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Cancers, Volume 13, Issue 9 (May-1 2021) – 295 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diagnostic approaches and chemotherapeutic delivery based on nanotechnologies, such as nanoparticles (NPs), have significant potential for the new era of cancer research. Carbon Dots (CDs) are the latest members of carbon-based nanomaterials, which recently have attracted great attention due to their variegated physical–chemical and mechanical properties, brilliant fluorescence, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. These intrinsic features make CDs the most promising nanomaterials for multiple applications in the biological field, from bioimaging, biosensing, nano-carriers for drug delivery systems to innovative therapeutic agents in photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). This review aims to report the latest evidence on the application and prospects of CDs as useful nano-theranostics tools for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. View this paper
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Article
Deregulated FASN Expression in BRAF Inhibitor-Resistant Melanoma Cells Unveils New Targets for Drug Combinations
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092284 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Metabolic changes promoting cell survival are involved in metastatic melanoma progression and in the development of drug resistance. In BRAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we explored the role of FASN, an enzyme involved in lipogenesis overexpressed in metastatic melanoma. Resistant melanoma cells displaying enhanced [...] Read more.
Metabolic changes promoting cell survival are involved in metastatic melanoma progression and in the development of drug resistance. In BRAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we explored the role of FASN, an enzyme involved in lipogenesis overexpressed in metastatic melanoma. Resistant melanoma cells displaying enhanced migratory and pro-invasive abilities increased sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 upon the molecular targeting of FASN and upon treatment with the FASN inhibitor orlistat. This behavior was associated with a marked apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activation observed for the drug combination. The expression of FASN was found to be inversely associated with drug resistance in BRAF-mutant cell lines, both in a set of six resistant/sensitive matched lines and in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. A favorable drug interaction in resistant cells was also observed with U18666 A inhibiting DHCR24, which increased upon FASN targeting. The simultaneous combination of the two inhibitors showed a synergistic interaction with PLX4032 in resistant cells. In conclusion, FASN plays a role in BRAF-mutated melanoma progression, thereby creating novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapies in Cancers)
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Review
Permeabilizing Cell Membranes with Electric Fields
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092283 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
The biological impact of exogenous, alternating electric fields (AEFs) and direct-current electric fields has a long history of study, ranging from effects on embryonic development to influences on wound healing. In this article, we focus on the application of electric fields for the [...] Read more.
The biological impact of exogenous, alternating electric fields (AEFs) and direct-current electric fields has a long history of study, ranging from effects on embryonic development to influences on wound healing. In this article, we focus on the application of electric fields for the treatment of cancers. In particular, we outline the clinical impact of tumor treating fields (TTFields), a form of AEFs, on the treatment of cancers such as glioblastoma and mesothelioma. We provide an overview of the standard mechanism of action of TTFields, namely, the capability for AEFs (e.g., TTFields) to disrupt the formation and segregation of the mitotic spindle in actively dividing cells. Though this standard mechanism explains a large part of TTFields’ action, it is by no means complete. The standard theory does not account for exogenously applied AEFs’ influence directly upon DNA nor upon their capacity to alter the functionality and permeability of cancer cell membranes. This review summarizes the current literature to provide a more comprehensive understanding of AEFs’ actions on cell membranes. It gives an overview of three mechanistic models that may explain the more recent observations into AEFs’ effects: the voltage-gated ion channel, bioelectrorheological, and electroporation models. Inconsistencies were noted in both effective frequency range and field strength between TTFields versus all three proposed models. We addressed these discrepancies through theoretical investigations into the inhomogeneities of electric fields on cellular membranes as a function of disease state, external microenvironment, and tissue or cellular organization. Lastly, future experimental strategies to validate these findings are outlined. Clinical benefits are inevitably forthcoming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastomas)
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Review
Defining the Criteria for Reflex Testing for BRAF Mutations in Cutaneous Melanoma Patients
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092282 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Targeted therapy has been developed through an in-depth understanding of molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Approximately ~50% of patients with melanoma have tumors that harbor a mutation of the BRAF oncogene. Certain clinical features have been identified in BRAF-mutated [...] Read more.
Targeted therapy has been developed through an in-depth understanding of molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Approximately ~50% of patients with melanoma have tumors that harbor a mutation of the BRAF oncogene. Certain clinical features have been identified in BRAF-mutated melanomas (primary lesions located on the trunk, diagnosed in patients <50, visibly pigmented tumors and, at times, with ulceration or specific dermatoscopic features). While BRAF mutation testing is recommended for stage III–IV melanoma, guidelines differ in recommending mutation testing in stage II melanoma patients. To fully benefit from these treatment options and avoid delays in therapy initiation, advanced melanoma patients harboring a BRAF mutation must be identified accurately and quickly. To achieve this, clear definition and implementation of BRAF reflex testing criteria/methods in melanoma should be established so that patients with advanced melanoma can arrive to their first medical oncology appointment with a known biomarker status. Reflex testing has proven effective for a variety of cancers in selecting therapies and driving other medical decisions. We overview the pathophysiology, clinical presentation of BRAF-mutated melanoma, current guidelines, and present recommendations on BRAF mutation testing. We propose that reflex BRAF testing should be performed for every melanoma patient with stages ≥IIB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systemic Therapies in Melanoma)
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Review
Melanoma Progression under Obesity: Focus on Adipokines
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092281 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Obesity is a growing problem in the world and is one of the risk factors of various cancers. Among these cancers is melanoma, which accounts for the majority of skin tumor deaths. Current studies are looking for a correlation between obesity and melanoma. [...] Read more.
Obesity is a growing problem in the world and is one of the risk factors of various cancers. Among these cancers is melanoma, which accounts for the majority of skin tumor deaths. Current studies are looking for a correlation between obesity and melanoma. They suspect that a potential cause of its development is connected to the biology of adipokines, active molecules secreted by adipose tissue. Under physiological conditions, adipokines control many processes, including lipid and glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, and inflammations. However, when there is an increased amount of fat in the body, their secretion is dysregulated. This article reviews the current knowledge of the effect of adipokines on melanoma growth. This work focuses on the molecular pathways by which adipose tissue secreted molecules modify the angiogenesis, migration, invasion, proliferation, and death of melanoma cells. We also discuss the role of these factors as markers of incidence, metastasis, and melanoma patient survival. Understanding the functions of adipokines will lead to knowledge of whether and how obesity promotes melanoma growth. Further studies may contribute to the innovations of therapies and the use of adipokines as predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue At the Crossroads of Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
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Review
Extracellular Vesicles and Their Current Role in Cancer Immunotherapy
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092280 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural particles formed by the lipid bilayer and released from almost all cell types to the extracellular environment both under physiological conditions and in presence of a disease. EVs are involved in many biological processes including intercellular communication, acting [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural particles formed by the lipid bilayer and released from almost all cell types to the extracellular environment both under physiological conditions and in presence of a disease. EVs are involved in many biological processes including intercellular communication, acting as natural carriers in the transfer of various biomolecules such as DNA, various RNA types, proteins and different phospholipids. Thanks to their transfer and targeting abilities, they can be employed in drug and gene delivery and have been proposed for the treatment of different diseases, including cancer. Recently, the use of EVs as biological carriers has also been extended to cancer immunotherapy. This new technique of cancer treatment involves the use of EVs to transport molecules capable of triggering an immune response to damage cancer cells. Several studies have analyzed the possibility of using EVs in new cancer vaccines, which represent a particular form of immunotherapy. In the literature there are only few publications that systematically group and collectively discuss these studies. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to illustrate and give a partial reorganization to what has been produced in the literature so far. We provide basic notions on cancer immunotherapy and describe some clinical trials in which therapeutic cancer vaccines are tested. We thus focus attention on the potential of EV-based therapeutic vaccines in the treatment of cancer patients, overviewing the clinically relevant trials, completed or still in progress, which open up new perspectives in the fight against cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exosomes in Cancers Therapy)
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Review
Clinical Indications for Treatment with Multi-Kinase Inhibitors in Patients with Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092279 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually a slow-growing disease, even if the patients develop distant metastasis. For recurrent or metastatic disease, radioactive iodine therapy is a standard treatment. However, the disease gradually progresses in some of the patients and can ultimately develop into life-threatening [...] Read more.
Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually a slow-growing disease, even if the patients develop distant metastasis. For recurrent or metastatic disease, radioactive iodine therapy is a standard treatment. However, the disease gradually progresses in some of the patients and can ultimately develop into life-threatening conditions. For patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC), multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs) including sorafenib and lenvatinib prolonged progression-free survival compared with placebo in pivotal randomized phase 3 trials, although the benefit in overall survival has not been clearly confirmed, possibly because the patients who received placebo were permitted to cross-over to lenvatinib upon disease progression. Moreover, the adverse events related to MKIs were not negligible. Therefore, the optimal timing of MKI initiation has long been controversial, and physicians should consider various patient and disease factors. Herein, we comprehensively review the clinical factors that can be helpful in determining the initiation of MKIs for patients with RR-DTC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thyroid Carcinoma)
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Article
Primary Ovarian Mesothelioma: A Case Series with Electron Microscopy Examination and Review of the Literature
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092278 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Primary ovarian mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic disease with a poor prognosis. At onset, the tumor is only rarely limited to the ovaries and usually already widespread in the peritoneum. The rarity of this entity and the difficulties differentiating it from either [...] Read more.
Primary ovarian mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic disease with a poor prognosis. At onset, the tumor is only rarely limited to the ovaries and usually already widespread in the peritoneum. The rarity of this entity and the difficulties differentiating it from either ovarian carcinoma or peritoneal mesothelioma may lead to frequent misdiagnoses and may raise some concerns about its histogenesis. Thus, reporting such rare cases is fundamental to gain greater awareness of this neoplasm and try to answer unsolved questions. Herein, we described four cases of histological diagnoses of ovarian mesothelioma extrapolated by the regional mesothelioma register of Apulia (southern Italy). In all cases, a detailed medical history was collected according to national mesothelioma register guidelines. A broad panel of antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnoses. Moreover, ovarian tissue samples were also examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, detecting asbestos fibers and talc crystals in two cases. Because of the few cases described, we reviewed the English literature in the Medline database, focusing on articles about ovarian mesothelioma “misclassification”, “misdiagnosis”, “diagnostic challenge” or “diagnostic pitfall” and on unsolved questions about its histogenesis and possible risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Mesothelioma)
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Review
Neuroendocrine Factors in Melanoma Pathogenesis
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092277 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with a sharp rise in incidence in the last decades, especially in young people. Recognized as a significant public health issue, melanoma is studied with increasing interest as new discoveries in molecular signaling and [...] Read more.
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with a sharp rise in incidence in the last decades, especially in young people. Recognized as a significant public health issue, melanoma is studied with increasing interest as new discoveries in molecular signaling and receptor modulation unlock innovative treatment options. Stress exposure is recognized as an important component in the immune-inflammatory interplay that can alter the progression of melanoma by regulating the release of neuroendocrine factors. Various neurotransmitters, such as catecholamines, glutamate, serotonin, or cannabinoids have also been assessed in experimental studies for their involvement in the biology of melanoma. Alpha-MSH and other neurohormones, as well as neuropeptides including substance P, CGRP, enkephalin, beta-endorphin, and even cellular and molecular agents (mast cells and nitric oxide, respectively), have all been implicated as potential factors in the development, growth, invasion, and dissemination of melanoma in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies. In this review, we provide an overview of current evidence regarding the intricate effects of neuroendocrine factors in melanoma, including data reported in recent clinical trials, exploring the mechanisms involved, signaling pathways, and the recorded range of effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Study on the Complex Melanoma)
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Article
Role of IQGAP1 in Papillomavirus-Associated Head and Neck Tumorigenesis
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092276 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Approximately 25% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In these cancers as well as in HPV-associated anogenital cancers, PI3K signaling is highly activated. We previously showed that IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), [...] Read more.
Approximately 25% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In these cancers as well as in HPV-associated anogenital cancers, PI3K signaling is highly activated. We previously showed that IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), a PI3K pathway scaffolding protein, is overexpressed in and contributes to HNSCC and that blocking IQGAP1-mediated PI3K signaling reduces HPV-positive HNSCC cell survival and migration. In this study, we tested whether IQGAP1 promotes papillomavirus (PV)-associated HNSCCs. IQGAP1 was necessary for optimal PI3K signaling induced by HPV16 oncoproteins in transgenic mice and MmuPV1 infection, a mouse papillomavirus that causes HNSCC in mice. Furthermore, we found that, at 6 months post-infection, MmuPV1-infected Iqgap1−/− mice developed significantly less severe tumor phenotypes than MmuPV1-infected Iqgap1+/+ mice, indicating a role of IQGAP1 in MmuPV1-associated HNSCC. The tumors resulting from MmuPV1 infection showed features consistent with HPV infection and HPV-associated cancer. However, such IQGAP1-dependent effects on disease severity were not observed in an HPV16 transgenic mouse model for HNC. This may reflect that IQGAP1 plays a role in earlier stages of viral pathogenesis, or other activities of HPV16 oncogenes are more dominant in driving carcinogenesis than their influence on PI3K signaling. Full article
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Review
Roles of Lytic Viral Replication and Co-Infections in the Oncogenesis and Immune Control of the Epstein–Barr Virus
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092275 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the prototypic human tumor virus whose continuous lifelong immune control is required to prevent lymphomagenesis in the more than 90% of the human adult population that are healthy carriers of the virus. Here, we review recent evidence that this [...] Read more.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the prototypic human tumor virus whose continuous lifelong immune control is required to prevent lymphomagenesis in the more than 90% of the human adult population that are healthy carriers of the virus. Here, we review recent evidence that this immune control has not only to target latent oncogenes, but also lytic replication of EBV. Furthermore, genetic variations identify the molecular machinery of cytotoxic lymphocytes as essential for this immune control and recent studies in mice with reconstituted human immune system components (humanized mice) have begun to provide insights into the mechanistic role of these molecules during EBV infection. Finally, EBV often does not act in isolation to cause disease. Some of EBV infection-modulating co-infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have been modeled in humanized mice. These preclinical in vivo models for EBV infection, lymphomagenesis, and cell-mediated immune control do not only promise a better understanding of the biology of this human tumor virus, but also the possibility to explore vaccine candidates against it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Cancer)
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Review
Liquid Biopsy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Where Are We Now?
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092274 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death worldwide. Diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers are urgently needed in order to improve patient survival. Indeed, the most widely used biomarkers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have limited accuracy as both [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death worldwide. Diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers are urgently needed in order to improve patient survival. Indeed, the most widely used biomarkers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have limited accuracy as both diagnostic and prognostic tests. Liver biopsy provides an insight on the biology of the tumor, but it is an invasive procedure, not routinely used, and not representative of the whole neoplasia due to the demonstrated intra-tumoral heterogeneity. In recent years, liquid biopsy, defined as the molecular analysis of cancer by-products, released by the tumor in the bloodstream, emerged as an appealing source of new biomarkers. Several studies focused on evaluating extracellular vesicles, circulating tumor cells, cell-free DNA and non-coding RNA as novel reliable biomarkers. In this review, we aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on the most relevant available evidence on novel circulating biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognostic stratification, and therapeutic monitoring. Liquid biopsy seems to be a very promising instrument and, in the near future, some of these new non-invasive tools will probably change the clinical management of HCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Novel Biomarkers and Molecular Targets in Cancer)
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Article
Implications of Standardized Uptake Values of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in PET-CT on Prognosis, Tumor Characteristics and Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092273 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Under aerobic conditions, some cancers switch to glycolysis to cover their energy requirements. Taking advantage of this process, functional imaging techniques such as PET-CT can be used to detect and assess tumorous tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate standardized uptake [...] Read more.
Under aerobic conditions, some cancers switch to glycolysis to cover their energy requirements. Taking advantage of this process, functional imaging techniques such as PET-CT can be used to detect and assess tumorous tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate standardized uptake values and mitochondrial DNA mutations in oral squamous cell carcinoma. A cohort of 57 patients underwent 18[F]FDG-PET-CT and standardized uptake values were collected. In 15 patients, data on mitochondrial DNA mutations of the tumor were available. Kaplan–Meier curves were calculated, and correlation analyses as well as univariate Cox proportional hazard models were performed. Using ROC analysis to determine a statistical threshold for SUVmax in PET investigations, a cut-off value was determined at 9.765 MB/mL. Survival analysis for SUVmax in these groups showed a Hazard Ratio of 4 (95% CI 1.7–9) in the high SUVmax group with 5-year survival rates of 23.5% (p = 0.00042). For SUVmax and clinicopathological tumor features, significant correlations were found. A tendency towards higher mtDNA heteroplasmy levels in high SUVmax groups could be observed. We were able to confirm the prognostic value of SUVmax in OSCC, showing higher survival rates at lower SUVmax levels. Correlations between SUVmax and distinct tumor characteristics were highly significant, providing evidence that SUVmax may act as a reliable diagnostic parameter. Correlation analysis of mtDNA mutations suggests an influence on metabolic activity in OSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transformational Role of Medical Imaging in Oncology)
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Article
Allogenic Stem Cell Transplantation Abrogates Negative Impact on Outcome of AML Patients with KMT2A Partial Tandem Duplication
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092272 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Recently, a new subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting a direct partial tandem duplication (PTD) of the KMT2A gene was described. The consequences of this alteration in terms of outcome and response to treatment remain unclear. We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of [...] Read more.
Recently, a new subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting a direct partial tandem duplication (PTD) of the KMT2A gene was described. The consequences of this alteration in terms of outcome and response to treatment remain unclear. We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of KMT2A-PTD-mutated patients with newly diagnosed AML. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years, the median overall survival was 12.1 months. KMT2A-PTD-mutated patients were highly enriched in mutations affecting epigenetic actors and the RTK/RAS signaling pathway. Integrating KMT2A-PTD in ELN classification abrogates its predictive value on survival suggesting that this mutation may overcome other genomic marker effects. In patients receiving intensive chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) significantly improved the outcome compared to non-transplanted patients. In the multivariate analysis, only HSCT at any time in complete remission (HR = 2.35; p = 0.034) and FLT3-ITD status (HR = 0.29; p = 0.014) were independent variables associated with overall survival, whereas age was not. In conclusion, our results emphasize that KMT2A-PTD should be considered as a potential adverse prognostic factor. However, as KMT2A-PTD-mutated patients are usually considered an intermediate risk group, upfront HSCT should be considered in first CR due to the high relapse rate observed in this subset of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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Article
Intra-Tumoral Genomic Heterogeneity in Rectal Cancer: Mutational Status Is Dependent on Preoperative Biopsy Depth and Location
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092271 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Neoadjuvant therapy before surgical resection is indicated for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, a significant number of patients show minimal or no response to neoadjuvant therapy. Unfortunately, we are currently unable to predict response and identify non-responding patients before neoadjuvant treatment [...] Read more.
Neoadjuvant therapy before surgical resection is indicated for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, a significant number of patients show minimal or no response to neoadjuvant therapy. Unfortunately, we are currently unable to predict response and identify non-responding patients before neoadjuvant treatment is given. Genomic mutational status might provide valuable prognostic information. However, it is unclear whether predictions based on genomic mutational status in single preoperative biopsies are reliable due to intra-tumoral heterogeneity. In this study we aim to investigate the reliability of genomic mutations found in single pre-operative biopsies by comparing genomic mutations to four other locations within the same tumor using next generation sequencing. Rectal cancer patients undergoing primary resection without neoadjuvant therapy were included. From each patient, one biopsy, two deep and two superficial samples were obtained and sequenced using a targeted next generation sequencing gene panel. Concordance between these five samples was assessed. In this feasibility study we included 11 patients. In 7 out of 11 (64%) patients, all 5 samples showed concordant mutations. In 4 out of 11 patients (36%) discordant mutations were observed. In conclusion, assessment of mutational status on a single pre-operative biopsy shows discordance with tumor tissue from other locations in 36% of cases. These results warrant careful interpretation of biopsy material analysis, as these might be influenced by tumor heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biomarkers)
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Review
Molecular Crosstalk between the Hepatitis C Virus and the Extracellular Matrix in Liver Fibrogenesis and Early Carcinogenesis
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092270 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
Chronic infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases, predisposing to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver fibrosis is characterized by an overly abundant accumulation of components of the hepatic extracellular matrix, such as collagen and elastin, with [...] Read more.
Chronic infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases, predisposing to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver fibrosis is characterized by an overly abundant accumulation of components of the hepatic extracellular matrix, such as collagen and elastin, with consequences on the properties of this microenvironment and cancer initiation and growth. This review will provide an update on mechanistic concepts of HCV-related liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and early stages of carcinogenesis, with a dissection of the molecular details of the crosstalk during disease progression between hepatocytes, the extracellular matrix, and hepatic stellate cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Plasticity in Cancer Progression)
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Article
Prediction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Association of Oropharyngeal Cancer (OPC) Using Radiomics: The Impact of the Variation of CT Scanner
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092269 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Studies have shown that radiomic features are sensitive to the variability of imaging parameters (e.g., scanner models), and one of the major challenges in these studies lies in improving the robustness of quantitative features against the variations in imaging datasets from multi-center studies. [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that radiomic features are sensitive to the variability of imaging parameters (e.g., scanner models), and one of the major challenges in these studies lies in improving the robustness of quantitative features against the variations in imaging datasets from multi-center studies. Here, we assess the impact of scanner choice on computed tomography (CT)-derived radiomic features to predict the association of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with human papillomavirus (HPV). This experiment was performed on CT image datasets acquired from two different scanner manufacturers. We demonstrate strong scanner dependency by developing a machine learning model to classify HPV status from radiological images. These experiments reveal the effect of scanner manufacturer on the robustness of radiomic features, and the extent of this dependency is reflected in the performance of HPV prediction models. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing an appropriate approach to reducing the impact of imaging parameters on radiomic features and consequently on the machine learning models, without removing features which are deemed non-robust but may contain learning information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transformational Role of Medical Imaging in Oncology)
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Article
Prognostic Potential of Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells in Resectable Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092268 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
(1) Background: The immune microenvironment plays an important role in carcinogenesis and has prognostic potential in many types of cancer. In this study we assess the prognostic character of tumor-infiltrating immune cells CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ in resectable [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The immune microenvironment plays an important role in carcinogenesis and has prognostic potential in many types of cancer. In this study we assess the prognostic character of tumor-infiltrating immune cells CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ in resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); (2) Methods: We have evaluated the densities of CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ in two distinct compartments, intratumor and invasion front, in 90 patients with OSCC; (3) Results: Significant differences were found between the tumor compartments for the CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. An improved outcome (OS) was seen in patients with high densities of intratumor CD8+ lymphocytes (p = 0.0086), CD8+ lymphocytes at the front of invasion (p = 0.0011) and for intratumor CD56+ cells (p = 0.0016). Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent prognostic role of CD8+ at the front of invasion (OR = 3.75, CI95% 1.17–12.35, p = 0.026) and for intratumor CD56+ cells (OR = 3.669, CI95% 1.09–15.37, p = 0.035); (4) Conclusions: Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes at the front of invasion and CD56+ in the intratumor compartment display predictive traits in OSCC. A reach immune infiltration with these types of cells is associated with an improved patient outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oral Cancer: From Pathology to Treatment)
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Article
Small High-Risk Uveal Melanomas Have a Lower Mortality Rate
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092267 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Our aim was to determine whether size impacts on the difference in metastatic mortality of genetically high-risk (monosomy 3) uveal melanomas (UM). We undertook a retrospective analysis of data from a patient cohort with genetically characterized UM. All patients treated for UM in [...] Read more.
Our aim was to determine whether size impacts on the difference in metastatic mortality of genetically high-risk (monosomy 3) uveal melanomas (UM). We undertook a retrospective analysis of data from a patient cohort with genetically characterized UM. All patients treated for UM in the Liverpool Ocular Oncology Centre between 2007 and 2014, who had a prognostic genetic tumor analysis. Patients were subdivided into those with small (≤2.5 mm thickness) and large (>2.5 mm thickness) tumors. Survival analyses were performed using Gray rank statistics to calculate absolute probabilities of dying as a result of metastatic UM. The 5-year absolute risk of metastatic mortality of those with small monosomy 3 UM was significantly lower (23%) compared to the larger tumor group (50%) (p = 0.003). Small disomy 3 UM also had a lower absolute risk of metastatic mortality (0.8%) than large disomy 3 UM (6.4%) (p = 0.007). Hazard rates showed similar differences even with lead time bias correction estimates. We therefore conclude that earlier treatment of all small UM, particularly monosomy 3 UM, reduces the risk of metastatic disease and death. Our results would support molecular studies of even small UM, rather than ‘watch-and-wait strategies’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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Editorial
Advances and Perspectives in the Treatment of B-Cell Malignancies
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092266 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 728
Abstract
B-cell malignancies arise from different stages of B-cell differentiation and constitute a heterogeneous group of cancers including B-cell lymphomas, B-cell leukemias, and plasma cell dyscrasias [...] Full article
Systematic Review
Liquid Biopsy for Small Cell Lung Cancer either De Novo or Transformed: Systematic Review of Different Applications and Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092265 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Background: The potential added value of liquid biopsy (LB) is not well determined in the case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive tumor that can occur either de novo or from the histologic transformation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The potential added value of liquid biopsy (LB) is not well determined in the case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive tumor that can occur either de novo or from the histologic transformation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A systematic review of studies adopting LB in patients with SCLC have been performed to assess the clinical utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Results: After a screening of 728 records, 62 studies (32 evaluating CTCs, 27 ctDNA, and 3 both) met predetermined eligibility criteria. Only four studies evaluated LB in the diagnostic setting for SCLC, while its prognostic significance was evaluated in 38 studies and prominently supported by both ctDNA and CTCs. A meta-analysis of 11 studies as for CTCs enumeration showed an HR for overall survival of 2.63 (1.71–4.05), with a potential publication bias. The feasibility of tumor genomic profiling and the predictive role of LB in terms of response/resistance to chemotherapy was assessed in 11 and 24 studies, respectively, with greater consistency for those regarding ctDNA. Intriguingly, several case reports suggest that LB can indirectly capture the transition to SCLC in NSCLC treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Conclusions: While dedicated trials are needed, LB holds potential clinical roles in both de novo and transformed SCLC. CtDNA analysis appears the most valuable and practicable tool for both disease monitoring and genomic profiling. Full article
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Article
Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibition Potentiates the Effects of Nab-Paclitaxel-Gemcitabine and Modulates the Tumor Microenvironment in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092264 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Tumor hypoxia plays an active role in promoting tumor progression, malignancy, and resistance to therapy in PDAC. We present evidence that nab-paclitaxel–gemcitabine (NPG) and/or a hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) up-regulate heme [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Tumor hypoxia plays an active role in promoting tumor progression, malignancy, and resistance to therapy in PDAC. We present evidence that nab-paclitaxel–gemcitabine (NPG) and/or a hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) up-regulate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), providing a survival advantage for tumors. Using PDAC cells in vitro and a PDAC mouse model, we found that NPG chemotherapy up-regulated expression of HO-1 in PDAC cells and increased its nuclear translocation. Inhibition of HO-1 with ZnPP and SnPP sensitized PDAC cells to NPG-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05) and increased apoptosis (p < 0.05). Additionally, HO-1 expression was increased in gemcitabine-resistant PDAC cells (p < 0.05), and HO-1 inhibition increased GEM-resistant PDAC sensitivity to NPG (p < 0.05). NPG combined with HO-1 inhibitor inhibited tumor size in an orthotopic model. In parallel, HO-1 inhibition abrogated the influx of macrophages and FoxP3+ cells, while increasing the proportion of CD8+ infiltration in the pancreatic tumors. These effects were mediated primarily by reducing expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Antitumor CD8+ T Cell Immunity Induced by Endogenously Engineered Extracellular Vesicles
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092263 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
We developed an innovative method to induce antigen-specific CD8+ T cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) immunity based on in vivo engineering of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This approach employs a DNA vector expressing a mutated HIV-1 Nef protein (Nefmut) deprived of the anti-cellular [...] Read more.
We developed an innovative method to induce antigen-specific CD8+ T cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) immunity based on in vivo engineering of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This approach employs a DNA vector expressing a mutated HIV-1 Nef protein (Nefmut) deprived of the anti-cellular effects typical of the wild-type isoform, meanwhile showing an unusual efficiency of incorporation into EVs. This function persists even when foreign antigens are fused to its C-terminus. In this way, Nefmut traffics large amounts of antigens fused to it into EVs spontaneously released by the recipient cells. We previously provided evidence that mice injected with a DNA vector expressing the Nefmut/HPV16-E7 fusion protein developed an E7-specific CTL immune response as detected 2 weeks after the second immunization. Here, we extended and optimized the anti-HPV16 CD8+ T cell immune response induced by the endogenously engineered EVs, and evaluated the therapeutic antitumor efficacy over time. We found that the co-injection of DNA vectors expressing Nefmut fused with E6 and E7 generated a stronger anti-HPV16 immune response compared to that observed in mice injected with the single vectors. When HPV16-E6 and -E7 co-expressing tumor cells were implanted before immunization, all mice survived at day 44, whereas no mice injected with either void or Nefmut-expressing vectors survived until day 32 after tumor implantation. A substantial part of immunized mice (7 out of 12) cleared the tumor. When the cured mice were re-challenged with a second tumor cell implantation, none of them developed tumors. Both E6- and E7-specific CD8+ T immunities were still detectable at the end of the observation time. We concluded that the immunity elicited by engineered EVs, besides counteracting and curing already developed tumors, was strong enough to guarantee the resistance to additional tumor attacks. These results can be of relevance for the therapy of both metastatic and relapsing tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exosome Biology for Nucleic Acid Medicine—From Bench to Bed)
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Guidelines
Breast-Gynaecological & Immuno-Oncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC) Consensus and Recommendations for the Management of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092262 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Background: The management of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is challenging with several controversies and unmet needs. During the 12th Breast-Gynaecological & Immuno-oncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC) Egypt, 2020, a panel of 35 breast cancer experts from 13 countries voted on [...] Read more.
Background: The management of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is challenging with several controversies and unmet needs. During the 12th Breast-Gynaecological & Immuno-oncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC) Egypt, 2020, a panel of 35 breast cancer experts from 13 countries voted on consensus guidelines for the clinical management of TNBC. The consensus was subsequently updated based on the most recent data evolved lately. Methods: A consensus conference approach adapted from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) was utilized. The panellists voted anonymously on each question, and a consensus was achieved when ≥75% of voters selected an answer. The final consensus was later circulated to the panellists for critical revision of important intellectual content. Results and conclusion: These recommendations represent the available clinical evidence and expert opinion when evidence is scarce. The percentage of the consensus votes, levels of evidence and grades of recommendation are presented for each statement. The consensus covered all the aspects of TNBC management starting from defining TNBC to the management of metastatic disease and highlighted the rapidly evolving landscape in this field. Consensus was reached in 70% of the statements (35/50). In addition, areas of warranted research were identified to guide future prospective clinical trials. Full article
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Article
Alterations of the Platelet Proteome in Lung Cancer: Accelerated F13A1 and ER Processing as New Actors in Hypercoagulability
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092260 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
In order to comprehensively expose cancer-related biochemical changes, we compared the platelet proteome of two types of cancer with a high risk of thrombosis (22 patients with brain cancer, 19 with lung cancer) to 41 matched healthy controls using unbiased two-dimensional differential in-gel [...] Read more.
In order to comprehensively expose cancer-related biochemical changes, we compared the platelet proteome of two types of cancer with a high risk of thrombosis (22 patients with brain cancer, 19 with lung cancer) to 41 matched healthy controls using unbiased two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis. The examined platelet proteome was unchanged in patients with brain cancer, but considerably affected in lung cancer with 15 significantly altered proteins. Amongst these, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins calreticulin (CALR), endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP (HSPA5) and protein disulfide-isomerase (P4HB) were significantly elevated. Accelerated conversion of the fibrin stabilising factor XIII was detected in platelets of patients with lung cancer by elevated levels of a coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) 55 kDa fragment. A significant correlation of this F13A1 cleavage product with plasma levels of the plasmin–α-2-antiplasmin complex and D-dimer suggests its enhanced degradation by the fibrinolytic system. Protein association network analysis showed that lung cancer-related proteins were involved in platelet degranulation and upregulated ER protein processing. As a possible outcome, plasma FVIII, an immediate end product for ER-mediated glycosylation, correlated significantly with the ER-executing chaperones CALR and HSPA5. These new data on the differential behaviour of platelets in various cancers revealed F13A1 and ER chaperones as potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in lung cancer patients. Full article
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Editorial
New Insights into the Biological and Clinical Aspects of Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092259 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The Special Issue in Cancers, “The Biological and Clinical Aspects of Merkel Cell Carcinoma”, walks the avid reader through the interesting and sometimes even mysterious facets of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), starting at its carcinogenesis to also cover innovative treatment options [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Biological and Clinical Aspects of Merkel Cell Carcinoma)
Editorial
The Study of Cancer Susceptibility Genes
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092258 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
“…most complex, new direction for cancer medicine is to integrate our understanding of aberrant genes and pathways to explain the behavior of cancer as a whole, thereby renewing the cycle of knowledge, discovery and therapeutic intervention [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Study of Cancer Susceptibility Genes)
Article
Long-Term Outcomes and Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Hepatitis C Virus Eradication by Direct-Acting Antiviral Treatment: All Kagawa Liver Disease Group (AKLDG) Study
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092257 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
There are limited studies that have evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the recurrence rates, recurrence factors, and prognosis of 130 patients who were treated [...] Read more.
There are limited studies that have evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the recurrence rates, recurrence factors, and prognosis of 130 patients who were treated with IFN-free DAA treatment after treatment for HCC. The median observation time was 41 ± 13.9 months after DAA treatment. The recurrence rates of HCC were 23.2%, 32.5%, 46.3%, and 59.4% at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that palliative treatment prior to DAA treatment (HR = 3.974, 95% CI 1.924–8.207, p = 0.0006) and alpha-fetoprotein at sustained virological response 12 (HR = 1.048, 95% CI 1.016–1.077, p = 0.0046) were associated with independent factors for HCC recurrence (HCC-R). The 12-, 24-, and 36-month overall survival rates were 97.6%, 94.0%, and 89.8%, respectively. The 12-, 24-, and 36-month survival rates of the non-recurrence and recurrence groups were 97.7%, 97.7%, and 94.1% and 97.6%, 92.3%, and 87.9%, respectively (p = 0.3404). The size of the main tumor lesion and the serological data were significantly improved at the time of HCC-R after DAA treatment. This study showed an improved prognosis regardless of recurrence rate, which suggests that DAA treatment in HCV patients should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis)
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Review
Etiology of Acute Leukemia: A Review
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092256 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Acute leukemias constitute some of the most common malignant disorders. Despite significant progress made in the treatment of these disorders, their etiology remains unknown. A large and diverse group of genetic and environmental variables have been proposed. The role of a variety of [...] Read more.
Acute leukemias constitute some of the most common malignant disorders. Despite significant progress made in the treatment of these disorders, their etiology remains unknown. A large and diverse group of genetic and environmental variables have been proposed. The role of a variety of factors, including pre-existing and acquired genetic mutations, exposure to radiation and various chemicals during preconception, pregnancy and throughout life, have been explored. The effects of inherited genetic variations and disorders, pre-existing diseases, infectious agents, hobbies, occupations, prior treatments, and a host of other factors have been proposed, but none is universally applicable to all cases. Variation in the incidence and prognosis based on the age, sex, race, type of the disease, geographic area of residence and other factors are intriguing but remain unexplained. Advances in genomic profiling, including genome-wide gene expression, DNA copy number and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype, may shed some light on the role of genetics in these disparities. Separate two-hit hypotheses for the development of acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia have been proposed. The latter combines genetics and infection factors resulting in leukemogenesis. A number of pre- and post-natal environmental conditions and exposure to infections, including a mycovirus infected Aspergillus flavus, have been suggested. The exact nature, timing, sequence of the events and mechanisms resulting in the occurrence of leukemia requires further investigations. This review summarizes some of the above factors in acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukemias and the direction for future research on the etiology of these disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acute Leukemia in Older Adults - Is a Cure Possible?)
Article
Pentraxin 3 Inhibits the Angiogenic Potential of Multiple Myeloma Cells
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092255 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 818
Abstract
During multiple myeloma (MM) progression the activation of the angiogenic process represents a key step for the formation of the vascular niche, where different stromal components and neoplastic cells collaborate and foster tumor growth. Among the different pro-angiogenic players, Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 [...] Read more.
During multiple myeloma (MM) progression the activation of the angiogenic process represents a key step for the formation of the vascular niche, where different stromal components and neoplastic cells collaborate and foster tumor growth. Among the different pro-angiogenic players, Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) plays a pivotal role in BM vascularization occurring during MM progression. Long Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a natural FGF antagonist, is able to reduce the activation of stromal components promoted by FGF2 in various in vitro models. An increased FGF/PTX3 ratio has also been found to occur during MM evolution, suggesting that restoring the “physiological” FGF/PTX3 ratio in plasma cells and BM stromal cells (BMSCs) might impact MM. In this work, taking advantage of PTX3-inducible human MM models, we show that PTX3 produced by tumor cells is able to restore a balanced FGF/PTX3 ratio sufficient to prevent the activation of the FGF/FGFR system in endothelial cells and to reduce the angiogenic capacity of MM cells in different in vivo models. As a result of this anti-angiogenic activity, PTX3 overexpression causes a significant reduction of the tumor burden in both subcutaneously grafted and systemic MM models. These data pave the way for the exploitation of PTX3-derived anti-angiogenic approaches in MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Angiogenesis in Cancers)
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Article
Adjuvant Hormonotherapy and Cardiovascular Risk in Post-Menopausal Women with Breast Cancer: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092254 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Background: Whether aromatase inhibitors (AIs) increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, compared to tamoxifen, in women with breast cancer is still debated. We evaluated the association between AI and CV outcomes in a large population-based cohort of breast cancer women. Methods: By [...] Read more.
Background: Whether aromatase inhibitors (AIs) increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, compared to tamoxifen, in women with breast cancer is still debated. We evaluated the association between AI and CV outcomes in a large population-based cohort of breast cancer women. Methods: By using healthcare utilization databases of Lombardy (Italy), we identified women ≥50 years, with new diagnosis of breast cancer between 2009 and 2015, who started adjuvant therapy with either AI or tamoxifen. We estimated the association between exposure to AI and CV outcomes (including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, heart failure or any CV event) by a Cox proportional hazard model with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weighting. Results: The study cohort included 26,009 women starting treatment with AI and 7937 with tamoxifen. Over a median follow-up of 5.8 years, a positive association was found between AI and heart failure (Hazard Ratio = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.42) and any CV event (1.14, 1.00 to 1.29). The CV risk increased in women with previous CV risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy with AI in breast cancer women aged more than 50 years is associated with increased risk of heart failure and combined CV events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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