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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020106
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 23 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2793 | PDF Full-text (4924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on [...] Read more.
Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Lozano-Baena, M.-D.; et al. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants. Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 48
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020105
Received: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1672 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to mistake during the conversion process, the Figure 1a,b in the original published version were the same [1].[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cysteic Acid in Dietary Keratin is Metabolized to Glutathione and Liver Taurine in a Rat Model of Human Digestion
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020104
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1866 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poultry feathers, consisting largely of keratin, are a low-value product of the poultry industry. The safety and digestibility of a dietary protein produced from keratin (KER) was compared to a cysteine-supplemented casein-based diet in a growing rat model for four weeks. KER proved [...] Read more.
Poultry feathers, consisting largely of keratin, are a low-value product of the poultry industry. The safety and digestibility of a dietary protein produced from keratin (KER) was compared to a cysteine-supplemented casein-based diet in a growing rat model for four weeks. KER proved to be an effective substitute for casein at 50% of the total dietary protein, with no changes in the rats’ food intake, weight gain, organ weight, bone mineral density, white blood cell counts, liver glutathione, or blood glutathione. Inclusion of KER in the diet reduced total protein digestibility from 94% to 86% but significantly increased total dietary cysteine uptake and subsequent liver taurine levels. The KER diet also significantly increased caecum weight and significantly decreased fat digestibility, resulting in a lower proportion of body fat, and induced a significant increase in blood haemoglobin. KER is therefore a safe and suitable protein substitute for casein, and the cysteic acid in keratin is metabolised to maintain normal liver and blood glutathione levels. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020103
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1761 | PDF Full-text (955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT) in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT) in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA) or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA) diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA) treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13) response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05). Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05). Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05). Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Fto Gene Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Pre-Adipocytes in Vitro
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020102
Received: 20 October 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2359 | PDF Full-text (1742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The highly regulated differentiation and proliferation of pre-adipocytes play a key role in the initiation of obesity. Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a novel gene strongly associated with the risk of obesity. A deficiency of FTO may cause growth [...] Read more.
The highly regulated differentiation and proliferation of pre-adipocytes play a key role in the initiation of obesity. Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a novel gene strongly associated with the risk of obesity. A deficiency of FTO may cause growth retardation in addition to fat mass and adipocyte size reduction in vivo. To investigate the potential role of Fto gene on the proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes, we generated Fto-knockdown and overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Using numerous proliferation assays our results suggest that Fto knockdown leads to suppression of proliferation, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, less cellular ATP, and decreased and smaller intracellular lipid droplets compared with controls (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that Fto knockdown can significantly suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression and inhibit Akt phosphorylation. By contrast, overexpression of Fto had the opposing effect on proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP generation, in vitro differentiation, Akt phosphorylation, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Moreover, we demonstrated that Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, could inhibit phospho-Akt in Fto overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that Fto regulates the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via multiple mechanisms, including PPARγ and PI3K/Akt signaling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val) Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020101
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2320 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val) has been reported to be associated [...] Read more.
Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val) has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val) by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35–7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12–6.07, p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94–78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85–80.54, p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG. Full article
Open AccessLetter
Influence of Food Processing on Blood Lipids in Children
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020097
Received: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Viewed by 1526 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With reference to a recent study published in this journal “Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity”, by Eicher-Miller et al. [1], we would like to make some comments, as our study [2] was mentioned and [...] Read more.
With reference to a recent study published in this journal “Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity”, by Eicher-Miller et al. [1], we would like to make some comments, as our study [2] was mentioned and there are some misunderstandings regarding our conclusions.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Allomyrina Dichotoma Larvae Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through mTOR and Mapk Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020100
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2312 | PDF Full-text (975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma) has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL) inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. [...] Read more.
Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma) has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL) inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE) suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Docosahexaenoic Acid and Cognition throughout the Lifespan
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020099
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 4931 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the predominant omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in the brain and can affect neurological function by modulating signal transduction pathways, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, myelination, membrane receptor function, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, membrane integrity and membrane organization. DHA [...] Read more.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the predominant omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in the brain and can affect neurological function by modulating signal transduction pathways, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, myelination, membrane receptor function, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, membrane integrity and membrane organization. DHA is rapidly accumulated in the brain during gestation and early infancy, and the availability of DHA via transfer from maternal stores impacts the degree of DHA incorporation into neural tissues. The consumption of DHA leads to many positive physiological and behavioral effects, including those on cognition. Advanced cognitive function is uniquely human, and the optimal development and aging of cognitive abilities has profound impacts on quality of life, productivity, and advancement of society in general. However, the modern diet typically lacks appreciable amounts of DHA. Therefore, in modern populations, maintaining optimal levels of DHA in the brain throughout the lifespan likely requires obtaining preformed DHA via dietary or supplemental sources. In this review, we examine the role of DHA in optimal cognition during development, adulthood, and aging with a focus on human evidence and putative mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020098
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2448 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined [...] Read more.
Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020096
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2173 | PDF Full-text (1528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one [...] Read more.
Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020094
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1894 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must [...] Read more.
Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i) comply with International Codex; (ii) adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii) ensure enforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and National Strategies to Impact Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020038
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1727 | PDF Full-text (1175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020093
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3297 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To [...] Read more.
In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020092
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3522 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and [...] Read more.
Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Flavonols Intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020091
Received: 5 December 2015 / Revised: 10 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1927 | PDF Full-text (1449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonols intake and the risk of EC and GC, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonols intake and the risk of EC and GC, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic analysis of relevant population-based studies to assess the association and derive a more precise estimation. Methods: The Cochrane, PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify articles published through January 2016 that met the predetermined inclusion criterion. Twelve studies involving 4593 patients and 519,378 controls were included. Results: The summary odds ratios (ORs) of EC, GC and the two combined were respectively 0.88 (95% CI: 0.73–1.08), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70–0.91) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92) for the highest category of dietary flavonols intake compared with the lowest. No significant heterogeneities were observed in these studies. Further analysis showed that the pooled ORs of EC and GC for cohort, population-based case-control and hospital-based case-control studies were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.61–1.34), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.72–1.18), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.38–1.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.65–1.06), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45–1.59), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56–0.88). The subgroup analyses revealed a significant association of flavonol intake with a reduced risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Moreover, significant inverse associations of flavonol intake with GC risk were observed in women but not in men, in smokers but not in nonsmokers, in European populations but not in American populations. Similarly, a significant inverse association of flavonols intake with EC risk was also observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Conclusion: High intake of dietary flavonols is significantly related to a reduced risk of GC, especially in women and smokers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020090
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 3426 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. [...] Read more.
Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound’s ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020089
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2216 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years) from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85–300 g/day) and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020088
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2921 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We [...] Read more.
Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
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Open AccessArticle
Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020079
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1936 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to [...] Read more.
Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD) consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020054
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2231 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: [...] Read more.
The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020087
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7645 | PDF Full-text (1111 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally [...] Read more.
In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women’s health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors) have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a “fertility diet”, lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
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Open AccessArticle
DHA Supplementation Alone or in Combination with Other Nutrients Does not Modulate Cerebral Hemodynamics or Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020086
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 9 February 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2930 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A number of recent trials have demonstrated positive effects of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on measures of cognitive function in healthy young and older adults. One potential mechanism [...] Read more.
A number of recent trials have demonstrated positive effects of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on measures of cognitive function in healthy young and older adults. One potential mechanism by which EPA, and DHA in particular, may exert these effects is via modulation of cerebral hemodynamics. In order to investigate the effects of DHA alone or provided as one component of a multinutrient supplement (also including Gingko biloba, phosphatidylserine and vitamins B9 and B12) on measures of cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive function, 86 healthy older adults aged 50–70 years who reported subjective memory deficits were recruited to take part in a six month daily dietary supplementation trial. Relative changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin were assessed using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) during the performance of cognitive tasks prior to and following the intervention period. Performance on the cognitive tasks was also assessed. No effect of either active treatment was found for any of the NIRS measures or on the cognitive performance tasks, although the study was limited by a number of factors. Further work should continue to evaluate more holistic approaches to cognitive aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020085
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 9 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2310 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years) were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical [...] Read more.
Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years) were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF%) ≥ 25% (obesity), and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5%) and fat-mass (11%) occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ) during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence for the Presence of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity in Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Results from a Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Gluten Challenge
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020084
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 8 February 2016
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 7751 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is characterized by the onset of symptoms after eating gluten-containing food. We aimed to single out NCGS subjects among subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were enrolled in a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial with crossover. Symptoms and quality of [...] Read more.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is characterized by the onset of symptoms after eating gluten-containing food. We aimed to single out NCGS subjects among subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were enrolled in a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial with crossover. Symptoms and quality of life were evaluated by means of 10-cm VAS and SF36. Iron parameters, transaminases and C reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated. After a three-week-long gluten-free diet (GFD), responsive patients were randomly assigned to gluten intake (5.6 g/day) or placebo for seven days, followed by crossover. The primary endpoint was the worsening of symptoms (VAS increase ≥3 cm) during gluten ingestion compared to placebo. One hundred and forty patients were enrolled and 134 (17 males, mean age 39.1 ± 11.7 years, BMI 22.4 ± 3.8) completed the first period. A total of 101 subjects (10 males, mean age 39.3 ± 11.0 years, BMI 22.3 ± 4.0) reported a symptomatic improvement (VAS score 2.3 ± 1.2 vs. 6.5 ± 2.2 before and after GFD, p = 0.001). 98 patients underwent the gluten challenge and 28 (all females, mean age 38.9 ± 12.7 years, BMI 22.0 ± 2.9) reported a symptomatic relapse and deterioration of quality of life. No parameters were found to be statistically associated with positivity to the challenge. However, 14 patients responded to the placebo ingestion. Taking into account this finding, about 14% of patients responding to gluten withdrawal showed a symptomatic relapse during the gluten challenge. This group is suspected to have NCGS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020083
Received: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2533 | PDF Full-text (2225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), along with obesity, is increasing world-wide and is one of the major causes of chronic hepatic disease. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), along with obesity, is increasing world-wide and is one of the major causes of chronic hepatic disease. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6 mice after daily administration at 300 or 500 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Treatment with PCS extract significantly reduced body weight and blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, PCS extract treatment significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissue and reduced serum lipid and hepatic triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the expression of lipogenic genes and inflammatory genes were reduced, and the expression of fat oxidation-related genes was increased in the liver of PCS extract-treated mice compared with control mice. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of PCS extract for NAFLD by inhibiting lipid accumulation and inflammation in liver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020082
Received: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2186 | PDF Full-text (1205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are [...] Read more.
Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10−9). Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841) in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Selenium and Metabolic Disorders: An Emphasis on Type 2 Diabetes Risk
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020080
Received: 31 December 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2813 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient that maintains biological functions through the action of Se containing proteins known as selenoproteins. Due to the known antioxidant effects of Se, supplements containing Se have been on the rise. While Se supplementation may be beneficial for Se [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient that maintains biological functions through the action of Se containing proteins known as selenoproteins. Due to the known antioxidant effects of Se, supplements containing Se have been on the rise. While Se supplementation may be beneficial for Se deficient populations, few are at risk for Se deficiency due to the transportation of food from Se-rich regions and the rise of Se-enriched foods. Alarmingly, Se supplementation may have adverse effects in people who already receive an adequate Se supply. Specifically, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes has been reported in individuals with high baseline Se levels. However, this effect was restricted to males, suggesting the relationship between Se and glucose homeostasis may be sexually dimorphic. This review will discuss the current understanding of the interaction between Se and glucose homeostasis, including any sex differences that have been described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
The Reciprocal Interactions between Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota and Effects on Bioaccessibility
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020078
Received: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 91 | Viewed by 5028 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols [...] Read more.
As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols into their metabolites by gut microbiota and the modulation of gut microbiota composition by polyphenols contributes to positive health outcomes. Although there are many studies on the in vivo bioavailability of polyphenols, the mutual relationship between polyphenols and gut microbiota is not fully understood. This review focuses on the biotransformation of polyphenols by gut microbiota, modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols, and the effects of these two-way mutual interactions on polyphenol bioavailability, and ultimately, human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020077
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2867 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
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