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Water, Volume 15, Issue 16 (August-2 2023) – 159 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As an effective method to improve saline–alkali land, the drainage from subsurface pipes has been extensively studied in typical arid and semi-arid agricultural areas. However, less studied is the improvement of subsurface pipe layout and the long-term soil salinization control in the process of leaching and soil amendment with subsurface pipes. Therefore, water and salt migration in the process of amending the heavy saline soil were investigated. Field experiments growing sunflowers and numerical model calculation were combined. The quantitative relationship between soil desalting and salt control rate, soil salt content before leaching, amount of water involved in leaching, subsurface pipe spacing, and buried depth was already established. View this paper
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41 pages, 1073 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Metallic Trace Elements Toxicity in Fishes and Potential Remedial Measures
by Saima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Guillermo Téllez-Isaías, Shakeeb Ullah, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Muhammad Kamal Shah, Ghulam Abbas, Azka Kiran, Rubina Mushtaq, Baseer Ahmad and Zulhisyam Abdul Kari
Water 2023, 15(16), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163017 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4126
Abstract
Metallic trace elements toxicity has been associated with a wide range of morphological abnormalities in fish, both in natural aquatic ecosystems and controlled environments. The bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements can have devastating effects on several aspects of fish health, encompassing physiological, reproductive, [...] Read more.
Metallic trace elements toxicity has been associated with a wide range of morphological abnormalities in fish, both in natural aquatic ecosystems and controlled environments. The bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements can have devastating effects on several aspects of fish health, encompassing physiological, reproductive, behavioural, and developmental functions. Considering the significant risks posed by metallic trace elements-induced toxicity to fish populations, this review aims to investigate the deleterious effects of prevalent metallic trace elements toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and copper (Cu), on the neurological, reproductive, embryonic, and tissue systems of fish. Employing diverse search engines and relevant keywords, an extensive review of in vitro and in vivo studies pertaining to metallic trace elements toxicity and its adverse consequences on fish and their organs was conducted. The findings indicate that Cd was the most prevalent metallic trace elements in aquatic environments, exerting the most severe impacts on various fish organs and systems, followed by Cu and Pb. Moreover, it was observed that different metals exhibited varying degrees and types of effects on fish. Given the profound adverse effects of metallic trace elements contamination in water, immediate measures need to be taken to mitigate water pollution stemming from the discharge of waste containing metallic trace elements from agricultural, industrial, and domestic water usage. This study also compares the most common methods for treating metallic trace elements contamination in water. Full article
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13 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
City Water Resource Allocation Considering Energy Consumption in Jinan, China
by Zhaohui Yang, G. Mathias Kondolf, Jie Du and Luyao Cai
Water 2023, 15(16), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163016 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The conflict between urban energy supply and demand is becoming increasingly evident. One aspect that consumes a great deal of this energy is the allocation of urban water resources. This study proposes a new scheme for rationally allocating urban water resources considering the [...] Read more.
The conflict between urban energy supply and demand is becoming increasingly evident. One aspect that consumes a great deal of this energy is the allocation of urban water resources. This study proposes a new scheme for rationally allocating urban water resources considering the high levels of energy currently consumed in Jinan city of Shandong, China. The focus is on simultaneously minimizing energy consumption and water shortage rates and granting priority to public water supplies in line with the predicted water supply levels for all available sources. Based on this assessment, further adjustments were made in terms of system configuration and the analysis of energy consumption. The results of the general water resource allocation model not only show that Jinan’s total water supply in 2030 will increase by 33.7% from 2019 but that energy consumption will also increase by 58.5%. If energy consumption is constrained and water supplies are restricted for high-energy-consumption activities, the results of the water resource allocation model considering energy consumption show that energy consumption will increase only by 44.2%. And the results also show that local groundwater is less energy intensive than imported surface water, which suggests that groundwater should be preferred (at least for energy reasons). Through modeling to reduce the total energy consumption in water resource allocation, this paper can provide a reference for energy saving for urban water supply systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management and Governance)
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18 pages, 5497 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Submerged Horizontal Perforated Plates under Irregular Wave Conditions
by Yanna Zheng, Yifan Zhou, Ruijia Jin, Yingna Mu, Ming He and Lingxiao Zhao
Water 2023, 15(16), 3015; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163015 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
This study presents novel analytical solutions for analyzing wave dissipation effect and bottom flow field characteristics of permeable submerged horizontal plates through physical model trials. The experimental results show that a solid submerged horizontal plate effectively attenuates wave cycles, with a greater periodic [...] Read more.
This study presents novel analytical solutions for analyzing wave dissipation effect and bottom flow field characteristics of permeable submerged horizontal plates through physical model trials. The experimental results show that a solid submerged horizontal plate effectively attenuates wave cycles, with a greater periodic attenuation effect at smaller submerged depths. However, this attenuation effect becomes reduced or less pronounced after a certain threshold. Selecting an optimal opening ratio becomes key to achieving the desired cycle attenuation. When the inundation depth of the horizontal plate is large, the wave dissipation effect is weak. Reducing the opening rate can improve the wave dissipation effect, but only to a certain extent. Under irregular wave actions, the velocity field of the submerged horizontal plate is uniformly distributed. The relative submerged depth has minimal effect on the maximum flow velocity and root mean square flow velocity. Increasing the wave height and increasing the open holes on a plate can improve the flow velocity at the bottom of the plate. However, increasing the opening ratio also leads to insignificant changes in flow velocity. A correlation between the transmission coefficient of the open plate and the maximum flow velocity has also been determined. The findings of this paper serve as a research foundation for the implementation of submerged horizontal plate wave dissipation structures in engineering. Full article
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13 pages, 9109 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Non-Point Source Pollution in Liaoning Province
by Bin Yan, Qi Cao, Shengli Yan, Zhenwei Gao, Dehui Liu and Yuyuan Li
Water 2023, 15(16), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163014 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
As a major agricultural province, understanding the spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in Liaoning Province plays a crucial role in preventing and controlling non-point source pollution. This paper uses the pollution discharge coefficient method to calculate the TN and TP load [...] Read more.
As a major agricultural province, understanding the spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in Liaoning Province plays a crucial role in preventing and controlling non-point source pollution. This paper uses the pollution discharge coefficient method to calculate the TN and TP load of non-point source pollution in each city of Liaoning Province in 2019. The results indicate that: (1) In 2019, the emissions of TN and TP from non-point source pollution in Liaoning Province were 245.6 thousand t and 23.2 thousand t, respectively. Livestock and poultry farming is the main source of TN and TP pollution. (2) The total amount of standard pollution load was 361.269 billion m3. TN is the main source of non-point source pollution, with TN and TP accounting for 67.96% and 32.04%, respectively. Overall, pollution in the central and western regions is more serious than in the eastern regions, while pollution in the plain areas is worse than in the mountainous and hilly areas. Chaoyang should be a key focus in terms of the prevention and control of non-point source pollution, and the abundant total water resources play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels. Full article
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16 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
Climate Impact on Irrigation Water Use in Jiangsu Province, China: An Analysis Using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)
by Tao Zhang, Xiaojun Wang, Zhifeng Jin, Shamsuddin Shahid and Bo Bi
Water 2023, 15(16), 3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163013 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
In this paper, the quantitative effects of climatic factor changes on irrigation water use were analyzed in Jiangsu Province from 2004 to 2020 using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) time-series analysis method. In general, the irrigation water use, precipitation (P), air temperature (T), [...] Read more.
In this paper, the quantitative effects of climatic factor changes on irrigation water use were analyzed in Jiangsu Province from 2004 to 2020 using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) time-series analysis method. In general, the irrigation water use, precipitation (P), air temperature (T), wind speed (Ws), relative humidity (Rh) and water vapor pressure (Vp) annual means ± standard deviation were 25.44 ± 1.28 billion m3, 1034.4 ± 156.6 mm, 16.1 ± 0.4 °C, 2.7 ± 0.2 m·s1, 74 ± 2%, and 15.5 ± 0.6 hPa, respectively. The analysis results of the irrigation water use sequence using EMD indicate three main change frequencies for irrigation water use. The first major change frequency (MCF1) was a 2-to-3-year period varied over a ±1.00 billion m3 range and showed a strong correlation with precipitation (the Pearson correlation was 0.68, p < 0.05). The second major change frequency (MCF2) was varied over a ±2.00 billion m3 range throughout 10 years. The third major change frequency (MCF3) was a strong correlation with air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and water vapor pressure (the Pearson correlations were 0.56, 0.75, 0.71, and 0.69, respectively, p < 0.05). In other words, MCF1 and MCF3 represent the irrigation water use changes influenced by climate factors. Furthermore, we developed the Climate–Irrigation–Water Model based on farmland irrigation theory to accurately assess the direct effects of climate factor changes on irrigation water use. The model effectively simulated irrigation water use changes with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.06 billion m3, representing 2.24% of the total. The findings from the model indicate that climate factors have an average impact of 6.40 billion m3 on irrigation water use, accounting for 25.14% of the total. Specifically, precipitation accounted for 3.04 billion m3 of the impact, while the combined impact of other climatic factors was 3.36 billion m3. Full article
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12 pages, 5416 KiB  
Article
Estimating Unconfined Aquifer Diffusivity Using 1D Phase Spectral Analysis: A Case Study in the Middle Reach of the Hutuo River, North China Plain
by Baoyun Zhang, Junzhi Wang, Ruolin Zhang, Yasong Li, Xiangke Kong and Yaci Liu
Water 2023, 15(16), 3012; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163012 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Aquifer diffusivity is a basic physical parameter used in hydrogeological calculations and is important for the evaluation and rational utilization of water resources, pollution prevention, and wetland protection. In this study, with the assumptions of aquifer isotropy, i.e., no vertical flow and constant [...] Read more.
Aquifer diffusivity is a basic physical parameter used in hydrogeological calculations and is important for the evaluation and rational utilization of water resources, pollution prevention, and wetland protection. In this study, with the assumptions of aquifer isotropy, i.e., no vertical flow and constant saturated aquifer thickness, by using the Fourier transform and convolution theorem, a 1D analytical solution of the phase spectrum for an unconfined aquifer system was derived, which subsequently led to a phase spectrum solution for aquifer diffusivity. To test the efficacy, the proposed method was applied to a study site in the middle reach of the Hutuo River in the North China Plain. The estimated aquifer diffusivity ranged from 1.9 × 103 to 4.9 × 104 m2/d, with a mean of 2.2 × 104 m2/d, which was consistent with the results obtained using power spectral analysis, pumping tests, and inverse numerical models. The phase spectral approach proposed in this paper can estimate the aquifer properties on a larger scale. If long time series of hydraulic heads are available, it can estimate hydrogeological parameters accurately and quickly. Considering the similarity of the linearized governing equations, it can also be applied to the river–aquifer system and the confined aquifer system. Full article
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12 pages, 1041 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Nitrogen Allocation Ratios and Period on Cotton Yield and Nitrogen Utilization
by Yujie Ren, Zeqiang Sun, Xinhui Hu, Quanru Liu, Qinqing Xu, Dulin Qin, Xuejun Wang, Shenglin Liu, Changjian Ma and Xuewen Wei
Water 2023, 15(16), 3011; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163011 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Choosing the proper fertilizer regime for a crop in a given location remains challenging to increase yield, profitability, environmental growth protection, and sustainability. However, the nutrient demand characteristics of cotton in the North China Plain are different at various growth stages. Therefore, we [...] Read more.
Choosing the proper fertilizer regime for a crop in a given location remains challenging to increase yield, profitability, environmental growth protection, and sustainability. However, the nutrient demand characteristics of cotton in the North China Plain are different at various growth stages. Therefore, we choose the local superior cotton variety (Lumian 532) with high yield as the material, in the present study, we assessed the cotton yield, biomass accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and utilization efficiency, and other parameters by setting four nitrogen allocation ratios (3:5:2, 0:10:0, 3:7:0, and 0:7:3) when the nitrogen application rates were 0, 150, 220, and 300 kg hm−2. The results showed that when the nitrogen application rate was 300 kg hm−2, the growth index, biomass, nitrogen content, and yield of Lumian 532 were the highest, while the nitrogen partial productivity (12.2 and 12.8) was the lowest. When the nitrogen application rate was 220 kg hm−2 and the nitrogen allocation ratio was 3:5:2, the agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (3.2 and 3.5) and nitrogen physiological (24.8 and 25.0) was achieved. When the nitrogen application rate was 150 kg hm−2, the nitrogen partial productivity (20.6 and 20.9) was the highest. In conclusion, the biomass accumulation and distribution, nitrogen use efficiency, yield, and yield composition of Lumian 532 could be effectively regulated by appropriate nitrogen application rate and nitrogen allocation ratio. Therefore, to optimize the yield and improve the nitrogen use efficiency, the optimal nitrogen application rate of Lumian 532 was 220 kg hm−2, and the optimal nitrogen allocation ratio was 3:5:2 in the North China Plain. The results provided practical basis for nutrient demand, cotton yield and ecological protection in different growth stages of cotton in North China Plain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Innovations in Drip Irrigation Systems)
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13 pages, 10220 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Biofloc-Based Probiotic Isolates on Growth Performance and Physiological Responses in Litopenaeus vannamei
by Meenakshisundaram Menaga, Perepi Rajasulochana, Sugantham Felix, Shanmugam Sudarshan, Ashish Kapoor, Kumaraswamy Gandla, Moustafa M. Saleh, Adel Ehab Ibrahim and Sami El Deeb
Water 2023, 15(16), 3010; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163010 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
A comparison of the growth performance of Penaeus vannamei was ascertained by supplementing the potential probiotics isolated from a biofloc system incorporated through feed. Post-larvae shrimp (0.045 ± 0.005 g) were stocked at a density of 500/m3 in FRP tanks (500 L) [...] Read more.
A comparison of the growth performance of Penaeus vannamei was ascertained by supplementing the potential probiotics isolated from a biofloc system incorporated through feed. Post-larvae shrimp (0.045 ± 0.005 g) were stocked at a density of 500/m3 in FRP tanks (500 L) in triplicates for a period of 60 days. A total of 40 bacterial strains were isolated from previous biofloc culture trials and tested for their antimicrobial activity against the pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among these, Bacillus megaterium, Exiguobacterium profundum, Pseudomonas balearica, and Pseudomonas stutzeri showed higher antimicrobial activity. The treatment groups included clear water with no probiotics (CW), clear water + isolated probiotic (CW + IP), biofloc alone (BFT), and biofloc + isolated probiotic (BFT + IP), in triplicates. Distillery spent wash was used as a carbon source for biofloc development and maintenance. A probiotic concentration of 1 × 109 cfu/g was supplemented throughout the trial. The recorded water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, calcium, and magnesium) were observed to be significant among the experimental groups (p ≤ 0.05). The highest weight gain (2.43 g), SGR, PER, and lower FCR values were recorded in BFT + IP. The lowest values of total Vibrio were found in BFT. The histology analysis revealed that there was a mild increase in the B and R cell vacuoles in the hepatopancreas of CW and BFT + IP, whereas mild degeneration was found in the intestine of CW and CW + IP. Microbiome analysis of the shrimp gut revealed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all experimental groups. P. balearica, K. pneumoniae, P. stutzeri, and E. profundum were present in the gut of C, whereas P. balearica, K. pneumonia, and P. stutzeri were present in the gut of CW + IP and BFT + IP. The results proved that the probiotics isolated from biofloc colonized in shrimp gut could play a promising role in aquaculture. Full article
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17 pages, 3961 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Poly(aniline-co-benzene)-Based Hypercrosslinked Polymer for Hg(II) Ions Removal from Polluted Water: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies
by Mashael T. Aljboar, Abdulaziz Ali Alghamdi, Abdel-Basit Al-Odayni, Maha I. Al-Zaben, Abdullah Al-Kahtani and Waseem Sharaf Saeed
Water 2023, 15(16), 3009; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163009 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate the adsorption performance of a highly crosslinked poly(aniline-co-benzene) (PAB) copolymeric network. This hypercrosslinked polymer (HCP) was obtained via the Friedel–Craft reaction in the presence of FeCl3 as an alkylation catalyst. The HCP was characterized [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate the adsorption performance of a highly crosslinked poly(aniline-co-benzene) (PAB) copolymeric network. This hypercrosslinked polymer (HCP) was obtained via the Friedel–Craft reaction in the presence of FeCl3 as an alkylation catalyst. The HCP was characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA-DTA-DSC thermograms, and BET surface area. The analysis revealed a major mesoporous (an average pore diameter of 4.96 nm) structure, a surface area of 987 m2/g, and adequate chemical and thermal stability, thus supporting its potential as an adsorbent. The PAB HCP capability as an adsorbent for removing mercury ions (Hg2+) from wastewater was examined, and the data obtained were kinetically and thermodynamically modeled. The data were found to fit PFO well (R2 = 0.999), suggesting a physisorption process and a rate-limiting step involving the diffusion process, as proven with IPD and LFD models. The adsorption of Hg2+ on PAB was spontaneous (ΔG° is negative; −4.41 kJ/mol at 298 K), endothermic (ΔH° is positive; 32.39 kJ/mol), and random (ΔS° is positive; 123.48 J/mol·K) at the adsorption interface. The thermodynamic analysis also suggested a physical adsorption mechanism (ΔG° between −20 and 0 kJ/mol). These findings promote the potential application of PAB HCP as an efficient adsorbent for removing Hg2+ ions and other heavy metal ions from polluted environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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19 pages, 5068 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Analysis of a Deep Foundation Pit with Water Supported by Cast-in-Place Pile and Internal Bracing in a Soft Soil Area of Fuzhou
by Bingxiong Tu, Jinhuo Zheng, Minglong Shen and Weilong Ni
Water 2023, 15(16), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163008 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
In addition to selecting an effective support structure to control deformation, precipitation and water stopping should also be considered when designing a support scheme for water-bearing foundation pits in soft soil areas. This paper presents a detailed description of the foundation pit support [...] Read more.
In addition to selecting an effective support structure to control deformation, precipitation and water stopping should also be considered when designing a support scheme for water-bearing foundation pits in soft soil areas. This paper presents a detailed description of the foundation pit support scheme, the precipitation and water-stopping scheme, and the monitoring scheme of the foundation pit project of Taijiang Square in Fuzhou. During the construction of the foundation pit, the monitoring data of 12 items such as the deep horizontal displacement of the enclosure pile, the horizontal displacement at the top of the foundation pit, the settlement at the top of the foundation pit, the axial force of the internal bracing, and the axial force of the enclosure pile were obtained through 12 months of monitoring. The analysis of the monitoring data for each item led to the following two main findings. The first finding is that, during the construction of the pit, the monitoring values of the 12 monitoring items did not exceed the alarm values, which proves that the support scheme of the cast-in-place pile enclosure structure and internal bracing can meet the design requirements of deep foundation pits in soft soil areas. The second finding is that tube-well dewatering is an effective way to lower the groundwater level in water-containing deep foundation pits in soft soil areas, and double-wheel deep-mixing water-stopping curtain walls can effectively control the infiltration of groundwater outside the water-containing deep foundation pits in soft soil areas. This foundation pit project is representative, and it provides a good reference case for the design of water-bearing deep foundation pit projects in soft soil areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Management Technologies for Deep Excavations in Water-Rich Areas)
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25 pages, 13277 KiB  
Article
Risk Reduction Measures and Monitoring Analysis of Deep Foundation Pit with Water in a Metro Station in Hefei
by Dengqun Wang, Shuaihua Ye and Jun Zhang
Water 2023, 15(16), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163007 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
The construction of an urban metro will inevitably involve deep excavation. Risk assessment before deep excavation, risk reduction measures, and real-time monitoring during excavation can effectively ensure the safety of deep excavation. Taking the deep excavation pit of Lingbi Road Station of Hefei [...] Read more.
The construction of an urban metro will inevitably involve deep excavation. Risk assessment before deep excavation, risk reduction measures, and real-time monitoring during excavation can effectively ensure the safety of deep excavation. Taking the deep excavation pit of Lingbi Road Station of Hefei Rail Transit Line 8 as the research object, this paper first analyses and evaluates the self-risk, groundwater risk, and surrounding environmental risk of the deep excavation pit, and gives the corresponding measures to reduce the risk of the deep excavation pit. Then, the monitoring content of the excavation process is determined according to the environment of the excavation, the hydrogeological conditions, and the type of supporting structure, and the monitoring scheme is designed. Finally, the entire excavation process is monitored in real time. By analyzing the monitoring data of 13 projects, such as horizontal displacement of the wall top, axial support force, groundwater level, etc., it is found that the monitoring values of 13 projects do not exceed the control value. This proves that the composite internal bracing structure of the underground diaphragm wall is suitable for deep foundation pit support in the Hefei area, as the selection of the water-bearing deep foundation pit support structure, the value of the support structure parameters, and the design of the foundation pit dewatering scheme are all reasonable. The study of this paper also serves as a case reference for the support design of water-bearing deep excavation of subway station in Hefei area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Management Technologies for Deep Excavations in Water-Rich Areas)
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27 pages, 4377 KiB  
Article
Distinguishing between Sources of Natural Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) Based on Its Characteristics
by Rolf David Vogt, Petr Porcal, Josef Hejzlar, Ma. Cristina Paule-Mercado, Ståle Haaland, Cathrine Brecke Gundersen, Geir Inge Orderud and Bjørnar Eikebrokk
Water 2023, 15(16), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163006 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Increasing levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watercourses in the northern hemisphere are mainly due to reduced acid rain, climate change, and changes in agricultural practices. However, their impacts vary in time and space. To predict how DOM responds to changes in [...] Read more.
Increasing levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watercourses in the northern hemisphere are mainly due to reduced acid rain, climate change, and changes in agricultural practices. However, their impacts vary in time and space. To predict how DOM responds to changes in environmental pressures, we need to differentiate between allochthonous and autochthonous sources as well as identify anthropogenic DOM. In this study we distinguish between allochthonous, autochthonous, and anthropogenic sources of DOM in a diverse watercourse network by assessing effects of land cover on water quality and using DOM characterization tools. The main sources of DOM at the studied site are forests discharging allochthonous humic DOM, autochthonous fulvic DOM, and runoff from urban sites and fish farms with high levels of anthropogenic DOM rich in protein-like material. Specific UV absorbency (sUVa) distinguishes allochthonous DOM from autochthonous and anthropogenic DOM. Anthropogenic DOM differs from autochthonous fulvic DOM by containing elevated levels of protein-like material. DOM from fishponds is distinguished from autochthonous and sewage DOM by having high sUVa. DOM characteristics are thus valuable tools for deconvoluting the various sources of DOM, enabling water resource managers to identify anthropogenic sources of DOM and predict future trends in DOM. Full article
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27 pages, 6434 KiB  
Article
Assessing Groundwater Potential in a Mid-Mountain Dryland Area of North-Central Chile through Geospatial Mapping
by José Miguel Deformes, Jorge Núñez, Jerry P. Fairley, José Luis Arumí and Ricardo Oyarzún
Water 2023, 15(16), 3005; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163005 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
This study utilized the Random Forest (RF) algorithm to assess groundwater potential (GWP) in the mid-mountain region of the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile. A comprehensive evaluation of twenty-one factors, primarily derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite data, was conducted against a [...] Read more.
This study utilized the Random Forest (RF) algorithm to assess groundwater potential (GWP) in the mid-mountain region of the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile. A comprehensive evaluation of twenty-one factors, primarily derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite data, was conducted against a database of 3822 groundwater discharge points. The majority of them consisted of shallow wells with relatively low yields. The main objective was to develop a groundwater potential (GWP) map for the study area. Among the factors considered, six variables, including two anthropogenic factors (distance to roads and presence of agricultural communities) and four natural factors (slope, elevation, concavity, and ruggedness index), were identified as the most influential indicators of GWP. The RF approach demonstrated excellent performance, achieving an Area Under the Curve (AUC) value of 0.95, sensitivity of 0.88, specificity of 0.86, and kappa coefficient of 0.74 in the test set. The majority of the study area exhibited low GWP, while only 14% of the area demonstrated high or very high GWP. In addition to providing valuable guidance for future hydrogeological investigations in the region, the GWP map serves as a valuable tool for identifying the areas that are most vulnerable to water shortages. This is particularly significant, as the region has been severely affected by extended drought, making water supply a critical concern. Full article
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24 pages, 17693 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Irregularities on the Hydraulic Parameters within Unlined Dam Spillways
by Yavar Jalili Kashtiban, Ali Saeidi, Marie-Isabelle Farinas and Javier Patarroyo
Water 2023, 15(16), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163004 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Erosional incidents have heightened the necessity of studies regarding rock mass erosion in unlined dam spillways. Enhanced comprehension of hydraulic erodibility necessitates an investigation into the geomechanical and hydraulic aspects of erosional phenomena. Controlled blasting is commonly employed to establish unlined spillways in [...] Read more.
Erosional incidents have heightened the necessity of studies regarding rock mass erosion in unlined dam spillways. Enhanced comprehension of hydraulic erodibility necessitates an investigation into the geomechanical and hydraulic aspects of erosional phenomena. Controlled blasting is commonly employed to establish unlined spillways in rock masses, and this process results in irregularities along the spillway surface profile. Recent research has identified key geometric parameters of rock masses that impact erosion in unlined spillways, such as joint opening, dip and dip direction, and joint spacing. However, the effect of spillway surface irregularities on hydraulic parameters remains uncertain. Numerous studies have examined the surface roughness of rock at the millimeter scale within the domain of hydraulic engineering. Despite these efforts, a noticeable gap persists in our understanding of how surface irregularities specifically exert influence over hydraulic parameters. Currently, there is a lack of a clear equation or methodology to incorporate irregularities into hydraulic erosive parameters. The main aim of this study is to show how such irregularities affect the hydraulic parameters. This study is dedicated to emphasizing the importance of considering these irregularities. Building upon the findings obtained, the core aim of this research is to facilitate the formulation of an equation in future investigations that effectively accounts for these irregularities when calculating hydraulic erosive parameters. To assess the significance of surface irregularities in unlined spillways, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with ANSYS-Fluent software was employed to analyze 25 configurations of spillway surface irregularities and their effects on various factors, including pressure (total, dynamic, and static pressures), shear stress, flow velocity, and energy. The findings indicated that irregularities significantly influenced the hydraulic parameters. Specifically, an increased irregularity height led to a decrease in maximum velocity, total pressure, and shear stress. Conversely, total energy loss increased, amplifying the rock mass’s vulnerability to erosion due to these irregularities. Full article
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15 pages, 2235 KiB  
Review
Processing of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for the Removal of Pollutants from Water/Wastewater Application
by Rashmi Singh, Melvin S. Samuel, Madhumita Ravikumar, Selvarajan Ethiraj, Venkatesan Savunthari Kirankumar, Mohanraj Kumar, R. Arulvel and Sagadevan Suresh
Water 2023, 15(16), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163003 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
In both the inorganic and organic worlds, carbon-based nanomaterials, such as benzene, diamond, graphite, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes, are abundant. In science laboratories, carbon is the focal point of activity. In this overview, the synthesis, characteristics, and several uses of graphene—including energy conversion, [...] Read more.
In both the inorganic and organic worlds, carbon-based nanomaterials, such as benzene, diamond, graphite, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes, are abundant. In science laboratories, carbon is the focal point of activity. In this overview, the synthesis, characteristics, and several uses of graphene—including energy conversion, energy storage, electronics, and biosensing—were explored with a focus on ecologically friendly production techniques. This article also discusses recent advancements in the detection and treatment of organic contaminants and heavy metals utilizing nanomaterials. In this article, we outline some recent developments in the creation of innovative nanomaterials and nanostructures and methods for treating organic contaminants and heavy metals in water. The essay presents the current state of the field and, in our opinion, should be helpful to anybody interested in nanomaterials and related materials. Full article
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14 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
N2O Emissions from Saline Soils in Response to Organic–Inorganic Fertilizer Application under Subsurface Drainage
by Yaming Zhai, Qinyuan Zhu, Ying Xiao, Jingnan Chen, Maomao Hou and Lin Zhu
Water 2023, 15(16), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163002 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Organic fertilizer applications and subsurface drainage are two important measures for improving coastal saline soil; however, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from saline soil under a combination of these two measures are seldom evaluated. In this study, saline soil cultivated with sunflowers [...] Read more.
Organic fertilizer applications and subsurface drainage are two important measures for improving coastal saline soil; however, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from saline soil under a combination of these two measures are seldom evaluated. In this study, saline soil cultivated with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) was employed as an experimental system. Prior to the experiment, the saline soils were buried with three different spacings (10 m (S1), 15 m (S2), and 20 m (S3)) of subsurface drainage pipes. The nitrogen nutrients that are needed by sunflowers came from two different nitrogen sources (organic and inorganic fertilizer), including six application schemes of either 100% organic fertilizer (100%OF), 75% organic fertilizer combined with 25% inorganic fertilizer (75%OF), 50% organic fertilizer (50%OF), 25% organic fertilizer (25%OF), 0% organic fertilizer (0%OF), and no fertilizer (CK). The results show that the cumulative N2O emissions from the treatments under S1, S2, and S3 throughout the entire growth period were 8.9–15.8, 9.5–17.5, and 10.1–17.6 kg ha−1, respectively. A smaller spacing between adjacent drainage pipes or a higher replacement proportion of organic fertilizer reduced the accumulative N2O emissions. The increased replacement of organic fertilizer decreased the soil salinity, whereas it increased the C/N ratio and total carbon content. The fertilization treatments significantly increased the nitrogen uptake of sunflower plants, with increase ranges of 18.1–47.2%, 8.6–40.5%, and 8.8–34.5% under S1, S2, and S3, respectively, compared with CK. The highest yield of sunflowers was achieved under S2 combined with 25%OF, reaching 3.82 t ha−1. Correlation analysis showed that the N2O emission flux was positively correlated with the soil salinity, crop yield, and crop nitrogen uptake, whereas it was negatively correlated with the total carbon, C/N ratio, and organic carbon content. We concluded that using 25% organic fertilizer instead of inorganic fertilizer was beneficial for reducing N2O emissions while maintaining the crop yield under subsurface drainage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Water)
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19 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
Study on Water and Salt Transport under Different Subsurface Pipe Arrangement Conditions in Severe Saline–Alkali Land in Hetao Irrigation District with DRAINMOD Model
by Feng Tian, Qingfeng Miao, Haibin Shi, Ruiping Li, Xu Dou, Jie Duan, Jing Liu and Weiying Feng
Water 2023, 15(16), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163001 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
As an effective method to improve saline–alkali land, the drainage from subsurface pipes has been extensively studied in typical arid and semi-arid agricultural areas (Hetao Irrigation District). However, there are few studies on the improvement of subsurface pipe layout and the long-term soil [...] Read more.
As an effective method to improve saline–alkali land, the drainage from subsurface pipes has been extensively studied in typical arid and semi-arid agricultural areas (Hetao Irrigation District). However, there are few studies on the improvement of subsurface pipe layout and the long-term soil salinization control in the process of leaching and soil amendment with subsurface pipes in this area. This study investigated the water and salt migration in the process of amending the heavy saline soil. Field experiments growing sunflowers and numerical model calculation were combined in this research. It was found in the field experiment that the salt concentration in the surface pipe drainage was positively correlated with the salt content in the soil and the depth of the pipe, while it was negatively correlated with the amount of irrigation water and the spacing of crops. Thus, the soil desalting rate (N) and salt control rate (SCR) were positively correlated with the depth of the pipe, and they were negatively correlated with the spacing. The leaching effect of irrigation would decrease when the soil salt content decreased. On the basis of field experiments, the DRAINMOD model and drainmod equation were used to calculate the water and salt migration in 38 different field plots during 2019 and 2020. When N was the same, the soil salinity in several plots with large burial depth could be controlled below the salt tolerance threshold of sunflowers during the growth period in the second year. The quantitative relationship between N and SCR, soil salt content before leaching, water amount of leaching, pipe spacing and buried depth was already established. These results can help develop strategies for desalination and salt control in the soil in the arid and semi-arid areas with the optimal layout of subsurface pipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Environment Pollution and Control, Volume II)
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16 pages, 3661 KiB  
Article
Effects of Groundwater Depth on Vegetation Coverage in the Ulan Buh Desert in a Recent 20-Year Period
by Ting Lu, Jing Wu, Yangchun Lu, Weibo Zhou and Yudong Lu
Water 2023, 15(16), 3000; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15163000 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
As a typical desert in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the Ulan Buh Desert has a dry climate and scarce precipitation all year round. Groundwater has become the main factor limiting the growth of vegetation in this region. It is of great significance [...] Read more.
As a typical desert in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the Ulan Buh Desert has a dry climate and scarce precipitation all year round. Groundwater has become the main factor limiting the growth of vegetation in this region. It is of great significance to study the influence of groundwater depth on the spatial distribution pattern of vegetation in this region. Based on the PIE-Engine platform and using long-term time-series Landsat data, this paper analyzed the spatial–temporal distribution characteristics and trends in vegetation coverage in the Ulan Buh Desert in the last 20 years using a pixel dichotomy model and the image difference method. The Kriging interpolation method was used to interpolate the groundwater depth data from 106 monitoring wells in the Ulan Buh Desert over the past 20 years, and the spatial distribution characteristics of groundwater depth in the Ulan Buh Desert were analyzed. Finally, the correlation coefficient between changes in vegetation coverage and changes in groundwater depth was calculated. The results showed the following: (1) The vegetation coverage in the Ulan Buh Desert was higher in the periphery and lower in the center of the desert. The overall vegetation level showed an increasing trend year by year; the growth rate was 4.73%/10 years, and the overall vegetation cover showed an improving trend. (2) The overall groundwater depth in the Ulan Buh Desert was deep in the southwest and shallow in the northeast. In the past 20 years, the groundwater depth in the Ulan Buh area has become shallower, and the ecological condition has gradually improved. (3) On the whole, the vegetation coverage varied with the groundwater depth, and the shallower the groundwater depth, the greater the vegetation coverage. When the groundwater depth increased to more than 4 m, the change in the groundwater depth had a significant effect on the vegetation coverage. However, when the groundwater depth was greater than 6 m, the change in the groundwater depth had no significant effect on the change in vegetation coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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12 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ridging Shapes on the Water–Salt Spatial Distribution of Coastal Saline Soil
by Ji Qi, Kaixiao Sun, Yinghua Pan, Qiuli Hu and Ying Zhao
Water 2023, 15(16), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162999 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The Yellow River Delta, located in China, experiences prevalent soil salinization and serves as a crucial ecological management zone within the Yellow River Basin. The shallow groundwater depth and high mineralization contribute to salt accumulation in the soil, which has a negative impact [...] Read more.
The Yellow River Delta, located in China, experiences prevalent soil salinization and serves as a crucial ecological management zone within the Yellow River Basin. The shallow groundwater depth and high mineralization contribute to salt accumulation in the soil, which has a negative impact on crop growth. The sustainable use of saline land in the Yellow River Delta hinges on managing the soil salinity within the crop root zone. This study investigated the spatial distribution of soil salinity in coastal saline soil in the Yellow River Delta under various ridging configurations: triangular, arch, and trapezoidal, using flat land as a control. It also examined the impact of evaporation on soil salinity migration. The findings revealed that the ridge–furrow system successfully caused salt to accumulate in the superficial layer of the ridge. Among the three ridge shapes, the triangular ridge was the most effective at concentrating salt on the ridge surface, with 54.04% of the salt mass accumulation in the ridge’s top layer (0–1 cm) and with the furrow bottom achieving a maximum desalination rate of 93.07%. The results implied that the triangular ridge fostered a favorable soil environment for crop growth by minimizing the salt content in the furrow. This research provides a theoretical foundation for the sustainable advancement of saline–alkali agriculture in the Yellow River Delta, which can lead to higher crop yields and better land management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Reclamation and Management of Salt-Affected Lands)
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17 pages, 1406 KiB  
Article
Water Quality Influences Self-Purification in the Cihawuk and Majalaya Segments Upstream of the Citarum River, West Java, Indonesia
by Desty Pratiwi, Dadan Sumiarsa, Dina Oktavia and Sunardi Sunardi
Water 2023, 15(16), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162998 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
Self-purification plays an important role in water regulating ecosystem services aimed at protecting river water quality from pollutant inputs. The Citarum River is the longest river in West Java, Indonesia where the water quality has declined due to pollutant inputs from domestic and [...] Read more.
Self-purification plays an important role in water regulating ecosystem services aimed at protecting river water quality from pollutant inputs. The Citarum River is the longest river in West Java, Indonesia where the water quality has declined due to pollutant inputs from domestic and non-domestic activities. This study aims to investigate the status of self-purification ecosystem services and the influence of water quality in the upstream of the Citarum River, in the Cihawuk and Majalaya segments, which are rural and urban areas. The self-purification status was determined by the deoxygenation rate using Thomas’s slope method, and by the reaeration rate according to O’Connor and Dobbins’ method. The polynomial component regression (PCR) was performed to determine the significance of the influence of physicochemical factors on self-purification. The deoxygenation rates (k1) in the rural and urban areas upstream of the Citarum River were 0.044 per day and 0.058 per day, respectively, while the reaeration rates (k2) in the rural and urban areas were 0.196 per day and 0.156 per day, respectively. These deoxygenation and reaeration rates indicate that the self-purification status upstream of the Citarum River has been disturbed. This result also indicates that chemical factors have a significant influence on the deoxygenation process, while the reaeration process is most significantly influenced by physical factors. The deterioration of self-purification in the Citarum River poses a risk to the long-term availability of water resources. Therefore, this research encourages the reduction in the input of organic pollutants and develops a strategic plan for river management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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17 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Preparation Conditions of Aluminum-Impregnated Food Waste Biochar Using RSM with an MLP and Its Application in Phosphate Removal
by Jin-Kyu Kang, Khonekeo Kingkhambang, Chang-Gu Lee and Seong-Jik Park
Water 2023, 15(16), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162997 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Phosphorus is an essential macroelement in plant growth and the human body, but excessive water enrichment with phosphorus is a global threat to water quality. To address this problem, the development of an efficient, affordable adsorbent for use in removing large amounts of [...] Read more.
Phosphorus is an essential macroelement in plant growth and the human body, but excessive water enrichment with phosphorus is a global threat to water quality. To address this problem, the development of an efficient, affordable adsorbent for use in removing large amounts of phosphorus from eutrophic water is necessary. Food-waste-based adsorbents offer a sustainable solution because they utilize waste as a valuable resource. This study explored the use of food waste biochar as a novel adsorbent with additional aluminum impregnation (Al–FWB) to enhance its phosphate adsorption capacity. This study employed response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the synthetic conditions of the Al–FWB with the highest phosphate adsorption capacity. To enhance the identification of the optimal conditions using RSM, this study employed quadratic equations and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). The pyrolysis temperature and Al concentration significantly (p < 0.05) affected the adsorption capacity of the AL–FWB. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the AL–FWB were a pyrolysis temperature, duration, and Al concentration of 300 °C, 0.5 h, and 6%, respectively, based on the quadratic equation and MLP models. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that phosphate was adsorbed on the surface of the AL–FWB via the formation of AlPO4. The optimized AL–FWB (Opt-AL–FWB) removed 99.6% of the phosphate and displayed a maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 197.8 mg/g, which is comparable to those reported in previous studies. Additionally, the phosphate adsorption capacity of the Opt-AL–FWB was independent of the pH of the solution, and the presence of 10 mM SO42– decreased its adsorption capacity by 15.5%. The use of the Opt-AL–FWB as an adsorbent provides not only efficient phosphate removal but also green, economical food waste reusability. In summary, this study demonstrates the potential of AL–FWB as an effective, sustainable, and affordable adsorbent for use in phosphate removal from contaminated water. Full article
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21 pages, 6492 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Composition in Precipitation, Rivers, and Lakes in Wuhan and the Ecological Environmental Effects of Lakes
by Ao Zhang, Xinwen Zhao, Jun He, Xuan Huang, Xingyuezi Zhao and Yongbo Zhao
Water 2023, 15(16), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162996 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Wuhan has a dense network of rivers and lakes. Due to the city’s development, the water system has been fragmented, the degradation of lakes is becoming increasingly severe, and the eco-environment has been significantly damaged. By collecting samples of the central surface water [...] Read more.
Wuhan has a dense network of rivers and lakes. Due to the city’s development, the water system has been fragmented, the degradation of lakes is becoming increasingly severe, and the eco-environment has been significantly damaged. By collecting samples of the central surface water bodies in Wuhan, including Yangtze River water, Han River water, lake water, and precipitation, and by utilizing hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and multivariate statistical methods, the hydraulic connectivity and ecological environmental effects between the Yangtze River, the Han River, and the lakes were revealed. The results indicated the following: (1) The local meteoric water Line (LMWL) in the Wuhan area was δD = 7.47δ18O + 1.77. The river water line equation was approximately parallel to the atmospheric precipitation line in the Wuhan area. The intercept and slope of the lake waterline equation were significantly smaller. The enrichment degree of δ18O and δD was Yangtze River < Hanjiang River < lake water. (2) The cluster analysis showed that the lakes could be divided into two types, i.e., inner-flow degraded (IFD) lakes and outer-flow ecological (OFE) lakes. Urban expansion has resulted in fragmentation of the IFD lakes, changing the connectivity between rivers and lakes and weakening the exchange of water bodies between the Yangtze River and lakes. Simultaneously, evaporation has caused hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation, resulting in the relative enrichment of isotopes. The IFD lakes included the Taizi Lake, Yehu Lake, and the Shenshan Lake. The OFE lakes and the Yangtze River were active, evaporation was weak, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes were relatively depleted, mainly including the Huangjia Lake, the East Lake, the Tangxun Lake, etc. (3) The excessive deuterium (d-excess) parameter values in the Yangtze River and the Han River water were positive. In contrast, the d values in the lakes were mainly negative. In the case of a weakened water cycle, the effect of evaporation enrichment on lake water δ18O and δD had a significant impact. It is suggested that the water system connection project of “North Taizi Lake-South Taizi Lake-Yangtze River” and the small lakes connecting to large lakes project of “Wild Lake-Shenshan Lake-Tangxun Lake” should be implemented in time to restore the water eco-environment. Full article
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14 pages, 3179 KiB  
Article
A New Acidity-Based Approach for Estimating Total Dissolved Solids in Acidic Mining Influenced Water
by Ana Barroso, Teresa Valente, Amélia Paula Marinho Reis and Isabel Margarida H. R. Antunes
Water 2023, 15(16), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162995 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
In natural waters, total dissolved solids (TDS) are usually estimated from electrical conductivity (EC) by applying a conversion factor (f). However, defining this conversion factor for mining influenced water is more complex since this type of water is highly mineralized and has complex [...] Read more.
In natural waters, total dissolved solids (TDS) are usually estimated from electrical conductivity (EC) by applying a conversion factor (f). However, defining this conversion factor for mining influenced water is more complex since this type of water is highly mineralized and has complex chemical matrices. So, the present work aimed to establish a new conversion factor to estimate TDS from the classic parameters usually analyzed for the hydrochemical characterization of these contaminated waters. A total of 121 mining influenced water samples were collected in three mining areas representing pollution scenarios, such as acidic streams, acidic lagoons, and pit lakes. The parameters analyzed were pH, EC, sulfate, acidity, and TDS. The statistical analysis showed that TDS and acidity are related, with a high and significant correlation (r ≥ 0.964, ρ < 0.001), suggesting that this parameter could be an appropriate indicator to estimate the TDS. Moreover, although acidity analysis also involves laboratory work, the time and effort required are considerably less than the gravimetric determination of TDS. Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to these samples allowed the definition of seven classes, and their specific fmedian was calculated employing TDS/Acidity. Then, seven conversion factors were obtained for mining influenced water based on sulfate concentration and acidity degree. Full article
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21 pages, 9130 KiB  
Article
Extreme Runoff Estimation for Ungauged Watersheds Using a New Multisite Multivariate Stochastic Model MASVC
by Joel Hernández-Bedolla, Liliana García-Romero, Chrystopher Daly Franco-Navarro, Sonia Tatiana Sánchez-Quispe and Constantino Domínguez-Sánchez
Water 2023, 15(16), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162994 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Precipitation is influential in determining runoff at different scales of analysis, whether in minutes, hours, or days. This paper proposes the use of a multisite multivariate model of precipitation at a daily scale. Stochastic models allow the generation of maximum precipitation and its [...] Read more.
Precipitation is influential in determining runoff at different scales of analysis, whether in minutes, hours, or days. This paper proposes the use of a multisite multivariate model of precipitation at a daily scale. Stochastic models allow the generation of maximum precipitation and its association with different return periods. The modeling is carried out in three phases. The first is the estimation of precipitation occurrence by using a two-state multivariate Markov model to calculate the non-rainfall periods. Once the rainfall periods of various storms have been identified, the amount of precipitation is estimated through a process of normalization, standardization of the series, acquisition of multivariate parameters, and generation of synthetic series. In comparison, the analysis applies probability density functions that require fewer data and, consequently, represent greater certainty. The maximum values of surface runoff show consistency for different observed return periods, therefore, a more reliable estimation of maximum surface runoff. Our approach enhances the use of stochastic models for generating synthetic series that preserve spatial and temporal variability at daily, monthly, annual, and extreme values. Moreover, the number of parameters reduces in comparison to other stochastic weather generators. Full article
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19 pages, 6139 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Sudden Water Pollution Accidents Associated with Dangerous Goods Transportation on the Cross-Tributary Bridges of Baiyangdian Lake
by Zhimin Yang, Xiangzhao Yan, Yutong Tian, Zaohong Pu, Yihan Wang, Chunhui Li, Yujun Yi, Xuan Wang and Qiang Liu
Water 2023, 15(16), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162993 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
The issue of sudden water pollution resulting from accidents is a challenging environmental problem to address. The frequency of transport accidents involving hazardous materials over tributary bridges is steadily rising due to rapid industrialization and urbanization processes. This trend poses a significant threat [...] Read more.
The issue of sudden water pollution resulting from accidents is a challenging environmental problem to address. The frequency of transport accidents involving hazardous materials over tributary bridges is steadily rising due to rapid industrialization and urbanization processes. This trend poses a significant threat to both the water’s ecological environment and human well-being. To effectively mitigate the risks associated with water pollution caused by accidents during the transportation of dangerous goods, this research focused on Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in North China. Thid study employed the expert judgment fuzzy language method and Bayesian network model as analytical tools to assess and analyze the potential risks associated with sudden water pollution accidents caused by the transportation of hazardous materials on bridges spanning tributaries. Through an examination of the various risk factors involved, the research identified four primary indicators and ten secondary indicators. Additionally, an oil leakage accident scenario was simulated, and recommendations for risk prevention and control measures were provided. The findings of the study indicated that: (1) The likelihood of risk associated with driver factors, vehicle emergency factors, fuel tank emergency factors, road factors, and lighting factors is elevated. (2) The probability of a dangerous goods transportation accident occurring on the Baiyangdian cross-tributary bridge is substantial, thereby presenting a potential hazard to both the water environment and human health. (3) Vehicle emergency factors, vehicle wear factors, and weather factors exert a significant influence on the incidence of accidents. (4) The highest likelihood of accidents is associated with a combination of factors, including driver fatigue, vehicle and fuel tank deterioration, and adverse weather conditions. (5) In instances where the vehicle and fuel tank are well-maintained, the probability of accidents is greatest on the cross tributary bridge, particularly when the driver is fatigued, weather conditions are unfavorable, and there is a lack of street lighting during nighttime. Implementing emergency prevention and control measures proved to be an effective approach in mitigating the risk of sudden water pollution accidents. This study offers valuable insights into risk mitigation and management strategies for emergent water pollution incidents, and the framework presented herein can be readily applied to other rivers worldwide confronting comparable risk challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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23 pages, 13587 KiB  
Article
Changes of Hydrological Extremes in the Center of Eastern Europe and Their Plausible Causes
by Irina S. Danilovich, Vladimir F. Loginov and Pavel Y. Groisman
Water 2023, 15(16), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162992 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Regional studies of precipitation changes over Europe show that its eastern part is characterized by small changes in annual precipitation and insignificant aridity trends compared to central and southern Europe. However, a frequency analysis over the past 30 years showed statistically significant increasing [...] Read more.
Regional studies of precipitation changes over Europe show that its eastern part is characterized by small changes in annual precipitation and insignificant aridity trends compared to central and southern Europe. However, a frequency analysis over the past 30 years showed statistically significant increasing dryness trends in eastern Europe and an increase in the occurrence of extremely high rainfall as well as prolonged no-rain intervals during the warm season. The largest increase in aridity was observed in the western and central parts of Belarus. During 1990–2020, the frequency of dry periods doubled in all river basins along the Black, Caspian, and Baltic Sea water divide areas of eastern Europe. From 1970 to 1990, there were high streamflow rates during the winter low-flow season. Consequently, over the past 50 years, in spring, we observed here a continued decrease in maximal discharges across all river basins. In summer, we detected a statistically significant increase in the number of days with anticyclonic weather over eastern Europe, a decrease in rainfall duration by 15–20%, an increase in daily precipitation maxima by 20–30%, and an increase in the number of days with a low relative humidity by 1–4 days per decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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34 pages, 10790 KiB  
Article
Water and Environmental Resources: A Multi-Criteria Assessment of Management Approaches
by Felipe Armas Vargas, Luzma Fabiola Nava, Eugenio Gómez Reyes, Selene Olea-Olea, Claudia Rojas Serna, Samuel Sandoval Solís and Demetrio Meza-Rodríguez
Water 2023, 15(16), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162991 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
The present study applied a multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the best approach among six theoretical frameworks related to the integrated management of water–environmental resources, analyzing the frequency of multiple management criteria. The literature review covers the period from 1990 to 2015, with a [...] Read more.
The present study applied a multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the best approach among six theoretical frameworks related to the integrated management of water–environmental resources, analyzing the frequency of multiple management criteria. The literature review covers the period from 1990 to 2015, with a notable presence of the theoretical frameworks of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), Ecohealth, Ecosystem Approach (EA), Water Framework Directive (WFD), and, to a lesser extent, the Watershed Governance Prism (WGP) and the Sustainability Wheel (SW). The multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods applied include AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), and PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations). Twenty-five criteria were analyzed, such as governance, participation, sustainability, decentralization, and health and well-being, among others. We started with five criteria for evaluating the hierarchy of the six theoretical frameworks using the AHP method. Subsequently, we again evaluated the five criteria using the TOPSIS and PROMETHEE methods to calibrate the results with the AHP. Then, using word counting, we evaluated the best approach, applying 10, 15, 20, and 25 more criteria. Our results indicate that the best integrated management alternative was the WFD, which fulfilled 47% of the management criteria. Second, with 45%, was the WGP, and third was IWRM, with 41%; less successful approaches to the criteria were demonstrated by the EA, SW, and Ecohealth methods. By applying this methodology, we demonstrated an excellent structured tool that can aid in the selection of the most important issue within a given sector. Full article
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15 pages, 3427 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Nitrogen Removal Potential of Two Newly Isolated Acinetobacter Strains under Low Temperature
by Yongjun Zhong and Haiyang Xia
Water 2023, 15(16), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162990 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the water causes several ecological problems for nutrients. Biological nitrogen removal is an economical and efficient way to prevent excessive nitrogen in the environment. For most areas of China, temperatures are usually lower than 20 °C except during [...] Read more.
Excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the water causes several ecological problems for nutrients. Biological nitrogen removal is an economical and efficient way to prevent excessive nitrogen in the environment. For most areas of China, temperatures are usually lower than 20 °C except during the summertime. It is necessary to discover microbes that can efficiently remove nitrogen at low temperatures. In this study, two Acinetobacter strains were isolated from a sample in a wastewater tank in Taizhou for their capabilities to remove NO3–N and NO2–N at 15 °C. Heterotrophic nitrification experiments showed that both strains could efficiently remove nitrogen from the culture medium. The maximum removal rates of NH4+–N were 3.15 mg/L·h and 4.74 mg/L·h for heterotrophic nitrification by the strains F and H, respectively. Strain H grew faster and removed both nitrite and nitrate more efficiently than strain F. Genome sequencing showed that strains F and H could be classified into Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter bereziniae, respectively. NO2–N (100 mg/L) was completely removed in 3 days by strain H. The maximum NO3–N removal rate was 3.53 mg/L·h for strain F. When strain H was cultured in a broth with 200 mg/L NO3–N, 97.46% of NH4+–N (200 mg/L) was removed in 5 days, and the maximum NH4+–N removal rate was 4.04 mg/L·h. Genomic sequence analysis showed that both the strains lacked genes involved in the denitrification pathway that transforms NO3 into N2. This implies that nitrate or nitrite is removed through the nitrogen assimilation pathway. Genes responsible for nitrate assimilation are clustered together with molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis genes. Strain H contains fewer resistance genes and transfer elements. All the above data demonstrate that strain H is a promising candidate for nitrogen removal at lower temperatures. But there is still a lot to be done to systematically evaluate the potential of A. bereziniae strain H in treating wastewater at a pilot scale. These include the long-term performance, environmental tolerance, and nitrogen removal efficiency in wastewater. And the application of these Acinetobacter strains in diverse wastewater treatment settings might require careful optimization and real-time monitoring. Full article
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19 pages, 25133 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Hydrological Processes in the Jing River Basin Based on the WEP Model
by Zhaoxi Zhang, Yan Chen, Guodong Zhang and Xueli Zhang
Water 2023, 15(16), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162989 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Inappropriate vegetation reconstruction in the Loess Plateau region has led to a significant increase in regional evapotranspiration and water consumption, further aggravating the shortage of soil water resources in the Loess Plateau region. The Jing River basin is a typical area for vegetation [...] Read more.
Inappropriate vegetation reconstruction in the Loess Plateau region has led to a significant increase in regional evapotranspiration and water consumption, further aggravating the shortage of soil water resources in the Loess Plateau region. The Jing River basin is a typical area for vegetation reconstruction in the Loess Plateau region. A thorough understanding of changes in hydrological processes in the Jing River basin is of significant scientific importance for efficient utilization of soil water resources and sustainable vegetation restoration in the region. In this study, the physically based Water and Energy Transfer Processes (WEP) distributed hydrological model was used to simulate key hydrological processes in the Jing River Basin during different periods before and after the implementation of cropland conversion to forest and grassland from 1980 to 2019. The results showed that after the implementation of cropland conversion to forest and grassland from 2000 to 2019, the average runoff volume in the Jing River Basin decreased by 20.91%. The most significant decrease in average runoff occurred in the central and northern parts of the basin, with a maximum reduction of 48.6%. The decrease in runoff in flood season is more obvious. The peak discharge decreased by 24.91%, and the most significant decrease occurred in the northern and central parts of the basin, ranging from 10.3% to 50.2%. The spatial distribution pattern of average soil moisture in the 0–0.8 m soil layer showed more moisture in the south and less in the north, with the minimum value occurring in certain areas in the eastern part of the basin. Overall, the implementation of cropland conversion to forest and grassland led to a certain degree of decrease in soil moisture in the basin. After the implementation of cropland conversion to forest and grassland, reference evapotranspiration fluctuated only in specific areas of the basin with no significant overall change. Full article
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18 pages, 2234 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alternating Well Water with Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Soil and Koroneiki Olive Trees
by Jouhayna Fdil, Xiaoliang Zhou, Abdelaali Ahmali, Abdelhafid El Alaoui El Fels, Laila Mandi and Naaila Ouazzani
Water 2023, 15(16), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162988 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
The use of treated wastewater (TWW) in irrigation has a positive impact by bringing fertilizers and organics. However, increases in the soil’s sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) creates a barrier to long-term TWW irrigation. Alternating well water with wastewater irrigation is one practical solution [...] Read more.
The use of treated wastewater (TWW) in irrigation has a positive impact by bringing fertilizers and organics. However, increases in the soil’s sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) creates a barrier to long-term TWW irrigation. Alternating well water with wastewater irrigation is one practical solution that could be used to address the problem. This work aims to study the effect of alternating two years of well water with two years of treated wastewater irrigation on the soil characteristics of a Koroneiki olive tree mesocosm. Urban and agri-food wastewater treated using various technologies, such as lagooning, activated sludge, multi-soil-layering, and constructed wetlands, were used for irrigation. The results showed that an increase in salinity (SAR and ESP) in soil and olive tree leaves are the main negative effects of continuous irrigation with TWW on soil and tree performance. Several chemical and biochemical parameters, such as SAR and Na+ concentration, demonstrated that alternating well water with treated wastewater irrigation can reverse these negative effects. This recovery effect occurs in a relatively short period of time, implying that such a management practice is viable. However, long-term well water application reduces soil fertility due to the leaching of organics and exchangeable ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse)
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