof. Dr. Jinlong Zhou
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • hydrosphere
  • water resource
  • groundwater
  • surface water
  • water quality
  • geothermal water
  • human activity
  • climate change
  • geohazards
  • groundwater flow system
  • ecological environment

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Atmosphere
atmosphere
2.9 4.6 2010 17.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Land
land
3.9 4.9 2012 14.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 8.3 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 6.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Water
water
3.4 5.8 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Earth
earth
- 3.3 2020 17.6 Days CHF 1200 Submit

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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14 pages, 3474 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Hydrological Relationship between the North Taihang Tunnel and Tianshengqiao Nine Falls
by Xinfeng Wang, Lei Gong, Yuanqing Liu, Yan Wang, Qingang Wang, Mian Song, Pan Xiao and Zheming Shi
Water 2024, 16(11), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16111549 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The impact of a tunnel construction on the groundwater system depends on various parameters and cannot be easily predicted. Along these lines, a deep understanding of the hydrological relationship between tunnels and surface water is considered of vital importance for ensuring safety during [...] Read more.
The impact of a tunnel construction on the groundwater system depends on various parameters and cannot be easily predicted. Along these lines, a deep understanding of the hydrological relationship between tunnels and surface water is considered of vital importance for ensuring safety during railway construction. Upon completion, the North Taihang Tunnel will be one of four extra-long railway tunnels running through the natural ecotope and level-3 protection areas of the Tianshengqiao National Geological Park in Fuping County, Hebei Province. It will be 1 km away from the Tianshengqiao Nine Falls, which is known as a breathtaking landscape feature in Northern China. Local government, societies, and railway design units have raised concerns about whether the construction and operation of the North Taihang Tunnel will affect the Tianshengqiao Nine Falls. To effectively address this issue, in this work, hydrogeological mapping and hydraulic potential-energy calculations were performed in conjunction with hydrochemical and geological structure analyses. The groundwater system units in the study area were divided and the water source of the nine-level waterfall was determined retrospectively. In addition, the recharge of groundwater to the nine-level waterfall was calculated, the hydrogeological properties of the linear structure were analyzed, and the dominant channels of underwater discharge in surface water were compared and studied. The extracted results indicated that: (1) The Tianshengqiao Nine Falls represent a seasonal fall landscape, which is mainly supplied by surface water formed by precipitation and a low proportion of groundwater supply. (2) The water bodies of the North Taihang Tunnel project and Tianshengqiao Nine Falls belong to two independent groundwater systems. (3) No linear structure that connects these two groundwater systems has yet been discovered. It is widely accepted that a minor possibility of hydraulic connection might be present between the North Taihang Tunnel and Tianshengqiao Nine Falls. This work analyzed the water quantity of Nine Falls, determined the hydraulic relationship between the tunnel project and the waterhead of the Nine Falls, and addressed all stakeholder concerns. The conclusions could provide technological support for the scheduled construction projects. Full article
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26 pages, 8165 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics and the Spatiotemporal Differences of Surface Water and Groundwater in the Qaidam Basin, China
by Haijiao Yang, Jiahua Wei and Kaifang Shi
Water 2024, 16(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010169 - 31 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
In the context of climate change, precipitation and runoff in the arid inland basins of northwest China have undergone significant changes. The Qaidam Basin (QB) is a typical highland arid inland area. Understanding the spatial and temporal variations in surface water and groundwater [...] Read more.
In the context of climate change, precipitation and runoff in the arid inland basins of northwest China have undergone significant changes. The Qaidam Basin (QB) is a typical highland arid inland area. Understanding the spatial and temporal variations in surface water and groundwater chemistry and isotopes, as well as their causes, is crucial for future water resource management and ecological protection. Samples of river, lake, and groundwater, as well as others, were collected and tested in five typical watersheds in the summer and winter. The hydrochemistry and isotopic spatiotemporal differences in various water bodies were studied using the significant difference method, water vapor flux models, hydrochemistry, isotopes, and other methods for cause analyses. The results indicate the following: (1) There are differences in hydrochemistry between the southern and northern basins because the southern basin is more influenced by the dissolution of salt rocks and evaporation, whereas the northern basin is mainly affected by carbonate weathering. (2) The enrichment of δD and δ18O in the northern basin gradually increases from west to east, while in the southern basin, it is the opposite. This is because the southern basin receives a larger contribution of water vapor from the mid-latitude westerlies, while the northern basin primarily relies on local evaporation as its water vapor source. (3) Significant differences are observed in the total dissolved solids (TDS) and hydrochemical types of river water and groundwater between the summer and winter due to higher rates of rock weathering and evaporation in the summer. (4) The more pronounced seasonal differences in hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the southern basin are due to higher rates of internal water vapor circulation in the summer. (5) The similarity in characteristics between river water and groundwater is the result of strong exchanges between river water and groundwater from piedmonts to terminals. The spatiotemporal heterogeneity of terminal lakes is attributed to the accumulation of salts and groundwater replenishment from other sources. Full article
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18 pages, 5420 KiB  
Article
Identification of Hydrochemical Characteristics, Spatial Evolution, and Driving Forces of River Water in Jinjiang Watershed, China
by Yuchen Zhu, Hongjie Yang, Yong Xiao, Qichen Hao, Yasong Li, Jiahuan Liu, Liwei Wang, Yuqing Zhang, Wenxu Hu and Jie Wang
Water 2024, 16(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010045 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Rivers are an important source of water in humid regions, but their availability is greatly limited by water chemistry. In order to accurately identify the changes in river water chemical composition, the compositional analysis method (CoDA) is proposed from the perspective of compositional [...] Read more.
Rivers are an important source of water in humid regions, but their availability is greatly limited by water chemistry. In order to accurately identify the changes in river water chemical composition, the compositional analysis method (CoDA) is proposed from the perspective of compositional data analysis theory, which considers the geochemical riverine system as a whole and detects the compositional changes of the entire watershed. The basic data analysis is carried out by traditional analysis methods, and the results show that the hydrochemical characteristics of different sections of the basin have significant features. The water chemistry of Dongxi River is of the HCO3 Ca type. The water of the Xixi River shows a gradual evolution from the HCO3-Ca type and high SO42− content in the upper reaches to the Cl-Ca type in the lower reaches. The hydrochemistry of river water in the watershed is mainly affected by rock weathering leaching (PC1) and agricultural and domestic pollutant discharge (PC2), with a contribution rate of 48.4% and 19.7%, respectively. Rock weathering, mining, and agricultural pollution are the main factors affecting the chemical composition of river water in different regions. The spatial composition of a single sample at different scales is monitored by the Mahalanobis distance approach in an iterative manner to minimize the influence of a single anomaly on the composition center. The results show that the main reasons for the change in river water chemical composition along the Xixi River are attributed to mine pollution, domestic pollution, and tea plantation and that along the Dongxi River is caused by domestic pollution. The hydrochemical composition changes after the confluence of the Xixi River and Dongxi River are mainly affected by human activities and seawater in urban areas. This research could provide new perspectives and methods for detecting the influences of human and natural factors on the hydrochemistry of river water in humid regions worldwide. Full article
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18 pages, 7443 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Runoff Changes in the Wei River Basin, China: Confronting Climate Change and Human Activities
by Ruirui Xu, Chaojun Gu, Dexun Qiu, Changxue Wu, Xingmin Mu and Peng Gao
Water 2023, 15(11), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112081 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Abrupt runoff reduction in the Wei River Basin (WRB) has attracted extensive attention owing to climate change and human activities. Nevertheless, previous studies have inadequately assessed the respective contributions of climate variability and human activities to runoff change on different spatial scales. Using [...] Read more.
Abrupt runoff reduction in the Wei River Basin (WRB) has attracted extensive attention owing to climate change and human activities. Nevertheless, previous studies have inadequately assessed the respective contributions of climate variability and human activities to runoff change on different spatial scales. Using Mann–Kendall and Pettitt’s methods, this study identified long-term (1970–2018) changes in hydro-meteorological variables. Furthermore, the Budyko-based method was used to quantify the influence of climate change and human activities on runoff change at different spatial scales of the WRB, including the whole WRB, three sub-basins, and sixteen catchments. The results show that a significant decrease trend was identified in runoff at different spatial scales within the WRB. Runoff in almost all catchments showed a significant downward trend. Temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and the parameter n showed significant increases, whereas no significant trend in precipitation was observed. The change in runoff was mainly concentrated in the mid-1990s and early 2000s. Anthropogenic activities produced a larger impact on runoff decrease in the WRB (62.8%), three sub-basins (53.9% to 65.8%), and most catchments (–47.0% to 147.3%) than climate change. Dramatic catchment characteristic changes caused by large-scale human activities were the predominant reason of runoff reduction in the WRB. Our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the dominate factors causing runoff change and contribute to water resource management and ecosystem health conservation in the WRB. Full article
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16 pages, 9166 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Controlling Mechanisms of Groundwater in the Coastal Aquifer
by Guangnan An, Hao Kang, Rongbing Fu, Damao Xu and Jia Li
Water 2023, 15(9), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091710 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Groundwater contamination in coastal areas has attracted widespread attention. However, studies on the hydrogeochemical characteristics and controlling mechanisms in coastal aquifers are still lacking. In this study, 71 sets of groundwater samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons in a coastal [...] Read more.
Groundwater contamination in coastal areas has attracted widespread attention. However, studies on the hydrogeochemical characteristics and controlling mechanisms in coastal aquifers are still lacking. In this study, 71 sets of groundwater samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons in a coastal city, Shandong Province. Correlation and principal component analyses were used to identify pollution sources. Meanwhile, Piper diagrams, Gibbs plots, ion ratios, and saturation indices were employed to investigate the hydrogeochemical controlling mechanisms. The results revealed that pollution components included Na+, NH4+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, NO2, Pb, As, Se, TDS, TH, F, and Mn. Pollution compositions in the study area were primarily derived from natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The contamination of nitrogen resulted primarily from agricultural activities. The exceedance of SO42− was mainly due to the leaching of waste by rainfall. High Na+, Cl, and F were related to sea intrusion. Pb and Se might have been caused by anthropogenic activities. The exceedance of As was caused by anthropogenic inputs and natural factors. The poor seepage conditions and anoxic conditions promoted the enrichment of Mn. The concentration of most components in the dry season was larger than that in the wet season. There were no significant differences in water chemistry type during the wet season and dry season. Groundwater chemical compositions were dominated by the dissolution of halite, gypsum, and anhydrite, as well as the cation exchange reaction. The influence of seawater intrusion on groundwater was not serious. Full article
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14 pages, 1153 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Soil-Water Characteristic Curves for Different Textural Soils Using Fractal Analysis
by Chunliu Yang, Jianhua Wu, Peiyue Li, Yuanhang Wang and Ningning Yang
Water 2023, 15(4), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040772 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2955
Abstract
The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is an essential tool to determine hydraulic and mechanical properties of unsaturated soils. As an inherent influencing factor, soil texture controls the characteristics of SWCCs. Fractal theory can quantitatively describe the physical characteristics of soil. This study used [...] Read more.
The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is an essential tool to determine hydraulic and mechanical properties of unsaturated soils. As an inherent influencing factor, soil texture controls the characteristics of SWCCs. Fractal theory can quantitatively describe the physical characteristics of soil. This study used particle size distribution data and water content data contained in the UNSODA2.0 database to explore the fractal characteristics of 12 soil types with different textures under different matrix suctions. The SWCC fractal model was adopted to characterize the hydraulic properties of soil with various soil textures. The findings revealed that the mass fractal dimensions of particles from these 12 different soil types significantly differed and were closely related to the clay content. Fractal dimension increased with increasing clay content. The fractal dimension established a good relationship between soil structure and hydraulic properties. Fractal analysis can be used to determine the connection between physical properties and soil hydraulic parameters. The estimated results of the SWCC fractal model indicated that it had a good performance regarding the description of SWCCs for the 12 soil textures. The soil structure could be described through fractal dimensions, which can effectively indicate soil hydraulic characteristics. The estimated fractal dimension of this model could be obtained by particle size distribution. Furthermore, using the SWCC fractal model, we found that the SWCC of coarse textured soil changed sharply in the low suction stage and its residual water content was small, and the SWCC of fine textured soil changed gently with a large residual water content. The water retention capacity followed the order clay > silty clay > sandy clay > clay loam > silty clay loam > sandy clay loam > loam > silt loam > sandy loam > silt > loamy sand > sand. Full article
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14 pages, 14471 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Genetic Mechanism of the Metasilicate-Rich Groundwater in Ji’nan Rock Mass Area, Shandong Province, China
by Meng Xu, Caiping Hu, Lixin Zhu, Guangzeng Song, Wenquan Peng, Shijiao Yang and Jinyu Song
Water 2023, 15(4), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040713 - 11 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Metasilicate-rich groundwater could meet the high demand of the international community for high-quality water. In order to comprehensively analyze the genetic mechanism of metasilicate-rich groundwater, and help human communities effectively exploit and utilize high-quality water resources, taking the Ji’nan rock mass area as [...] Read more.
Metasilicate-rich groundwater could meet the high demand of the international community for high-quality water. In order to comprehensively analyze the genetic mechanism of metasilicate-rich groundwater, and help human communities effectively exploit and utilize high-quality water resources, taking the Ji’nan rock mass area as an example, this study carried out systematic research on the spatial distribution and genetic mechanism of the metasilicate-rich groundwater Based on the regional hydrogeological conditions, the influencing factors on the spatial distribution characteristics of the metasilicate-rich groundwater in the study area were systematically sorted out by means of petrogeochemistry, hydrochemistry, and chemical weathering index analysis, and the accumulation mechanism of the metasilicate-rich groundwater was discussed from the perspective of water-rock interaction. The results show that: (1) On the northwest side and part of the northeast side of Ji’nan rock mass, the metasilicate content of the groundwater samples exceeded 25 mg/L; the metasilicate content on the south, west, and east sides were relatively low; (2) Ji’nan rock mass is mainly composed of gabbro easily weathered, with high SiO2 content and high weathering degree showing obvious characteristics of desilication. FeS2 developing along the contact zones between the rock mass and surrounding rocks was easily oxidized to form H2SO4, which enhanced the solubility of silicate minerals in the groundwater. Ji’nan rock mass was located in the low-lying position of the monocline structure, which presented better water conservation and recharges conditions. The above factors resulted in the metasilicate-rich groundwater accumulating in the area of Ji’nan rock mass and showed different spatial distribution characteristics. Full article
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21 pages, 10891 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Oasis Land Use/Cover Changes and Impacts on Groundwater Resources in the Central Plain of the Shiyang River Basin
by Lifang Wang, Zhenlong Nie, Qinlong Yuan, Min Liu, Le Cao, Pucheng Zhu, Huixiong Lu and Bo Feng
Water 2023, 15(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030457 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
The impacts of land use/cover changes (LUCCs) on groundwater resources are a global issue. The Shiyang River Basin of China is a typical, ecologically fragile area. Focusing on the Wuwei sub-basin of the central plain, this study analyzed typical remote sensing image data [...] Read more.
The impacts of land use/cover changes (LUCCs) on groundwater resources are a global issue. The Shiyang River Basin of China is a typical, ecologically fragile area. Focusing on the Wuwei sub-basin of the central plain, this study analyzed typical remote sensing image data for 17 specific dates since 1970. Before the Comprehensive Treatment Program in 2007, the area of natural oases decreased at a rate of 16.25 km2/year, while the area of farmland expanded at a rate of 13.85 km2/year. The farmland expansion preferentially occurred in low-vegetation-coverage oases, where the groundwater depth increased from 4 to 20 m. The consumption of groundwater increased from 7319.5 × 104 m3/year to 12,943.2 × 104 m3/year. During the period 2008–2018, the areas of both the natural oases and farmland decreased at rates of 2.57 km2/year and 8.99 km2/year, respectively. The groundwater level rose significantly in the south and west, as well as near the main river channel. Groundwater consumption has been restored to 7270.4 × 104 m3/year. Only 0.12 km2 of every 1.17 km2 of the original natural oases were restored through the natural farmland–natural oases conversion process. Groundwater depth increased significantly with the continuous expansion of farmland. Since the farmland area was effectively controlled, the trend of groundwater-level decline was significantly improved. These findings provide scientific support for the ecological restoration and reconstruction of oases, as well as an efficient and balanced development of river basin water resources. Full article
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20 pages, 2453 KiB  
Article
Research on Surface Water Quality Assessment and Its Driving Factors: A Case Study in Taizhou City, China
by Sihe Deng, Cheng Li, Xiaosan Jiang, Tingting Zhao and Hui Huang
Water 2023, 15(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010026 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4844
Abstract
It is necessary to assess and analyze the factors that influence surface water since they are crucial to human activities such as agriculture, raising livestock, and industry. Previous research has mostly focused on how land use and landscape patterns affect the quality of [...] Read more.
It is necessary to assess and analyze the factors that influence surface water since they are crucial to human activities such as agriculture, raising livestock, and industry. Previous research has mostly focused on how land use and landscape patterns affect the quality of surface waters; it has seldom addressed the industrial and agricultural production activities that are directly connected to human society. Therefore, the research area’s surface water quality was assessed by single factor index (SFI) and composite water quality index (WQI), divided into flood and non-flood periods, and water quality indicators with severe pollution and significant seasonal variations were selected; A total of 28 indicators were selected from three main factors-topography, socio-economic, and land use type-and analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient model. (1) SFI data reveal substantial seasonal changes in pH, DO, NH3-N, TN, and TP water quality indicators. The well-developed agricultural and aquaculture in the studied region is the primary cause of the excess TN and NH3-N concentrations; (2) The sample points’ water quality index (WQI) scores range from 50 to 80, with 62% of them having “medium” water quality; (3) The study area’s seasonal variation in water quality is primarily caused by human socio-economic activities (GDP, industrial effluent discharge, COD discharge, aquatic product quality, and the proportion of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries), as well as land use type (forest, shrubland, and cropland). Topography has little effect on the study area’s surface water quality. This study offers a fresh viewpoint on surface water quality management and driver analysis, and a new framework for managing and safeguarding aquatic ecosystems. Full article
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17 pages, 4693 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Carbon Tetrachloride Pollution-Traceability in Groundwater System of an Industrial City
by Benli Guo, Peng Yang, Yan Zhou, Hongjian Ai, Xiaodong Li, Rifei Kang and Youcheng Lv
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 16113; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142316113 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4) is a colorless, volatile, and toxic liquid. Once it pollutes groundwater, it will not only destroy the ecological environment but also negatively affect the functioning of the human liver. An industrial city in eastern China has been contaminated with carbon [...] Read more.
Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4) is a colorless, volatile, and toxic liquid. Once it pollutes groundwater, it will not only destroy the ecological environment but also negatively affect the functioning of the human liver. An industrial city in eastern China has been contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, it is difficult to determine the pollution source by a single hydrochemical analysis. In order to solve the traceability problem, in this work we established a traceability system by combining hydrochemical analysis, backward tracing, and forward transport, and analyzed the pollution distribution, pollution-source location and pollution-transport characteristic in groundwater, which provided technical support for CCL4-pollution control of groundwater in this area. (1) Groundwater samples were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Through the pollution concentration-field, we identified the location of the pollution center and the concentration value in the northeast and southwest, screening out the monitoring wells exceeding the criteria: HF#1, DJ#19, DJ#7, SS#4, ZF#2, and DY#3. (2) Backward tracing over the past 30 years and 50 years was conducted through MODPATH. Potential polluting factories were identified by comparing the capture area with the historical distribution of factories. (3) Forward solute-transport was performed at the location of these potentially polluted factories. The distribution characteristics of pollutants in limestone layers and the Quaternary layer were analyzed using a simulated concentration-field for August 2012 and October 2016. (4) Comparing the simulated concentration with the observed concentration, the source of CCL4 pollution was inferred to be the textile mill in the 1990s, the steelworks in the 1970s, and the machine-tool plant in the 1970s and 1990s. Based on the concentration–duration curve at the pollution source, the transport characteristics and the transport speed of the pollutants in the study area were analyzed. This work not only successfully found the location of CCL4-pollution sources, but also helped the local government to analyze the year of pollutant release and recognize the transport pattern of CCL4 in aquifers. Full article
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22 pages, 3285 KiB  
Article
Solute Geochemistry and Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater in an Arid Endorheic Watershed on Tibetan Plateau
by Fenglin Wang, Hongjie Yang, Yuqing Zhang, Shengbin Wang, Kui Liu, Zexue Qi, Xiaoran Chai, Liwei Wang, Wanping Wang, Fatemeh Barzegari Banadkooki, Venkatramanan Senapthi and Yong Xiao
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15593; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315593 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Understanding groundwater geochemistry is crucial for water supply in arid regions. The present research was conducted in the arid Mo river watershed on the Tibetan plateau to gain insights into the geochemical characteristics, governing processes and quality of groundwater in arid endorheic watersheds. [...] Read more.
Understanding groundwater geochemistry is crucial for water supply in arid regions. The present research was conducted in the arid Mo river watershed on the Tibetan plateau to gain insights into the geochemical characteristics, governing processes and quality of groundwater in arid endorheic watersheds. A total of 28 groundwater samples were collected from the phreatic and confined aquifers for hydrochemical analysis. The results showed that the groundwater was slightly alkaline in all aquifers of the watershed. The phreatic groundwater samples (PGs) and confined groundwater samples (CGs) had the TDS value in the ranges of 609.19–56,715.34 mg/L and 811.86–2509.51 mg/L, respectively. PGs were salter than CGs, especially in the lower reaches. Both the PGs and CGs were dominated by the Cl-Na type, followed by the mixed Cl-Mg·Ca type. The toxic elements of NO2 (0.00–0.20 mg/L for PGs and 0.00–0.60 mg/L for CGs), NH4+ (0.00–0.02 mg/L for PGs and 0.00–0.02 mg/L for CGs) and F (0.00–4.00 mg/L for PGs and 1.00–1.60 mg/L for CGs) exceeded the permissible limits of the Chinese guidelines at some sporadic sites. Water–rock interactions, including silicates weathering, mineral dissolution (halite and sulfates) and ion exchange, were the main contributions to the groundwater chemistry of all aquifers. The geochemistry of PGs in the lower reach was also greatly influenced by evaporation. Agricultural sulfate fertilizer input was responsible for the nitrogen pollutants and salinity of PGs. All CGs and 73.91% of PGs were within the Entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) of below 100 and were suitable for direct drinking purposes. Precisely 8.70 and 17.39% of PGs were within the EWQI value in the range of 100–150 (medium quality and suitable for domestic usage) and beyond 200 (extremely poor quality and not suitable for domestic usage), respectively. The electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage and permeability index indicated that groundwater in most parts of the watershed was suitable for irrigation, and only a small portion might cause salinity, sodium or permeability hazards. Groundwater with poor quality was mainly distributed in the lower reaches. CGs and PGs in the middle-upper reaches could be considered as the primary water resources for water supply. Agricultural pollution should be paid more attention to safeguard the quality of groundwater. Full article
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