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Effects of Dietary Protein and Polysaccharide Fortification on Disease

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Proteins and Amino Acids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2023) | Viewed by 69656

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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Health, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis; vascular remodeling; cancer; mitochondria; cell signaling; cell metabolism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Nutrition and Health, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: metabolic diseases; cancer; aging; molecular nutrition; mitochondrial metabolism; mitochondrial metal ions; mtDNA mutation/editing; ROS; ferroptosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The observation that healthy diets are beneficial for human being has boosted interest in the concept of “food as medicine” and “preventive treatment”. Proteins and polysaccharides are kinds of versatile natural macromolecules that are ubiquitous in the biosphere, whose biological effects are either structure-, protective- or storage-related. These bioactive nutrients modulate transcription factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction, act as senolytics and impact the epigenome by altering metabolism. As a consequent, tailored diet fortified with protein and polysaccharide has been developed to ameliorate a wide array of diseases, such as metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, intestinal disease, and neurodegenerative disease.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Effects of dietary protein and polysaccharide fortification on disease” aims to be an interdisciplinary platform that covers all beneficial aspects related to proteins or polysaccharides. We invite well-designed research articles, reviews, as well as meta-analysis studies that addressing the development, modulation and characterization of new dietary strategy with bioactive protein and polysaccharide fortification for the treatment of various disorders and their complications.

Dr. Yongting Luo
Dr. Junjie Luo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • polysaccharide
  • protein
  • protein and polysaccharide fortification
  • beneficial effects
  • metabolic disease
  • cardiovascular disease
  • intestinal disease
  • neurodegenerative disease

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
The Effects of Dietary Protein and Polysaccharide Fortification on Disease
by Junjie Luo and Yongting Luo
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194137 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Proteins and polysaccharides are versatile natural macromolecules that are ubiquitous in nature, and a tailored diet that is fortified with them has been developed to ameliorate a wide array of diseases [...] Full article

Research

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17 pages, 2915 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Ratios of Carbohydrate–Fat in Enteral Nutrition on Metabolic Pattern and Organ Damage in Burned Rats
by Yongjun Yang, Sen Su, Yong Zhang, Dan Wu, Chao Wang, Yan Wei and Xi Peng
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173653 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
(1) Background: Nutritional support is one of the most important cornerstones in the management of patients with severe burns, but the carbohydrate-to-fat ratios in burn nutrition therapy remain highly controversial. In this study, we aimed to discuss the effects of different ratios of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Nutritional support is one of the most important cornerstones in the management of patients with severe burns, but the carbohydrate-to-fat ratios in burn nutrition therapy remain highly controversial. In this study, we aimed to discuss the effects of different ratios of carbohydrate–fat through enteral nutrition on the metabolic changes and organ damage in burned rats. (2) Methods: Twenty-four burned rats were randomly divided into 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% fat nutritional groups. REE and body weight were measured individually for each rat daily. Then, 75% of REE was given in the first week after burns, and the full dose was given in the second week. Glucose tolerance of the rats was measured on days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14. Blood biochemistry analysis and organ damage analysis were performed after 7 and 14 days of nutritional therapy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and insulin content analysis were performed after 14 days. (3) Results: NMR spectra showed significant differences of glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. The energy expenditure increased, and body weight decreased significantly after burn injury, with larger change in the 20%, 5% and 30% fat groups, and minimal change in the 10% fat group. The obvious changes in the level of plasma protein, glucose, lipids and insulin, as well as the organ damage, were in the 30%, 20% and 5% fat groups. In relative terms, the 10% fat group showed the least variation and was closest to normal group. (4) Conclusion: Lower fat intake is beneficial to maintaining metabolic stability and lessening organ damage after burns, but percentage of fat supply should not be less than 10% in burned rats. Full article
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15 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins in Breast Milk during Different Lactation Periods
by Yifan Zhang, Xiaoxu Zhang, Lijuan Mi, Chuangang Li, Yiran Zhang, Ran Bi, Jinzhu Pang and Yixuan Li
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173648 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Breast milk is an unparalleled food for infants, as it can meet almost all of their nutritional needs. Breast milk in the first month is an important source of acquired immunity. However, breast milk protein may vary with the stage of lactation. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Breast milk is an unparalleled food for infants, as it can meet almost all of their nutritional needs. Breast milk in the first month is an important source of acquired immunity. However, breast milk protein may vary with the stage of lactation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a data-independent acquisition approach to determine the differences in the proteins of breast milk during different lactation periods. The study samples were colostrum (3–6 days), transitional milk (7–14 days), and mature milk (15–29 days). The results identified a total of 2085 different proteins, and colostrum contained the most characteristic proteins. Protein expression was affected by the lactation stage. The proteins expressed in breast milk changed greatly between day 3 and day 14 and gradually stabilized after 14 days. The expression levels of lactoferrin, immunoglobulin, and clusterin were the highest in colostrum. CTP synthase 1, C-type lectin domain family 19 member A, secretoglobin family 3A member 2, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and tenascin were also the highest in colostrum. This study provides further insights into the protein composition of breast milk and the necessary support for the design and production of infant formula. Full article
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14 pages, 1688 KiB  
Article
Different Protein Sources Enhance 18FDG-PET/MR Uptake of Brown Adipocytes in Male Subjects
by Katarzyna Maliszewska, Edyta Adamska-Patruno, Katarzyna Miniewska, Witold Bauer, Angelika Buczyńska, Małgorzata Mojsak and Adam Kretowski
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163411 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3654
Abstract
Background: The unique ability of brown adipocytes to increase metabolic rate suggests that they could be targeted as an obesity treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to search for new dietary factors that may enhance brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The unique ability of brown adipocytes to increase metabolic rate suggests that they could be targeted as an obesity treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to search for new dietary factors that may enhance brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. Methods: The study group comprised 28 healthy non-smoking males, aged 21–42 years old. All volunteers underwent a physical examination and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (75g-OGTT). Serum atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP), PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) measurements were taken, and 3-day food intake diaries were completed. Body composition measurements were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning and bioimpedance methods. An fluorodeoxyglucose-18 (FDG-18) uptake in BAT was assessed by positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) in all participants after 2 h cold exposure. The results were adjusted for age, daily energy intake, and DXA lean mass. Results: Subjects with detectable BAT (BAT(+)) were characterized by a higher percentage of energy obtained from dietary protein and fat and higher muscle mass (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). In the BAT(+) group, animal protein intake was positively associated (p= 0.04), whereas the plant protein intake negatively correlated with BAT activity (p = 0.03). Additionally, the presence of BAT was inversely associated with BNP concentration in the 2 h of cold exposure (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The outcomes of our study suggest that different macronutrient consumption may be a new way to modulate BAT activity leading to weight reduction. Full article
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17 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Global, Regional, and National Burden of Protein–Energy Malnutrition: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
by Xu Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yuanchun Pu, Min Sun, Yan Zhao, Dan Zhang, Xin Wang, Yarui Li, Dan Guo and Shuixiang He
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132592 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
Background: Statistical data on the prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of protein–energy malnutrition are valuable for health resource planning and policy-making. We aimed to estimate protein–energy malnutrition burdens worldwide according to gender, age, and sociodemographic index (SDI) between 1990 and 2019. [...] Read more.
Background: Statistical data on the prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of protein–energy malnutrition are valuable for health resource planning and policy-making. We aimed to estimate protein–energy malnutrition burdens worldwide according to gender, age, and sociodemographic index (SDI) between 1990 and 2019. Methods: Detailed data on protein–energy malnutrition from 1990 to 2019 was extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database. The global prevalence, deaths, and DALYs attributable to protein–energy malnutrition and the corresponding age-standardized rates (ASRs) were analyzed. Results: In 2019, the global prevalence of protein–energy malnutrition increased to 14,767,275 cases. The age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR) showed an increasing trend between 1990 and 2019, while the age-standardized deaths rate (ASDR) and age-standardized DALYs rate presented a significantly decreasing trend in the same period. Meanwhile, there was a clearly ASPR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALYs rate downtrend of the prediction curve when the SDI went up. Conclusions: PEM still has a relatively serious disease burden in the world, especially in children and the elderly. At the same time, this phenomenon will be more obvious due to the aging of the world’s population. Effective prevention measures should be strengthened to continuously improve public health conditions. Full article
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17 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
Novel Soy Peptide CBP: Stimulation of Osteoblast Differentiation via TβRI-p38-MAPK-Depending RUNX2 Activation
by Kuaitian Wang, Xiao Kong, Mengdi Du, Wei Yu, Zhenhua Wang, Bo Xu, Jianrong Yang, Jingru Xu, Zhili Liu, Yongqiang Cheng and Jing Gan
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091940 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
DEDEQIPSHPPR, the calcium-binding peptide (CBP) identified in soy yogurt, was proven to be a potential cofactor in osteoporosis prevention in our previous study, but the mechanism was unknown. In this study, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN), the regulation of [...] Read more.
DEDEQIPSHPPR, the calcium-binding peptide (CBP) identified in soy yogurt, was proven to be a potential cofactor in osteoporosis prevention in our previous study, but the mechanism was unknown. In this study, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN), the regulation of RUNX2, and the expression of TβRI were investigated to elucidate the underlying mechanism. The results show that CBP upregulated ALP activity and OCN concentration and increased the expression of RUNX2 and the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Similarly, the expression of osteogenesis-related genes in osteoblasts also increased upon CBP treatment. Moreover, the CBP-induced enhancement of ALP activity and phosphorylation levels in the p38 pathway was inhibited by treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203538) and TβRI inhibitor (SB431542), respectively, suggesting that p38 and TβRI were involved in the osteogenic action. Based on the signaling pathways, the intracellular calcium concentration was significantly elevated by CBP, which was correlated with the increased behavioral functions and the relative fluorescence intensity of the bone mass. These findings suggest that CBP stimulates osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization through the activation of RUNX2 via mechanisms related to the TβRI-p38-MAPK signaling pathways, further highlighting CBP’s important potential for treating osteoporosis. Full article
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16 pages, 5673 KiB  
Article
Association between Protein Intake and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese Men and Women: A Longitudinal Study
by Jingjing He, Siwang Yu, Aiping Fang, Xin Shen and Keji Li
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061276 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the relationship between hypertension risk and protein intake in Chinese individuals. Our analysis included 7007 men and 7752 women from 9 China Health and Nutrition Survey waves (1991–2015). The main outcome was incident hypertension. Dietary intake was recorded [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between hypertension risk and protein intake in Chinese individuals. Our analysis included 7007 men and 7752 women from 9 China Health and Nutrition Survey waves (1991–2015). The main outcome was incident hypertension. Dietary intake was recorded using a combination of 3 consecutive 24-h recalls and a household food inventory survey. Energy-adjusted cumulative average intakes were analyzed, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were built. After 143,035 person-years of follow-up, 2586 and 2376 new male and female hypertension cases were identified, respectively. In multivariate-adjusted models with dietary protein intakes included as categorical variables, higher animal protein intake was associated with lower hypertension risk in women (p-trend = 0.01), whereas non-significant in men. Plant protein intake showed a significant positive correlation with hypertension risk, while non-significant for total protein. On a continuous scale, restricted cubic spline curves visually revealed L-, J-, and U-shaped associations between hypertension risk and animal-, plant-, and total-protein intakes, respectively, in both sexes (all p-nonlinearity < 0.0001). Our results suggest a beneficial association between intakes of animal, plant, and total proteins and hypertension risk at lower intake levels, and excessive intake of plant or total protein may increase the hypertension risk in the Chinese population. Full article
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12 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Natural Polysaccharide β-Glucan Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Suppressing Oxidative Stress
by Xuan Wang, Yuting Ji, Dekui Jin, Jingyi Qi, Xuening Hou, Wenting Zhao, Shuaishuai Zhou, Chengying Zhang, Yongting Luo, Peng An and Junjie Luo
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040906 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
Doxorubicin (DOXO) can be used to treat a variety of human tumors, but its clinical application is limited due to severe cardiotoxic side effect. Here, we explore the role of β-glucan in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and study its underlying mechanism. When [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (DOXO) can be used to treat a variety of human tumors, but its clinical application is limited due to severe cardiotoxic side effect. Here, we explore the role of β-glucan in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and study its underlying mechanism. When co-administered with DOXO, β-glucan was observed to prevent left ventricular dilation and fibrosis. In fact, DOXO reduces the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex and enhances oxidative stress, which in turn impairs heart function. DOXO decreases the ATP production capacity of the heart and increases the ROS content, while β-glucan can restore the heart capacity and reduce oxidative stress. β-glucan also increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-PX and SOD, and reduces the level of MDA in the serum. In addition, the mRNAs of cardiac dysfunction marker genes ANP, BNP and Myh7 were significantly increased after DOXO induction, however, they did not increase when combined with β-glucan administration. In conclusion, our results indicate that β-glucan can improve the antioxidant capacity of the heart, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Full article
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15 pages, 1442 KiB  
Article
Anthropometrics, Dietary Intake and Body Composition in Urea Cycle Disorders and Branched Chain Organic Acidemias: A Case Study of 18 Adults on Low-Protein Diets
by Giorgia Gugelmo, Livia Lenzini, Francesco Francini-Pesenti, Ilaria Fasan, Paolo Spinella, Romina Valentini, Angela Miraval, Angelo Avogaro and Nicola Vitturi
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030467 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Low-protein diets (LPDs) are the mainstream treatment for inborn errors of intermediary protein metabolism (IEIPM), but dietary management differs worldwide. Most studies have investigated pediatric populations and their goals such as growth and metabolic balance, showing a tendency toward increasing overweight and obesity. [...] Read more.
Low-protein diets (LPDs) are the mainstream treatment for inborn errors of intermediary protein metabolism (IEIPM), but dietary management differs worldwide. Most studies have investigated pediatric populations and their goals such as growth and metabolic balance, showing a tendency toward increasing overweight and obesity. Only a few studies have examined nutritional status and dietary intake of adult IEIPM patients on LPDs. We assessed nutritional parameters (dietary intake using a 7-day food diary record, body composition by bioimpedance analysis, and biochemical serum values) in a group of 18 adult patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) and branched chain organic acidemia (BCOA). Mean total protein intake was 0.61 ± 0.2 g/kg/day (73.5% of WHO Safe Levels) and mean natural protein (PN) intake was 0.54 ± 0.2 g/kg/day; 33.3% of patients consumed amino acid (AA) supplements. A totally of 39% of individuals presented a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2 and patients on AA supplements had a mean BMI indicative of overweight. All patients reported low physical activity levels. Total energy intake was 24.2 ± 5 kcal/kg/day, representing 72.1% of mean total energy expenditure estimated by predictive formulas. The protein energy ratio (P:E) was, on average, 2.22 g/100 kcal/day. Plasmatic levels of albumin, amino acids, and lipid profiles exhibited normal ranges. Phase angle (PA) was, on average, 6.0° ± 0.9°. Fat mass percentage (FM%) was 22% ± 9% in men and 36% ± 4% in women. FM% was inversely and significantly related to total and natural protein intake. Data from IEIPM adults on LPDs confirmed the pediatric trend of increasing overweight and obesity despite a low energy intake. A low protein intake may contribute to an increased fat mass. Nutritional parameters and a healthy lifestyle should be routinely assessed in order to optimize nutritional status and possibly reduce risk of cardiovascular degenerative diseases in adult UCD and BCOA patients on LPDs. Full article
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17 pages, 3212 KiB  
Article
Structural Studies of Water-Insoluble β-Glucan from Oat Bran and Its Effect on Improving Lipid Metabolism in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet
by Shoujuan Yu, Jun Wang, Yixuan Li, Xifan Wang, Fazheng Ren and Xiaoyu Wang
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093254 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Water-insoluble β-glucan has been reported to have beneficial effects on human health. However, no studies have thoroughly characterized the structure and function of water-insoluble β-glucan in oat bran. Thus, the structure and effect of water-insoluble β-glucan on weight gain and lipid metabolism in [...] Read more.
Water-insoluble β-glucan has been reported to have beneficial effects on human health. However, no studies have thoroughly characterized the structure and function of water-insoluble β-glucan in oat bran. Thus, the structure and effect of water-insoluble β-glucan on weight gain and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were analyzed. First, water-insoluble β-glucan was isolated and purified from oat bran. Compared with water-soluble β-glucan, water-insoluble β-glucan had higher DP3:DP4 molar ratio (2.12 and 1.67, respectively) and molecular weight (123,800 and 119,200 g/mol, respectively). Notably, water-insoluble β-glucan exhibited more fibrous sheet-like structure and greater swelling power than water-soluble β-glucan. Animal experiments have shown that oral administration of water-insoluble β-glucan tended to lower the final body weight of obese mice after 10 weeks treatment. In addition, water-insoluble β-glucan administration significantly improved the serum lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) and epididymal adipocytes size. What is more, water-insoluble β-glucan reduced the accumulation and accelerated the decomposition of lipid in liver. In conclusion, water-insoluble β-glucan (oat bran) could alleviate obesity in HFD-fed mice by improving blood lipid level and accelerating the decomposition of lipid. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

13 pages, 478 KiB  
Review
The Role and Mechanism of Polysaccharides in Anti-Aging
by Xinlu Guo, Junjie Luo, Jingyi Qi, Xiya Zhao, Peng An, Yongting Luo and Guisheng Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5330; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245330 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3370
Abstract
The elderly proportion of the population is gradually increasing, which poses a great burden to society, the economy, and the medical field. Aging is a physiological process involving multiple organs and numerous reactions, and therefore it is not easily explained or defined. At [...] Read more.
The elderly proportion of the population is gradually increasing, which poses a great burden to society, the economy, and the medical field. Aging is a physiological process involving multiple organs and numerous reactions, and therefore it is not easily explained or defined. At present, a growing number of studies are focused on the mechanisms of aging and potential strategies to delay aging. Some clinical drugs have been demonstrated to have anti-aging effects; however, many still have deficits with respect to safety and long-term use. Polysaccharides are natural and efficient biological macromolecules that act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, and immune regulators. Not surprisingly, these molecules have recently gained attention for their potential use in anti-aging therapies. In fact, multiple polysaccharides have been found to have excellent anti-aging effects in different animal models including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mice. The anti-aging qualities of polysaccharides have been linked to several mechanisms, such as improved antioxidant capacity, regulation of age-related gene expression, and improved immune function. Here, we summarize the current findings from research related to anti-aging polysaccharides based on various models, with a focus on the main anti-aging mechanisms of oxidative damage, age-related genes and pathways, immune modulation, and telomere attrition. This review aims to provide a reference for further research on anti-aging polysaccharides. Full article
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14 pages, 512 KiB  
Review
The Health Benefits of Egg Protein
by Michael J. Puglisi and Maria Luz Fernandez
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142904 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 19997
Abstract
Once the general public accepts that dietary cholesterol is not a concern for cardiovascular disease risk, foods that have been labeled as high-cholesterol sources, including eggs, may be appreciated for their various other dietary components. One of the nutrients in eggs that deserves [...] Read more.
Once the general public accepts that dietary cholesterol is not a concern for cardiovascular disease risk, foods that have been labeled as high-cholesterol sources, including eggs, may be appreciated for their various other dietary components. One of the nutrients in eggs that deserves further discussion is egg protein. Egg protein has been recognized to be highly digestible and an excellent source of essential amino acids, with the highest attainable protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score. Egg protein has been shown to decrease malnutrition in underdeveloped countries, possibly increase height in children, and protect against kwashiorkor. Egg protein has been demonstrated to be important to skeletal muscle health and protective against sarcopenia. Egg protein also can decrease appetite, resulting in a reduction in the caloric intake from the next meal and weight reduction. Other protective effects of egg protein addressed in this review include protection against infection as well as hypotensive and anti-cancer effects. Full article
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21 pages, 1169 KiB  
Review
The Regulatory Roles of Polysaccharides and Ferroptosis-Related Phytochemicals in Liver Diseases
by Yijing Ren, Siyue Li, Zixuan Song, Qiuping Luo, Yingying Zhang and Hao Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112303 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4194
Abstract
Liver disease is a global health burden with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Liver injuries can develop into severe end-stage diseases, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, without valid treatment. Therefore, identifying novel drugs may promote liver disease treatment. Phytochemicals, including polysaccharides, flavonoids, [...] Read more.
Liver disease is a global health burden with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Liver injuries can develop into severe end-stage diseases, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, without valid treatment. Therefore, identifying novel drugs may promote liver disease treatment. Phytochemicals, including polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenes, are abundant in foods and medicinal plants and have various bioactivities, such as antioxidation, immunoregulation, and tumor killing. Recent studies have shown that many natural polysaccharides play protective roles in liver disease models in vitro and in vivo, such as fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, drug-induced liver injury, and liver cancer. The mechanisms of liver disease are complex. Notably, ferroptosis, a new type of cell death driven by iron and lipid peroxidation, is considered to be the key mechanism in many hepatic pathologies. Therefore, polysaccharides and other types of phytochemicals with activities in ferroptosis regulation provide novel therapeutic strategies for ferroptosis-related liver diseases. This review summarizes our current understanding of the mechanisms of ferroptosis and liver injury and compelling preclinical evidence of natural bioactive polysaccharides and phytochemicals in treating liver disease. Full article
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Other

4 pages, 246 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Grant, W.B. Comment on “Coelho-Junior et al. Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2767”
by Hélio José Coelho-Junior, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Francesco Landi and Emanuele Marzetti
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4881; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224881 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
We recently conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between protein consumption and frailty in older adults [...] Full article
3 pages, 199 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Coelho-Junior et al. Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2767
by William B. Grant
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224879 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
The systematic review by Coelho-Junior et al. found that frail older adults consumed significantly less animal-derived protein than healthy people [...] Full article
16 pages, 3678 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Casein Hydrolysate on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Shuaishuai Zhou, Teng Xu, Xu Zhang, Junjie Luo, Peng An and Yongting Luo
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194207 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
Casein hydrolysate has various biological functional activities, especially prominent are angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities. Increasing evidence has reported the prominent hypotensive effect of casein hydrolysate. However, the effects of casein hydrolysate on cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear and require more comprehensive and [...] Read more.
Casein hydrolysate has various biological functional activities, especially prominent are angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities. Increasing evidence has reported the prominent hypotensive effect of casein hydrolysate. However, the effects of casein hydrolysate on cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear and require more comprehensive and detailed studies. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize the effects of casein hydrolysate supplementation on blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose. In the pooled analyses, casein hydrolysate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure by 3.20 mmHg (−4.53 to −1.87 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure by 1.50 mmHg (−2.31 to −0.69 mmHg). Supplementation of casein hydrolysate displayed no effect on total cholesterol (−0.07 mmol/L; −0.17 to 0.03 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.04 mmol/L; −0.15 to 0.08 mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.01 mmol/L; −0.06 to 0.03 mmol/L), triglycerides (−0.05 mmol/L, −0.14 to 0.05 mmol/L), or fasting blood glucose (−0.01 mmol/L; −0.10 to 0.09 mmol/L) compared with the placebo diets. Collectively, this study indicated that supplementation of casein hydrolysate displayed decreasing effect on blood pressure without affecting blood lipids or glycemic status. Full article
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13 pages, 2877 KiB  
Systematic Review
Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
by Hélio José Coelho-Junior, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Francesco Landi and Emanuele Marzetti
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132767 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4962
Abstract
Background: The present systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty [...] Read more.
Background: The present systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal cohort studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty as a primary or secondary outcome in people aged 60+ years were included. Studies published in languages other than English, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish were excluded. Studies were retrieved on 31 January 2022. Results: Twelve cross-sectional and five longitudinal studies that investigated 46,469 community-dwelling older adults were included. The meta-analysis indicated that absolute, bodyweight-adjusted, and percentage of protein relative to total energy consumption were not cross-sectionally associated with frailty. However, frail older adults consumed significantly less animal-derived protein than robust people. Finally, high protein consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of frailty. Conclusions: Our pooled analysis indicates that protein intake, whether absolute, adjusted, or relative to total energy intake, is not significantly associated with frailty in older adults. However, we observed that frail older adults consumed significantly less animal protein than their robust counterparts. Full article
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12 pages, 2325 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparative Effects between Oral Lactoferrin and Ferrous Sulfate Supplementation on Iron-Deficiency Anemia: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials
by Xiya Zhao, Xu Zhang, Teng Xu, Junjie Luo, Yongting Luo and Peng An
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030543 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5733
Abstract
Ferrous sulfate is a commonly used iron supplement for the correction of iron-deficiency anemia but with frequent gastrointestinal side effects. Milk-derived iron-binding glycoprotein lactoferrin possesses well gastrointestinal tolerance and fewer side effects caused by the intake of high-dose iron. However, the underlying mechanism [...] Read more.
Ferrous sulfate is a commonly used iron supplement for the correction of iron-deficiency anemia but with frequent gastrointestinal side effects. Milk-derived iron-binding glycoprotein lactoferrin possesses well gastrointestinal tolerance and fewer side effects caused by the intake of high-dose iron. However, the underlying mechanism of the iron-enhancing effect of lactoferrin remains unclear. In addition, the comparative efficacies between lactoferrin and ferrous sulfate are also remained to be determined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on published intervention studies to investigate how lactoferrin modulate iron metabolism and evaluate the comparative effects between lactoferrin and ferrous sulfate supplementation on iron absorption, iron storage, erythropoiesis and inflammation. Lactoferrin supplementation had better effects on serum iron (WMD: 41.44 ug/dL; p < 0.00001), ferritin (WMD: 13.60 ng/mL; p = 0.003) and hemoglobin concentration (11.80 g/dL; p < 0.00001), but a reducing effect on fractional iron absorption (WMD: −2.08%; p = 0.02) and IL-6 levels (WMD: −45.59 pg/mL; p < 0.00001) compared with ferrous sulfate. In conclusion, this study supports lactoferrin as a superior supplement to ferrous sulfate regarding the improvement in serum iron parameters and hemoglobin levels. Considering the weak influence of lactoferrin on iron absorption, the anti-inflammation effect of lactoferrin may be the potential mechanism to explain its efficacy on iron status and erythropoiesis. Full article
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