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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 17 (September-1 2022) – 219 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Phenolic compounds (PFs) are naturally derived phytochemicals investigated for their antioxidant, antitumour, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiageing, antifungal, and antithrombotic properties. Recently, the administration of resveratrol (Rsv), Curcumin (Cu), and Quercetin (Qu) in different adjuvant supplement forms was purposed due to their protective effects against diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and bone-specific metabolism pathologies and bone resorption diseases. In addition, the recent literature is oriented towards the investigation of the effect of these nutraceutical molecules on the osseointegration process and new bone formation. View this paper
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Article
Predictors of Minimum Acceptable Diet among Children Aged 6–23 Months in Nepal: A Multilevel Analysis of Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2019
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173669 - 05 Sep 2022
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Abstract
Background: Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD), developed by the WHO and UNICEF, is a binary indicator of infant and young child feeding practice that assesses the quality and sufficiency of a child’s diet between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Identifying factors associated [...] Read more.
Background: Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD), developed by the WHO and UNICEF, is a binary indicator of infant and young child feeding practice that assesses the quality and sufficiency of a child’s diet between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Identifying factors associated with MAD among children can inform policymakers to improve children’s nutritional status. Methods: We extracted data of 1930 children aged 6–23 months from the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2019. Multilevel analysis was performed to identify factors associated with MAD. Results: Only 30.1% of the children received MAD. Children aged 13–18 months [aOR (Adjusted odds ratio): 2.37, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval): 1.77, 3.17] and 19–23 months (aOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.95, 3.47) were more likely to receive MAD than children aged 6–12 months. Early breastfed children (aOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.72), those currently breastfeeding (aOR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.21, 7.69) and children without siblings aged under five (aOR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.73) were more likely to receive MAD. Younger maternal age (aOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95–1.0), higher level of mother’s education (aOR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0–1.08) and more media exposure among mothers (aOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.21) were positive predictors of MAD. Relatively disadvantaged ethnicity/caste (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.94), rural residence (aOR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.00) and residing in Madhesh province (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37, 1.0) were also significant predictors of MAD. Conclusions: Children aged 6–12 months, without appropriate breastfeeding, having under-five years siblings, with older mother or mother without media exposure or low education, from relatively disadvantaged ethnicity/caste, from urban areas and residing in Madhesh Province were less likely to receive MAD. Our findings can inform infant and young child feeding policies and practices in Nepal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolism in the First 1,000 Days of Life)
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Article
Aquilaria crassna Leaf Extract Ameliorates Glucose-Induced Neurotoxicity In Vitro and Improves Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3668; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173668 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Hyperglycemia is one of the important causes of neurodegenerative disorders and aging. Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec (AC) has been widely used to relieve various health ailments. However, the neuroprotective and anti-aging effects against high glucose induction have not been investigated. This study [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia is one of the important causes of neurodegenerative disorders and aging. Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec (AC) has been widely used to relieve various health ailments. However, the neuroprotective and anti-aging effects against high glucose induction have not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hexane extract of AC leaves (ACH) in vitro using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and in vivo using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. SH-SY5Y cells and C. elegans were pre-exposed with high glucose, followed by ACH treatment. To investigate neuroprotective activities, neurite outgrowth and cell cycle progression were determined in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, C. elegans was used to determine ACH effects on antioxidant activity, longevity, and healthspan. In addition, ACH phytochemicals were analyzed and the possible active compounds were identified using a molecular docking study. ACH exerted neuroprotective effects by inducing neurite outgrowth via upregulating growth-associated protein 43 and teneurin-4 expression and normalizing cell cycle progression through the regulation of cyclin D1 and SIRT1 expression. Furthermore, ACH prolonged lifespan, improved body size, body length, and brood size, and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in high glucose-induced C. elegans via the activation of gene expression in the DAF-16/FoxO pathway. Finally, phytochemicals of ACH were analyzed and revealed that β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were the possible active constituents in inhibiting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFR). The results of this study establish ACH as an alternative medicine to defend against high glucose effects on neurotoxicity and aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Properties of Natural Products and Human Health)
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Communication
Water Extract of Piper longum Linn Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173667 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Piper longum linn has traditionally been used for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders in India. Although various pharmacological effects of P. longum have been studied, its effects on bone have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study examined the inhibitory effect [...] Read more.
Piper longum linn has traditionally been used for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders in India. Although various pharmacological effects of P. longum have been studied, its effects on bone have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study examined the inhibitory effect of the water extract of P. longum Linn (WEPL) on osteoclast differentiation. WEPL directly affected the osteoclast precursors and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. In addition, the expression levels of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1, a critical transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis, were significantly downregulated by WEPL via the suppression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. Consistent with the in vitro results, oral administration of WEPL (100 and 300 mpk) to ovariectomized mice for six weeks relieved the OVX-induced bone loss. We also identified phytochemicals in WEPL that are reported to exert inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and/or bone loss. Collectively, the findings of our study indicate that WEPL has an anti-osteoporotic effect on OVX-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast differentiation, suggesting that it may be useful to treat several bone diseases caused by excessive bone resorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Lupinus albus γ-Conglutin: New Findings about Its Action at the Intestinal Barrier and a Critical Analysis of the State of the Art on Its Postprandial Glycaemic Regulating Activity
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173666 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
γ-Conglutin (γ-C) is the glycoprotein from the edible seed L. albus, studied for long time for its postprandial glycaemic regulating action. It still lacks clear information on what could happen at the meeting point between the protein and the organism: the intestinal [...] Read more.
γ-Conglutin (γ-C) is the glycoprotein from the edible seed L. albus, studied for long time for its postprandial glycaemic regulating action. It still lacks clear information on what could happen at the meeting point between the protein and the organism: the intestinal barrier. We compared an in vitro system involving Caco-2 and IPEC-J2 cells with an ex vivo system using pig ileum and jejunum segments to study γ-C transport from the apical to the basolateral compartment, and its effects on the D-glucose uptake and glucose transporters protein expression. Finally, we studied its potential in modulating glucose metabolism by assessing the possible inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. RP-HPLC analyses showed that γ-C may be transported to the basolateral side in the in vitro system but not in the pig intestines. γ-C was also able to promote a decrease in glucose uptake in both cells and jejunum independently from the expression of the SGLT1 and GLUT2 transporters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
Clinical Status, Nutritional Behavior, and Lifestyle, and Determinants of Community Well-Being of Patients from the Perspective of Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study of Young Older Adults, Nonagenarians, and Centenarians in Salerno and Province, Italy
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173665 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Longevity is rightly considered one of the greatest achievements of modern society. Biomedical research has shown that aging is the major risk factor for many diseases, so to find the right answers to aging it is necessary to identify factors that can positively [...] Read more.
Longevity is rightly considered one of the greatest achievements of modern society. Biomedical research has shown that aging is the major risk factor for many diseases, so to find the right answers to aging it is necessary to identify factors that can positively influence longevity. This study investigated the clinical status, nutritional behavior, lifestyle, and social and community determinants of the well-being of young older adults and nonagenarians/centenarians in Salerno and province through the judgment of their physicians. Data were collected through an online survey. Multivariate Poisson and logistic regression models were used to calculate significant predictors of the outcomes of interest. The interesting finding was that cardiovascular disease was a risk factor for young older adults, while it was a protective factor for nonagenarians/centenarians, meaning that as age increased, heart problems tended to decrease. Certain foods were found to be a significant protective factor for both young older adult and nonagenarian–centenarian patients. In addition, psychosomatic disorders were found to be determinant for the young older adults, while depression was a risk factor for the nonagenarians/centenarians because they were not always gratified by their long lives and often felt like a burden on the family. The protective significant variable among the determinants of community well-being for both young older adults and nonagenarians/centenarians was the retention of honorary achievement. Based on our results, we are able to support the hypothesis of a difference between the young older adults and the nonagenarians/centenarians in clinical status, nutritional behaviors, lifestyle, and determinants of community well-being. However, societies need more social and educational programs that are able to build “a new idea of old age” by improving and supporting the young older adults and the nonagenarians/centenarians, with the goal of intergenerational solidarity, well-being, and social inclusion, as well as preventive interventions on lifestyles and nutrition, which will allow us to provide a new key to understanding aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet and White Matter Hyperintensity Change over Time in Cognitively Intact Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173664 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Current evidence on the impact of Mediterranean diet (MeDi) on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) trajectory is scarce. This study aims to examine whether greater adherence to MeDi is associated with less accumulation of WMH. This population-based longitudinal study included 183 cognitively intact adults [...] Read more.
Current evidence on the impact of Mediterranean diet (MeDi) on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) trajectory is scarce. This study aims to examine whether greater adherence to MeDi is associated with less accumulation of WMH. This population-based longitudinal study included 183 cognitively intact adults aged 20–80 years. The MeDi score was obtained from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire; WMH was assessed by 3T MRI. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the effect of MeDi on WMH change. Covariates included socio-demographic factors and brain markers. Moderation effects by age, gender, and race/ethnicity were examined, followed by stratification analyses. Among all participants, WMH increased from baseline to follow-up (mean difference [follow-up-baseline] [standard deviation] = 0.31 [0.48], p < 0.001). MeDi adherence was negatively associated with the increase in WMH (β = −0.014, 95% CI = −0.026–−0.001, p = 0.034), adjusting for all covariates. The association between MeDi and WMH change was moderated by age (young group = reference, p-interaction[middle-aged × MeDi] = 0.075, p-interaction[older × MeDi] = 0.037). The association between MeDi and WMH change was observed among the young group (β = −0.035, 95% CI = −0.058–−0.013, p = 0.003), but not among other age groups. Moderation effects by gender and race/ethnicity did not reach significance. Greater adherence to MeDi was associated with a lesser increase in WMH over time. Following a healthy diet, especially at younger age, may help to maintain a healthy brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
Lesser-Consumed Tropical Fruits and Their by-Products: Phytochemical Content and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173663 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Açaí, lychee, mamey, passion fruit and jackfruit are some lesser-consumed tropical fruits due to their low commercial production. In 2018, approximately 6.8 million tons of these fruits were harvested, representing about 6.35% of the total world production of tropical fruits. The present work [...] Read more.
Açaí, lychee, mamey, passion fruit and jackfruit are some lesser-consumed tropical fruits due to their low commercial production. In 2018, approximately 6.8 million tons of these fruits were harvested, representing about 6.35% of the total world production of tropical fruits. The present work reviews the nutritional content, profile of bioactive compounds, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of these fruits and their by-products, and their ability to modulate oxidative stress due to the content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and dietary fiber. Açaí pulp is an excellent source of anthocyanins (587 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, dw), mamey pulp is rich in carotenoids (36.12 mg β-carotene/100 g fresh weight, fw), passion fruit peel is rich in dietary fiber (61.16 g/100 dw). At the same time, jackfruit contains unique compounds such as moracin C, artocarpesin, norartocarpetin and oxyresveratrol. These molecules play an important role in the regulation of inflammation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (including p38, ERK and JNK) and nuclear factor κB pathways. The properties of the bioactive compounds found in these fruits make them a good source for use as food ingredients for nutritional purposes or alternative therapies. Research is needed to confirm their health benefits that can increase their marketability, which can benefit the primary producers, processing industries (particularly smaller ones) and the final consumer, while an integral use of their by-products will allow their incorporation into the circular bioeconomy. Full article
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Article
Hawk Tea Flavonoids as Natural Hepatoprotective Agents Alleviate Acute Liver Damage by Reshaping the Intestinal Microbiota and Modulating the Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3662; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173662 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Hawk tea (Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginosa) is a traditional herbal tea in southwestern China, and was found to possess hepatoprotective effects in our previous study. However, it is unclear whether hawk tea flavonoids (HTF) can alleviate alcoholic liver damage (ALD). [...] Read more.
Hawk tea (Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginosa) is a traditional herbal tea in southwestern China, and was found to possess hepatoprotective effects in our previous study. However, it is unclear whether hawk tea flavonoids (HTF) can alleviate alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Firstly, we extracted and identified the presence of 191 molecules categorized as HTFs, with reynoutrin, avicularin, guaijaverin, cynaroside, and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside being the most prevalent. After taking bioavailability into consideration and conducting comprehensive sorting, the contribution of guaijaverin was the highest (0.016 mg/mice). Then, by daily intragastric administration of HTF (100 mg/kg/day) to the ALD mice, we found that HTF alleviated liver lipid deposition (inhibition of TG, TC, LDL-C) by reducing liver oxidative-stress-mediated inflammation (up-regulation NRF2/HO-1 and down-regulation TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway) and reshaping the gut microbiota (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacillus increased). Overall, we found HTF could be a potential protective natural compound for treating ALD via the gut–liver axis and guaijaverin might be the key substance involved. Full article
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Review
Probiotic as a Potential Gut Microbiome Modifier for Stroke Treatment: A Systematic Scoping Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173661 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Background: Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for stroke are essential but can be costly or harmful, whereas probiotics are a promising alternative. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the in vitro and in vivo evidence of probiotics on stroke-related neurological, biochemical, and histochemical outcomes. [...] Read more.
Background: Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for stroke are essential but can be costly or harmful, whereas probiotics are a promising alternative. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the in vitro and in vivo evidence of probiotics on stroke-related neurological, biochemical, and histochemical outcomes. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) up to 7 May 2021. Titles and abstracts were screened and assessed by two independent reviewers. The initial screening criteria aimed to include studies using probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics both in vitro and in vivo for the prevention and/or treatment of stroke. Results: Of 6293 articles, 4990 passed the initial screen after excluding duplication articles, of which 36 theme-related full texts were assessed and 13 were included in this review. No in vitro studies passed the criteria to be included in this review. Probiotics can ameliorate neurological deficits and show their anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative properties. Decreased loss of cerebral volume and inhibition of neuronal apoptosis were revealed in histopathological evidence. Conclusions: There are potential cognitive benefits of probiotic supplementation, especially among animal models, on decreasing cerebral volume, increasing neurological score, and decreasing the inflammatory response. However, further investigation is needed to validate these conclusions in various populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Gut Microbiota and Health)
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Article
Infection in Living Donor Liver Transplantation Leads to Increased Risk of Adverse Renal Outcomes
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173660 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 839
Abstract
(1) Background: Little is known about the subsequent renal function change following incident infectious diseases in living-donor liver transplant (LT) recipients. (2) Methods: We studied patients who underwent living-donor LT from January 2003 to January 2019 to evaluate the association of incident hospitalization [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Little is known about the subsequent renal function change following incident infectious diseases in living-donor liver transplant (LT) recipients. (2) Methods: We studied patients who underwent living-donor LT from January 2003 to January 2019 to evaluate the association of incident hospitalization with major infections or pneumonia with adverse renal outcomes, including a sustained 40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and renal composite outcome (a 40% decline in eGFR, end-stage renal disease, or death.). Multivariable-adjusted time-dependent Cox models with infection as a time-varying exposure were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for study outcomes. (3) Results: We identified 435 patients (mean age 54.6 ± 8.4 years and 76.3% men), of whom 102 had hospitalization with major infections during follow-up; the most common cause of infection was pneumonia (38.2%). In multiple Cox models, hospitalization with a major infection was associated with an increased risk of eGFR decline > 40% (HR, 3.32; 95% CI 2.13–5.16) and renal composite outcome (HR, 3.41; 95% CI 2.40–5.24). Likewise, pneumonia was also associated with an increased risk of eGFR decline > 40% (HR, 2.47; 95% CI 1.10–5.56) and renal composite outcome (HR, 4.37; 95% CI 2.39–8.02). (4) Conclusions: Our results illustrated the impact of a single infection episode on the future risk of adverse renal events in LT recipients. Whether preventive and prophylactic care bundles against infection and judicious modification of the immunosuppressive regimen benefit renal outcomes may deserve further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic and Dietary Features in Renal Diseases and Transplantation)
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Article
Association between Food Sources of Free Sugars and Weight Status among Children and Adolescents in Japan: The 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3659; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173659 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between food sources of free sugars and weight status among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in Japan (1438 males and 1340 females) from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. We estimated the [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between food sources of free sugars and weight status among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in Japan (1438 males and 1340 females) from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. We estimated the percentage of energy intake (% E) from free sugars from total food sources (FStotal), solid foods (FSsolids), and beverages (FSliquids), using one-day weighed dietary record data. Weight status was determined based on body mass index (BMI) z-scores and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The mean energy intakes of FStotal, FSsolids, and FSliquids were 5.8%, 4.1%, and 1.8% in males and 6.2%, 4.6%, and 1.6% in females, respectively. After controlling for potential confounding factors, including energy intake, there was no association of free sugars intake from all food sources with BMI z-scores or with the prevalence of overweight and obesity, except for a marginal association between higher FSsolids and lower estimated BMI z-scores in females (p = 0.05). The present findings indicate that among children and adolescents in Japan, who have a relatively low mean intake of free sugars, consuming free sugars from any food source is unlikely to have an adverse effect on weight status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey)
Article
The Effects of Swallowing Disorders and Oral Malformations on Nutritional Status in Children with Cerebral Palsy
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173658 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Nutrition plays an important role both from a nutrition and a socio-psychological point of view; this part seems to be even more crucial in cerebral palsy where undernutrition is responsible for an increase in morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Nutrition plays an important role both from a nutrition and a socio-psychological point of view; this part seems to be even more crucial in cerebral palsy where undernutrition is responsible for an increase in morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of swallowing disorders and oral malformations on the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. We evaluated 65 patients aged 2 to 17 years using a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational approach. All patients had a definite diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The measurement of anthropometric variables (weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and circumferences) was performed according to recognized techniques and measurements. The Z-score was also calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) references. The 5-level Gross Motor Function Classification System was used, providing a standardized classification of motor disability patterns for children with cerebral palsy. The population had a median age of 9.25 (4.50–16.00) and was about 53% female. Furthermore, 75% of the patients had a height inferior to 158 cm. The results of our study show that 42 (64.6%) had false routes, 17 (26.2%) had oral-facial malformations and 51 (78.5%) did not have lip prehensions during meals. The results also show that growth retardation is closely related to gross motor function with p = 0.01, as well as all nutritional indices (Z-score weight for age, Z-score height for age and Z-score BMI for age) are affected by swallowing disorders and oral malformations, with statistically significant values < 0.05. In conclusion, a preventive and curative management specific to this population of children with cerebral palsy must be implemented with an interdisciplinary concertation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Nutrients and Oils)
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Review
The Impact of COVID-19-Related Living Restrictions on Eating Behaviours in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173657 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted the imposition of physical and social distancing measures worldwide. Emerging data suggest that younger age groups may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse mental health impacts of the pandemic. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted the imposition of physical and social distancing measures worldwide. Emerging data suggest that younger age groups may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse mental health impacts of the pandemic. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented increase in demand for child and adolescent eating disorder services. The aim of this review was to systematically review and appraise the current literature on the impact of COVID-19-related living restrictions on the eating behaviours of children and adolescents. Searches of eight electronic databases were conducted in March 2021 and December 2021 for published and grey literature on eating behaviours of population samples of children and adolescents (aged 18 months to 18 years old) who were exposed to COVID-19-related living restrictions. Of 3165 retrieved references, sixteen studies were included in this review, comprising data from 125, 286 participants. There was a pattern towards healthier eating behaviours among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, young people from lower socioeconomic groups showed a tendency towards more unhealthy eating behaviours, and there was an association between mood difficulties and greater changes in eating; this suggests that such groups may be more vulnerable to the adverse health consequences of lockdowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Prevalence of Malnutrition Assessed by the GLIM Criteria and Association with Activities of Daily Living in Older Residents in an Integrated Facility for Medical and Long-Term Care
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173656 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Malnutrition is associated with poor functional outcomes in residents in long-term care facilities. The integrated facility for medical and long-term care (IFMLC) is a new Japanese long-term care facility where medical services can be provided. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is associated with poor functional outcomes in residents in long-term care facilities. The integrated facility for medical and long-term care (IFMLC) is a new Japanese long-term care facility where medical services can be provided. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition diagnosed based on the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and its association with activities of daily living (ADL) in older residents in IFMLC. In this cross-sectional study of older residents, we diagnosed mild and severe malnutrition using the GLIM criteria and assessed ADLs using the Barthel index (BI). Multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between BI score and GLIM-defined malnutrition. A total of 117 older residents (84 women; median age, 88 years) were analyzed in this study. The prevalence values of mild and severe malnutrition were 29% and 18%, respectively. Multivariate analyses for the BI score after adjusting for potential confounders showed that mild and severe malnutrition were independently associated with BI score (B = −6.113, p < 0.046; B = −8.411, p = 0.015, respectively). GLIM-defined malnutrition is negatively associated with ADLs in older residents in IFMLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation Nutrition in Older People)
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Article
Differences in Nutritional Intake, Total Body Fat, and BMI Score between Twins
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173655 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 869
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the coincidence of obesity and nutritional intake in monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins. The data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) from 2005 through 2014 were analyzed. Participants ≥ 20 years old were enrolled. [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the coincidence of obesity and nutritional intake in monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins. The data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) from 2005 through 2014 were analyzed. Participants ≥ 20 years old were enrolled. The 1006 monozygotic twins and 238 dizygotic twins were analyzed for differences in self-reported nutritional intake, total body fat, and body mass index (BMI) using a linear regression model. The estimated values (EV) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the difference in dietary intake, total body fat, and BMI score were calculated. The monozygotic twin group and the dizygotic twin group showed similar differences in nutritional intake, DEXA fat, and BMI (all p > 0.05). The differences in nutritional intake of total calories and carbohydrates were lower in the monozygotic twin group than in the dizygotic twin group (all p < 0.05). The differences in total body fat were lower in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (adjusted EV = 2427.86 g, 95% CI = 1777.19–3078.53 and adjusted EV = 1.90%, 95% CI = 1.33–2.46). Monozygotic twins had more similar dietary habits for total calories and carbohydrate intake. Other nutritional factors did not show differential similarity between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Total body fat was more concordant in monozygotic twins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytokines and Obesity: Genetic Control)
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Article
Dietary Quality during Pregnancy and Congenital Heart Defects
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3654; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173654 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Limited studies on maternal dietary quality indices and congenital heart defects (CHD) are available. This study aimed to explore the relationship between dietary quality in pregnancy and CHD among the Chinese population. A case-control study was performed in Northwest China, and 474 cases [...] Read more.
Limited studies on maternal dietary quality indices and congenital heart defects (CHD) are available. This study aimed to explore the relationship between dietary quality in pregnancy and CHD among the Chinese population. A case-control study was performed in Northwest China, and 474 cases and 948 controls were included. Eligible women waiting for delivery were interviewed to recall diets and other information during pregnancy. Dietary quality was assessed by the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Logistic regression models were adopted to evaluate the associations of dietary quality scores with CHD. Pregnant women with higher scores of GDQS and MDS were at a lower risk of fetal CHD, and the adjusted ORs comparing the extreme quartiles were 0.26 (95%CI: 0.16–0.42; Ptrend < 0.001) and 0.53 (95%CI: 0.34–0.83; Ptrend = 0.007), respectively. The inverse associations of GDQS and MDS with CHD appeared to be stronger among women with lower education levels or in rural areas. Maternal GDQS and MDS had good predictive values for fetal CHD, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves close to 0.8. Efforts to improve maternal dietary quality need to be strengthened to decrease the prevalence of CHD among the Chinese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Women)
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Article
Effects of Different Ratios of Carbohydrate–Fat in Enteral Nutrition on Metabolic Pattern and Organ Damage in Burned Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173653 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 839
Abstract
(1) Background: Nutritional support is one of the most important cornerstones in the management of patients with severe burns, but the carbohydrate-to-fat ratios in burn nutrition therapy remain highly controversial. In this study, we aimed to discuss the effects of different ratios of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Nutritional support is one of the most important cornerstones in the management of patients with severe burns, but the carbohydrate-to-fat ratios in burn nutrition therapy remain highly controversial. In this study, we aimed to discuss the effects of different ratios of carbohydrate–fat through enteral nutrition on the metabolic changes and organ damage in burned rats. (2) Methods: Twenty-four burned rats were randomly divided into 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% fat nutritional groups. REE and body weight were measured individually for each rat daily. Then, 75% of REE was given in the first week after burns, and the full dose was given in the second week. Glucose tolerance of the rats was measured on days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14. Blood biochemistry analysis and organ damage analysis were performed after 7 and 14 days of nutritional therapy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and insulin content analysis were performed after 14 days. (3) Results: NMR spectra showed significant differences of glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. The energy expenditure increased, and body weight decreased significantly after burn injury, with larger change in the 20%, 5% and 30% fat groups, and minimal change in the 10% fat group. The obvious changes in the level of plasma protein, glucose, lipids and insulin, as well as the organ damage, were in the 30%, 20% and 5% fat groups. In relative terms, the 10% fat group showed the least variation and was closest to normal group. (4) Conclusion: Lower fat intake is beneficial to maintaining metabolic stability and lessening organ damage after burns, but percentage of fat supply should not be less than 10% in burned rats. Full article
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Article
Increased Body Mass Index and Risk of Left Atrial Thrombus in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients—Data from the Left Atrial Thrombus on Transesophageal Echocardiography (LATTEE) Registry
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173652 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 984
Abstract
An increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and a higher risk of thromboembolic complications in AF patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMI on the risk of left [...] Read more.
An increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and a higher risk of thromboembolic complications in AF patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMI on the risk of left atrial thrombi (LATs) in patients with nonvalvular AF/atrial flutter (AFl) (NV AF/AFl). Patients diagnosed with NVAF/AFl (between November 2018 and May 2020) were selected from the multicenter, prospective, observational Left Atrial Thrombus on Transesophageal Echocardiography (LATTEE) registry that included AF/AFl patients referred for cardioversion or ablation followed by transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 2816 AF/AFl patients (63.6% males; mean age 65.8 years; mean BMI 29.8 kg/m2) were included in the study. Two hundred and twenty-two of them (7.9%) had LATs. Compared with normal-weight patients, those with BMIs ≥ 25 kg/m2 more frequently presented clinical factors potentially provoking LATs, such as non-paroxysmal AF/AFl (p = 0.04), hypertension (p < 0.001), and diabetes (p < 0.001); had higher CHA2DS2 scores (p < 0.001); and had larger LA dimensions (LA diameter and LA area) (p < 0.001 for both parameters). On the other hand, they showed some features negatively related to thromboembolic risk; for example, they were younger (p < 0.001) and were more often male (p = 0.002). In addition, patients with abnormal BMIs were more likely to be smokers (p = 0.006) and to be treated with oral anticoagulants (p = 0.005). Despite these differences in the prevalence of thromboembolic risk factors, the incidence of LATs was not increased in patients with abnormal body weight (overweight and obese compared to normal-weight patients) in this large real-life cohort of AF/AFl patients. This is probably due to the balanced composition regarding the prevalence of positive and negative thromboembolic risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Potential Health-Promoting Effects of Two Candidate Probiotics Isolated from Infant Feces Using an Immune-Based Screening Strategy
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173651 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Commensal microorganisms in the human gut are a good source of candidate probiotics, particularly those with immunomodulatory effects that may improve health outcomes by regulating interactions between the gut microbiome and distal organs. Previously, we used an immune-based screening strategy to select two [...] Read more.
Commensal microorganisms in the human gut are a good source of candidate probiotics, particularly those with immunomodulatory effects that may improve health outcomes by regulating interactions between the gut microbiome and distal organs. Previously, we used an immune-based screening strategy to select two potential probiotic strains from infant feces in China, Bifidobacterium breve 207-1 (207-1) and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei 207-27 (207-27). In this study, the in vitro immunological effects and potential in vivo general health benefits of these two strains were evaluated using Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as the control. The results showed that 207-1 and 207-27 significantly and differentially modulated the cytokine profiles of primary splenic cells, while did not induce abnormal systemic immune responses in healthy mice. They also modulated the gut microbiota composition in a strain-dependent manner, thus decreasing Gram-negative bacteria and increasing health-promoting taxa and short-chain fatty acid levels, particularly butyric acid. Conclusively, 207-1 and 207-27 shaped a robust gut environment in healthy mice in a strain-specific manner. Their potential immunomodulatory effects and other elite properties will be further explored using animal models of disease and subsequent clinical trials. This immune-based screening strategy is promising in efficiently and economically identifying elite candidate probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Gut Microbiota and Health)
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Article
Nutritional Status, Body Composition, and Inflammation Profile in Older Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4–5: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173650 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Nutritional status is a predictor of adverse outcomes and mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD). This study aimed to explore and evaluate risk factors related to nutritional status, body composition, and inflammatory profile in patients with ACKD compared with age- [...] Read more.
Nutritional status is a predictor of adverse outcomes and mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD). This study aimed to explore and evaluate risk factors related to nutritional status, body composition, and inflammatory profile in patients with ACKD compared with age- and sex-matched controls in a Mediterranean cohort of the Spanish population. Out of 200 volunteers recruited, 150 participants (64%) were included, and a case-control study was conducted on 75 ACKD patients (stages 4–5), matched individually with controls at a ratio of 1:1 for both age and sex. At enrolment, demographic, clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory parameters were measured. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess both body composition and hydration status. ACKD patients had lower body cell mass (BCM%), muscle mass (MM%) phase angle (PA), s-albumin, and higher C-reactive protein (s-CRP) than controls (at least, p < 0.05). PA correlated positively with BCM% (cases: r = 0.84; controls: r = 0.53, p < 0.001), MM% (cases: r = 0.65; controls: r = 0.31, p < 0.001), and inversely with s-CRP (cases: r = −0.30, p < 0.001; controls: r = −0.31, p = 0.40). By univariate and multivariate conditional regression analysis, total body water (OR: 1.186), extracellular mass (OR: 1.346), s-CRP (OR: 2.050), MM% (OR: 0.847), PA (OR: 0.058), and s-albumin (OR: 0.475) were significantly associated among cases to controls. Nutritional parameters and BIA-derived measures appear as prognostic entities in patients with stage 4–5 ACKD compared to matched controls in this Mediterranean cohort. Full article
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Systematic Review
Intestinal Barrier Permeability in Obese Individuals with or without Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173649 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Altered intestinal barrier permeability has been associated with obesity and its metabolic and inflammatory complications in animal models. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence regarding the association between obesity with or without Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and alteration of [...] Read more.
Altered intestinal barrier permeability has been associated with obesity and its metabolic and inflammatory complications in animal models. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence regarding the association between obesity with or without Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and alteration of the intestinal barrier permeability in humans. A systematic search of the studies published up until April 2022 in Latin America & Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale (NOS) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) checklist. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Eight studies were included and classified as moderate to high quality. Alteration of intestinal barrier permeability was evaluated by zonulin, lactulose/mannitol, sucralose, sucrose, lactulose/L-rhamnose, and sucralose/erythritol. Impaired intestinal barrier permeability measured by serum and plasma zonulin concentration was positively associated with obesity with MetS. Nonetheless, the GRADE assessment indicated a very low to low level of evidence for the outcomes. Thus, clear evidence about the relationship between alteration of human intestinal barrier permeability, obesity, and MetS was not found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Article
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins in Breast Milk during Different Lactation Periods
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173648 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Breast milk is an unparalleled food for infants, as it can meet almost all of their nutritional needs. Breast milk in the first month is an important source of acquired immunity. However, breast milk protein may vary with the stage of lactation. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Breast milk is an unparalleled food for infants, as it can meet almost all of their nutritional needs. Breast milk in the first month is an important source of acquired immunity. However, breast milk protein may vary with the stage of lactation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a data-independent acquisition approach to determine the differences in the proteins of breast milk during different lactation periods. The study samples were colostrum (3–6 days), transitional milk (7–14 days), and mature milk (15–29 days). The results identified a total of 2085 different proteins, and colostrum contained the most characteristic proteins. Protein expression was affected by the lactation stage. The proteins expressed in breast milk changed greatly between day 3 and day 14 and gradually stabilized after 14 days. The expression levels of lactoferrin, immunoglobulin, and clusterin were the highest in colostrum. CTP synthase 1, C-type lectin domain family 19 member A, secretoglobin family 3A member 2, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and tenascin were also the highest in colostrum. This study provides further insights into the protein composition of breast milk and the necessary support for the design and production of infant formula. Full article
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Article
Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Children with Excessive Body Weight Participating in an Integrated Weight-Loss Programme
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173647 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 889
Abstract
The problem of overweight and obesity is a growing phenomenon in the entire population. Obesity is associated with many different metabolic disorders and is directly associated with an increased risk of death. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in [...] Read more.
The problem of overweight and obesity is a growing phenomenon in the entire population. Obesity is associated with many different metabolic disorders and is directly associated with an increased risk of death. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in body composition and physical fitness in children participating in an integrated weight-loss programme and to analyse the possible relationship between changes in body composition and improvements in fitness. Participants of the study were recruited from the “6–10–14 for Health”-multidisciplinary intervention programme for children aged 6 to 15 years old. A total of 170 patients qualified for the study, and 152 patients were enrolled. Statistically significant changes in body composition were found after the end of the intervention program, as measured by both BIA (bioimpedance) and DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry). The differences in KPRT (Kasch Pulse Recovery Test) results at baseline and after intervention are positively correlated with the difference in fat mass between baseline and the after-intervention measure. Improving physical fitness is positively correlated with a decrease in FM (fat mass) and an increase in FFM (fat-free mass) measured in both absolute values and %. Both BIA and DXA methods proved to be equally useful for measuring body composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Specialized Diet, Obesity and Associated Metabolic Diseases)
Article
Neonatal Morbidities and Feeding Tolerance Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants, before and after Introduction of Probiotic Supplementation
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173646 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1767
Abstract
While probiotics are reported to reduce the risks of neonatal morbidities, less is known about probiotics and feeding tolerance. With this retrospective cohort study, we investigate whether introduction of probiotic supplementation as the standard of care was associated with fewer neonatal morbidities and [...] Read more.
While probiotics are reported to reduce the risks of neonatal morbidities, less is known about probiotics and feeding tolerance. With this retrospective cohort study, we investigate whether introduction of probiotic supplementation as the standard of care was associated with fewer neonatal morbidities and improved feeding tolerance in very preterm infants. Using the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 345 live-born very preterm infants (28–31 weeks’ gestation), from January 2019–August 2021, in NICUs in Stockholm, Sweden, either received probiotic supplementation (Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium lactis, Streptococcusthermophilus) (139) or no supplementation (206); they were compared regarding a primary composite outcome of death, sepsis, and/or necrotising enterocolitis and secondary outcomes: time to full enteral feeding and antibiotics use. Probiotics seemed associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome (4.3% versus 9.2%, p = 0.08). In the subgroup of 320 infants without the primary outcome, probiotics were associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding (6.6 days versus 7.2 days) and less use of antibiotics (5.2 days versus 6.1 days). Our findings suggest that probiotics improve feeding tolerance and further support that very preterm infants may benefit from probiotic supplementation. Full article
Article
High-Dose Nitrate Supplementation Attenuates the Increased Blood Pressure Responses to Isometric Blood Flow Restriction Exercise in Healthy Males
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173645 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The effect of nitrate (NO3) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) responses during large muscle mass isometric and ischaemic exercise in healthy young adults is unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 5-day supplementation of [...] Read more.
The effect of nitrate (NO3) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) responses during large muscle mass isometric and ischaemic exercise in healthy young adults is unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 5-day supplementation of NO3 on BP responses during a short isometric contraction and a sustained ischaemic contraction. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 14 healthy active young adults underwent BP measurements after 5 days of either NO3 (NIT) or placebo (PLA) supplementation. Beat-by-beat BP was measured at pre- and post-exercise rest, and during a short (20 s) isometric contraction at 25% maximal strength and throughout a sustained ischaemic contraction. Plasma nitrite (NO2) concentration increased significantly after NO3 supplementation compared to placebo (475 ± 93 nmol·L−1 vs. 198 ± 46 nmol·L−1, p < 0.001, d = 3.37). Systolic BP was significantly lower at pre- (p = 0.051) and post-exercise rest (p = 0.006), during a short isometric contraction (p = 0.030), and throughout a sustained ischaemic contraction (p = 0.040) after NO3 supplementation. Mean arterial pressure was significantly lower at pre- (p = 0.004) and post-exercise rest (p = 0.043), during a short isometric contraction (p = 0.041), and throughout a sustained ischaemic contraction (p = 0.021) after NO3 supplementation. Diastolic BP was lower at pre-exercise rest (p = 0.032), but not at post-exercise rest, during a short isometric contraction, and during a sustained ischaemic contraction (all p > 0.05). Five days of NO3 supplementation elevated plasma NO2 concentration and reduced BP during a short isometric contraction and a sustained ischaemic contraction in healthy adults. These observations indicate that multiple-day nitrate supplementation can decrease BP at rest and attenuate the increased BP response during isometric exercise. These findings support that NO3 supplementation is an effective nutritional intervention in reducing SBP and MAP in healthy young males during submaximal exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promoting Healthy Diet and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health)
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Article
Association of Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged to Elderly Japanese Men and Women: The Toon Health Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173644 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption is known to be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, the related evidence for individuals with a relatively higher intake of fish or omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, e.g., Japanese individuals, is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to examine [...] Read more.
Fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption is known to be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, the related evidence for individuals with a relatively higher intake of fish or omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, e.g., Japanese individuals, is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the association of fish and omega-3 fatty acid intakes with the carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in the Japanese population. In total, 1803 Japanese men and women aged 30–84 years without a history of myocardial infarction or angina pectoris were included in the study. The fish and omega-3 fatty acid intakes were estimated using food frequency questionnaires. The C-IMT was measured using ultrasound imaging, and the participants were classified into three groups: normal, moderate (1.1 to 1.4 mm of maximum C-IMT), and severely increased C-IMT (≥1.5 mm). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the presence of moderately and severely increased C-IMT. The omega-3 fatty acid intake was shown to be associated with lower odds of severely increased C-IMT. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95%CI) was 0.55 (0.31–0.97; p for trend = 0.04). We also found a borderline significant negative association between fish intake and the presence of severely increased C-IMT. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acid intake might protect against the development of atherosclerosis in the Japanese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Asia)
Article
Associations between Food Groups and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173643 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the associations between food groups and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The data of 14,979 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 and 2018 were examined. The HRQoL was assessed with EuroQol-5 [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the associations between food groups and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The data of 14,979 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 and 2018 were examined. The HRQoL was assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension. The 24-h recall test was used to examine the dietary intake of food groups. Males and females accounted for 13.79% and 21.62% of the low HRQoL groups. The males in the lowest tertile of the “vegetables” and “fish and shellfish” food groups were more likely to have a low HRQoL (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25 (1.05–1.65), 1.45 (1.12–1.89), respectively) than those in the highest tertile, whereas those in the lowest tertile of the “cereal and grain products” were less likely to have a low HRQoL (OR (95% CI) = 0.69 (0.52–0.91)). The females in the lowest tertile of the “vegetables” food group were more likely to have a low HRQoL (OR (95% CI) = 1.56 (1.17–3.01)) than those in the highest tertile. After adjusting for confounders indagated with not only dietary but also non-dietary factors such as stress, we found that low HRQoL was significantly associated with food groups of “vegetables”, “fish and shellfish”, and “cereal and grain products” among males and of “vegetables” among females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Therapy: Personal Diet and Lifestyle and Human Health)
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Article
Dietary Patterns and Nutrient Intake in University Students of Macao: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173642 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 869
Abstract
Background: Nutritional status affects the health of the public and is one of the key factors influencing social-economic development. To date, little research on the nutritional status of the Macao university student population has been conducted. Objectives: To identify and evaluate the dietary [...] Read more.
Background: Nutritional status affects the health of the public and is one of the key factors influencing social-economic development. To date, little research on the nutritional status of the Macao university student population has been conducted. Objectives: To identify and evaluate the dietary pattern and the nutritional intake among Macao university students. Methods: The Macao students were selected by the stratified cluster random sampling method. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate food consumption. Data were analyzed through a t-test and factor analysis by using SPSS Version 24.0. Results: A total of 1230 questionnaires were distributed. From the respondents, 1067 (86.7%) were valid. In general, we identified three major dietary patterns in this population: (1) fruit and vegetable dietary pattern, characterized by abundant consumption of fruits and vegetables; (2) grain and high fat dietary pattern, characterized as high intakes of grains and animal foods; (3) high sugar dietary pattern, characterized by a large quantity of daily sugary drinks. The average daily intake of vitamin A, thiamine, calcium, and iodine were significantly lower than the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) in the subjects. Conclusions: The dietary pattern of Macao students is similar to that of other Asians. Surprisingly, the daily intake of vitamin A, thiamine, calcium, and iodine by Macao university students is significantly lower than the Chinese RNI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Reduction in Insulin Mediated ERK Phosphorylation by Palmitate in Liver Cells Is Independent of Fatty Acid Induced ER Stress
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173641 - 02 Sep 2022
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate in the circulation are known to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. In addition to protein kinase B (AKT) signaling, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the development [...] Read more.
Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate in the circulation are known to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. In addition to protein kinase B (AKT) signaling, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. However, there are conflicting data regarding role of ERK signaling in ER stress-induced insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of ER stress on insulin resistance and ERK phosphorylation in Huh-7 cells and evaluated how oleate prevents palmitate-mediated ER stress. Treatment with insulin resulted in an increase of 38–45% in the uptake of glucose in control cells compared to non-insulin-treated control cells, along with an increase in the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. We found that treatment with palmitate increased the expression of ER stress genes, including the splicing of X box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA. At the same time, we observed a decrease in insulin-mediated uptake of glucose and ERK phosphorylation in Huh-7 cells, without any change in AKT phosphorylation. Supplementation of oleate along with palmitate mitigated the palmitate-induced ER stress but did not affect insulin-mediated glucose uptake or ERK phosphorylation. The findings of this study suggest that palmitate reduces insulin-mediated ERK phosphorylation in liver cells and this effect is independent of fatty-acid-induced ER stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Insulin Resistance and Lipid Metabolism)
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Review
The Impact of Modifying Food Service Practices in Secondary Schools Providing a Routine Meal Service on Student’s Food Behaviours, Health and Dining Experience: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173640 - 02 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The education sector is recognised as an ideal platform to promote good nutrition and decision making around food and eating. Examining adolescents in this setting is important because of the unique features of adolescence compared to younger childhood. This systematic review and meta-analysis [...] Read more.
The education sector is recognised as an ideal platform to promote good nutrition and decision making around food and eating. Examining adolescents in this setting is important because of the unique features of adolescence compared to younger childhood. This systematic review and meta-analysis examine interventions in secondary schools that provide a routine meal service and the impact on adolescents’ food behaviours, health and dining experience in this setting. The review was guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Checklist and Cochrane Handbook recommendations. Studies published in English searched in four databases and a hand search yielded 42 interventions in 35 studies. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two reviewers. Interventions were classified using the NOURISHING framework, and their impact analysed using meta-analysis, vote-counting synthesis or narrative summary. The meta-analysis showed an improvement in students selecting vegetables (odds ratio (OR): 1.39; 1.12 to 1.23; p = 0.002), fruit serves selected (mean difference (MD): 0.09; 0.09 to 0.09; p < 0.001) and consumed (MD: 0.10; 0.04 to 0.15; p < 0.001), and vegetable serves consumed (MD: 0.06; 0.01 to 0.10; p = 0.024). Vote-counting showed a positive impact for most interventions that measured selection (15 of 25; 41% to 77%; p = 0.002) and consumption (14 of 24; 39% to 76%; p = 0.013) of a meal component. Interventions that integrate improving menu quality, assess palatability, accessibility of healthier options, and student engagement can enhance success. These results should be interpreted with caution as most studies were not methodologically strong and at higher risk of bias. There is a need for higher quality pragmatic trials, strategies to build and measure sustained change, and evaluation of end-user attitudes and perceptions towards intervention components and implementation for greater insight into intervention success and future directions (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020167133). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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