Special Issue "Nutrition and Vascular Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 4783

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Berend Isermann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Laboratory Medicine, University of Leipzig Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Interests: obesity; diabetes mellitus; vascular disease; endothelial cell; diabetic nephropathy; endoplasmic reticulum stress; mitochondria; coagulation protease signaling
Prof. Dr. Uta Ceglarek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Laboratory Medicine, University of Leipzig Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Interests: obesity; vascular disease; sterol and PUFA metabolism; metabolomics; proteomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ralph Burkhardt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
Interests: lipid and lipoprotein metabolism; triglycerides; dyslipidemia; atherosclerosis; cardiometabolic diesease; adipose tissue biology; obesity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vascular complications remain a life-limiting factor in obesity and associated diseases, such as dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Despite the remarkable progress made in the last three decades, we still lack efficient therapies to halt or even reverse vascular diseases associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. New approaches, such as high resolution lipidomics and proteomics and single-cell analyses, combined with new in silico approaches and analyses of large patient cohorts, provide new insights. Using such approaches, we are in the process of defining disease-resolving mechanisms and intra- and interorgan crosstalk as well as understanding disease priming during early life, including in utero disease priming. Such insights are expected to identify new therapeutic approaches. These aspects will be discussed during the XXII Lipid Meeting in Leipzig (9th to 11th of December 2021, www.lipidmeeting.de) and will also be addressed in this Special Issue of Nutrients.

Prof. Dr. Berend Isermann
Prof. Dr. Uta Ceglarek
Prof. Dr. Ralph Burkhardt
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Platelet lipidomics and vascular disease
  • Macrophage lipid metabolism
  • Single cell analyses in obesity and atherosclerosis
  • Disease resolution in atherosclerosis
  • New approaches to patient stratification
  • Lipids and fatty liver disease
  • Lipidomics in chronic diseases

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Influence of Trimethylamine N-Oxide on Platelet Activation
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163261 (registering DOI) - 10 Aug 2022
Abstract
Microbiome-derived trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been associated with platelet hyperreactivity and subsequent atherogenesis. Whether physiological TMAO-levels influence platelet-derived lipid mediators remains unknown. Little is known about pre-analytic factors potentially influencing TMAO concentrations. We aimed at developing a quantitative LC-MS/MS method to investigate [...] Read more.
Microbiome-derived trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been associated with platelet hyperreactivity and subsequent atherogenesis. Whether physiological TMAO-levels influence platelet-derived lipid mediators remains unknown. Little is known about pre-analytic factors potentially influencing TMAO concentrations. We aimed at developing a quantitative LC-MS/MS method to investigate in-vivo and in-vitro pre-analytical factors in TMAO analysis to properly assess the proposed activating effect of TMAO on platelets. TMAO, betaine, carnitine, and choline were analyzed by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS within 6 min total run time. Method validation included investigation of reproducibility, recovery, sensitivity, and in-vitro pre-analytical factors. A 24-h monitoring experiment was performed, evaluating in-vivo pre-analytical factors like daytime or diet. Finally, the effects of different TMAO concentrations on platelet activation and corresponding alterations of platelet-derived eicosanoid release were analyzed. The method showed high reproducibility (CVs ≤ 5.3%), good recovery rates (96–98%), and negligible in-vitro pre-analytical effects. The influence of in-vivo pre-analytical factors on TMAO levels was not observable within the applied experimental conditions. We did not find any correlation between TMAO levels and platelet activation at physiological TMAO concentrations, whereas platelet-derived eicosanoids presented activation of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. In contrast to previously published results, we did not find any indications regarding diet dependency or circadian rhythmicity of TMAO levels. Our results do not support the hypothesis that TMAO increases platelet responsiveness via the release of lipid-mediators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Activated Protein C Ameliorates Tubular Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammation in Diabetic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153138 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an emerging pandemic, paralleling the worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes mellitus. DKD is now the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease and is associated with an excessive risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. DKD is a [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an emerging pandemic, paralleling the worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes mellitus. DKD is now the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease and is associated with an excessive risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. DKD is a consequence of systemic endothelial dysfunction. The endothelial-dependent cytoprotective coagulation protease activated protein C (aPC) ameliorates glomerular damage in DKD, in part by reducing mitochondrial ROS generation in glomerular cells. Whether aPC reduces mitochondrial ROS generation in the tubular compartment remains unknown. Here, we conducted expression profiling of kidneys in diabetic mice (wild-type and mice with increased plasma levels of aPC, APChigh mice). The top induced pathways were related to metabolism and in particular to oxidoreductase activity. In tubular cells, aPC maintained the expression of genes related to the electron transport chain, PGC1-α expression, and mitochondrial mass. These effects were associated with reduced mitochondrial ROS generation. Likewise, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and sterile inflammation, which are known to be linked to excess ROS generation in DKD, were reduced in diabetic APChigh mice. Thus, aPC reduces mitochondrial ROS generation in tubular cells and dampens the associated renal sterile inflammation. These studies support approaches harnessing the cytoprotective effects of aPC in DKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
The Extent of Lifestyle-Induced Weight Loss Determines the Risk of Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Recurrence during a 5-Year Follow-Up
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153060 - 26 Jul 2022
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Abstract
It is controversial whether lifestyle-induced weight loss (LIWL) intervention provides long-term benefit. Here, we investigated whether the degree of weight loss (WL) in a controlled LIWL intervention study determined the risk of prediabetes and recurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) during a 5-year follow-up. [...] Read more.
It is controversial whether lifestyle-induced weight loss (LIWL) intervention provides long-term benefit. Here, we investigated whether the degree of weight loss (WL) in a controlled LIWL intervention study determined the risk of prediabetes and recurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) during a 5-year follow-up. Following LIWL, 58 male participants (age 45–55 years) were divided into four quartiles based on initial WL: Q1 (WL 0–8.1%, n = 15), Q2 (WL 8.1–12.8%, n = 14), Q3 (WL 12.8–16.0%, n = 14), and Q4 (WL 16.0–27.5%, n = 15). We analyzed changes in BMI, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at annual follow-up visits. With a weight gain after LIWL between 1.2 (Q2) and 2.5 kg/year (Q4), the reduction in BMI was maintained for 4 (Q2, p = 0.03) or 5 (Q3, p = 0.03; Q4, p < 0.01) years, respectively, and an increase in FPG levels above baseline values was prevented in Q2–Q4. Accordingly, there was no increase in prediabetes incidence after LIWL in participants in Q2 (up to 2 years), Q3 and Q4 (up to 5 years). A sustained reduction in MetS was maintained in Q4 during the 5-year follow-up. The present data indicate that a greater initial LIWL reduces the risk of prediabetes and recurrence of MetS for up to 5 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Dietary PUFA Preferably Modify Ethanolamine-Containing Glycerophospholipids of the Human Plasma Lipidome
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153055 - 26 Jul 2022
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Abstract
The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in complex lipids essentially influences their physicochemical properties and has been linked to health and disease. To investigate the incorporation of dietary PUFA in the human plasma lipidome, we quantified glycerophospholipids (GPL), sphingolipids, and sterols using [...] Read more.
The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in complex lipids essentially influences their physicochemical properties and has been linked to health and disease. To investigate the incorporation of dietary PUFA in the human plasma lipidome, we quantified glycerophospholipids (GPL), sphingolipids, and sterols using electrospray ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometry of plasma samples obtained from a dietary intervention study. Healthy individuals received foods supplemented with different vegetable oils rich in PUFA. These included sunflower, linseed, echium, and microalgae oil as sources of linoleic acid (LA; FA 18:2 n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; FA 18:3 n-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; FA 18:4 n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; FA 22:6 n-3). While LA and ALA did not influence the species profiles of GPL, sphingolipid, and cholesteryl ester drastically, SDA and DHA were integrated primarily in ethanolamine-containing GPL. This significantly altered phosphatidylethanolamine and plasmalogen species composition, especially those with 38–40 carbons and 6 double bonds. We speculate that diets enriched with highly unsaturated FA more efficiently alter plasma GPL acyl chain composition than those containing primarily di- and tri-unsaturated FA, most likely because of their more pronounced deviation of FA composition from typical western diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Promote NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Glomerular Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142965 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease largely due to lifestyle and nutritional imbalance, resulting in insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and vascular complications. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of end-stage renal failure contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapeutic options to prevent [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease largely due to lifestyle and nutritional imbalance, resulting in insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and vascular complications. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of end-stage renal failure contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapeutic options to prevent or reverse DKD progression are limited. Endothelial and glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) dysfunction and sterile inflammation are associated with DKD. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), originally identified as an innate immune mechanism to combat infection, have been implicated in sterile inflammatory responses in non-communicable diseases. However, the contribution of NETs in DKD remains unknown. Here, we show that biomarkers of NETs are increased in diabetic mice and diabetic patients and that these changes correlate with DKD severity. Mechanistically, NETs promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation and glomerular endothelial dysfunction under high glucose stress in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of NETs (PAD4 inhibitor) ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and renal injury in DKD. Taken together, NET-induced sterile inflammation promotes diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction, identifying a new pathomechanism contributing to DKD. Inhibition of NETs may be a promising therapeutic strategy in DKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
ER-Stress and Senescence Coordinately Promote Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction in Diabetes-Induced Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142786 - 06 Jul 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is hallmarked by accelerated atherosclerosis, a major cause of mortality among patients with diabetes. Efficient therapies for diabetes-associated atherosclerosis are absent. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic patients is associated with reduced endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) expression and impaired activated protein C (aPC) generation. [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is hallmarked by accelerated atherosclerosis, a major cause of mortality among patients with diabetes. Efficient therapies for diabetes-associated atherosclerosis are absent. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic patients is associated with reduced endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) expression and impaired activated protein C (aPC) generation. Here, we directly compared the effects of high glucose and oxidized LDL, revealing that high glucose induced more pronounced responses in regard to maladaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), senescence, and vascular endothelial cell barrier disruption. Ex vivo, diabetic ApoE−/− mice displayed increased levels of senescence and UPR markers within atherosclerotic lesions compared with nondiabetic ApoE−/− mice. Activated protein C pretreatment maintained barrier permeability and prevented glucose-induced expression of senescence and UPR markers in vitro. These data suggest that high glucose-induced maladaptive UPR and associated senescence promote vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, which—however—can be reversed by aPC. Taken together, current data suggest that reversal of glucose-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Simultaneous Mass Spectrometry-Based Apolipoprotein Profiling and Apolipoprotein E Phenotyping in Patients with ASCVD and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122474 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) occurs on the majority of plasma lipoproteins and plays a major role in the lipid metabolism in the periphery and in the central nervous system. ApoE is a polymorphic protein with three common isoforms, apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4, derived from [...] Read more.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) occurs on the majority of plasma lipoproteins and plays a major role in the lipid metabolism in the periphery and in the central nervous system. ApoE is a polymorphic protein with three common isoforms, apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4, derived from respective alleles ε2, ε3 and ε4. The aim of this study was to develop a sample pretreatment protocol combined with rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based assay for simultaneous apolipoprotein profiling and apoE phenotype identification. This assay was validated in 481 samples from patients with stable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and applied to study association with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the LIFE Adult study, including overall 690 study subjects. Simultaneous quantification of 8–12 major apolipoproteins including apoA-I, apoB-100 and apoE could be performed within 6.5 min. Phenotyping determined with the developed MS assay had good agreement with the genotyping by real-time fluorescence PCR (97.5%). ApoE2 isoform was associated with the highest total apoE concentration compared to apoE3 and apoE4 (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of diabetic atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients, apoE2 isoform was related to higher apoC-I levels (apoE2 vs. apoE3, p < 0.05), while in the subgroup of ASCVD patients under statin therapy apoE2 was related to lower apoB-100 levels (apoE2 vs. apoE3/apoE4, p < 0.05). A significant difference in apoE concentration observed between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and controls was confirmed for each apoE phenotype. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the successful implementation of an MS-based apoE phenotyping assay, which can be used to assess phenotype effects on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Hypercoagulability Impairs Plaque Stability in Diabetes-Induced Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14101991 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus, which is largely driven by nutritional and behavioral factors, is characterized by accelerated atherosclerosis with impaired plaque stability. Atherosclerosis and associated complications are the major cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Efficient therapeutic concepts for diabetes-associated atherosclerosis are lacking. Atherosclerosis among [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus, which is largely driven by nutritional and behavioral factors, is characterized by accelerated atherosclerosis with impaired plaque stability. Atherosclerosis and associated complications are the major cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Efficient therapeutic concepts for diabetes-associated atherosclerosis are lacking. Atherosclerosis among diabetic patients is associated with reduced endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) expression and impaired activated protein C (aPC) generation. Here, we demonstrate that atherosclerotic plaque stability is reduced in hyperglycemic mice expressing dysfunctional TM (TMPro/Pro mice), which have a pro-coagulant phenotype due to impaired thrombin inhibition and markedly reduced aPC generation. The vessel lumen and plaque size of atherosclerotic lesions in the truncus brachiocephalic were decreased in diabetic TMPro/Pro ApoE-/- mice compared to diabetic ApoE-/- mice. While lipid accumulation in lesions of diabetic TMPro/Pro ApoE-/- mice was lower than that in diabetic ApoE-/- mice, morphometric analyses revealed more prominent signs of instable plaques, such as a larger necrotic core area and decreased fibrous cap thickness in diabetic TMPro/Pro ApoE-/- mice. Congruently, more macrophages and fewer smooth muscle cells were observed within lesions of diabetic TMPro/Pro ApoE-/- mice. Thus, impaired TM function reduces plaque stability, a characteristic of hyperglycemia-associated plaques, thus suggesting the crucial role of impaired TM function in mediating diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Targeted Lipidomics for Characterization of PUFAs and Eicosanoids in Extracellular Vesicles
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071319 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Lipids are increasingly recognized as bioactive mediators of extracellular vesicle (EV) functions. However, while EV proteins and nucleic acids are well described, EV lipids are insufficiently understood due to lack of adequate quantitative methods. We adapted an established targeted and quantitative mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
Lipids are increasingly recognized as bioactive mediators of extracellular vesicle (EV) functions. However, while EV proteins and nucleic acids are well described, EV lipids are insufficiently understood due to lack of adequate quantitative methods. We adapted an established targeted and quantitative mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method originally developed for analysis of 94 eicosanoids and seven polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in human plasma. Additionally, the influence of freeze–thaw (FT) cycles, injection volume, and extraction solvent were investigated. The modified protocol was applied to lipidomic analysis of differently polarized macrophage-derived EVs. We successfully quantified three PUFAs and eight eicosanoids within EVs. Lipid extraction showed reproducible PUFA and eicosanoid patterns. We found a particularly high impact of FT cycles on EV lipid profiles, with significant reductions of up to 70%. Thus, repeated FT will markedly influence analytical results and may alter EV functions, emphasizing the importance of a standardized sample pretreatment protocol for the analysis of bioactive lipids in EVs. EV lipid profiles differed largely depending on the polarization of the originating macrophages. Particularly, we observed major changes in the arachidonic acid pathway. We emphasize the importance of a standardized sample pretreatment protocol for the analysis of bioactive lipids in EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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