Extracellular Vesicles and Their Current Role in Cancer Immunotherapy
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
Grup d’Enginyeria de Materials (Gemat), Institut Químic de Sarrià (IQS), Universitat Ramon Llull (URL), Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Farrukh Aqil and Ramesh Chandra Gupta
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021
In recent years, immunotherapy has shown great advancement, becoming a powerful tool to combat cancer. In this context, the use of biologically derived vesicles has also acquired importance for cancer immunotherapy. Extracellular vesicles are thus proposed to transport molecules able to trigger an immune response and thus fight cancer cells. As a particular immunotherapeutic approach, a new technique also consists in the exploitation of extracellular vesicles as new cancer vaccines. The present review provides basic notions on cancer immunotherapy and describes several clinical trials in which therapeutic anticancer vaccines are tested. In particular, the potential of extracellular vesicles-based therapeutic vaccines in the treatment of cancer patients is highlighted, even with advanced stage-cancer. A focus on the clinical studies, already completed or still in progress, is offered and a systematic collection and reorganization of the present literature on this topic is proposed to the reader.