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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January-1 2022) – 231 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures—collectively referred to as the 'exposome'—for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhythms, pollution, smoking, and gut microbiome) on immune function and inflammation, particularly in the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We highlight the potential role of 'exposome improvements' in the prevention—or amelioration, once established—of this disease as well as their effect on the response to vaccination. In light of the existing evidence, the promotion of a healthy exposome should be a cornerstone in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic and other eventual pandemics. View this paper
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Article
Curcumin Supplementation (Meriva®) Modulates Inflammation, Lipid Peroxidation and Gut Microbiota Composition in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010231 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3822
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjects suffer from high risk of cardiovascular mortality, and any intervention preventing the progression of CKD may have an enormous impact on public health. In the last decade, there has been growing awareness that the gut microbiota (GM) can [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjects suffer from high risk of cardiovascular mortality, and any intervention preventing the progression of CKD may have an enormous impact on public health. In the last decade, there has been growing awareness that the gut microbiota (GM) can play a pivotal role in controlling the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory state and CKD progression. To ameliorate the quality of life in CKD subjects, the use of dietary supplements has increased over time. Among those, curcumin has demonstrated significant in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. In this pilot study, 24 CKD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. CKD patients followed nutritional counselling and were supplemented with curcumin (Meriva®) for six months. Different parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 3–6 months: uremic toxins, metagenomic of GM, and nutritional, inflammatory, and oxidative status. Curcumin significantly reduced plasma pro-inflammatory mediators (CCL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-4) and lipid peroxidation. Regarding GM, after 6 months of curcumin supplementation, Escherichia-Shigella was significantly lower, while Lachnoclostridium was significant higher. Notably, at family level, Lactobacillaceae spp. were found significantly higher in the last 3 months of supplementation. No adverse events were observed in the supplemented group, confirming the good safety profile of curcumin phytosome after long-term administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota in Human Health and Diseases)
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Article
Labelling Assessment of Greek “Quality Label” Prepacked Cheeses as the Basis for a Branded Food Composition Database
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010230 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
A labelling assessment study of Greek prepacked “quality label” cheeses was conducted with a view to provide an overview of the whole category. In total, 158 prepacked products belonging to 19 “quality label” cheeses were identified in the Greek market. Among them, Feta [...] Read more.
A labelling assessment study of Greek prepacked “quality label” cheeses was conducted with a view to provide an overview of the whole category. In total, 158 prepacked products belonging to 19 “quality label” cheeses were identified in the Greek market. Among them, Feta had the highest share followed by Kasseri, Graviera Kritis, Kefalograviera and Ladotyri Mitilinis with 81, 16, 15, 11 and 9 products found in the market, respectively. For the rest of the 14 cheeses, the share was limited, ranging from 1 to 4. All labelling indications, nutritional information, claims and other labelling data were recorded and analysed in relation to their compliance against European food law requirements. The results of the analysis showed that for only 6 of the 19 cheeses, all products fully complied with EU labelling legislation. Among the 14 mandatory labelling requirements, the lowest overall compliance was observed for allergens declaration (65%). The analysis of the nutritional data showed a remarkable variability between cheeses and products. Differences in the nutritional characteristics were more pronounced among soft, semi-hard, hard and whey cheese. The above data were entered into an archival database. Application of global harmonisation and standardisation guidelines and tools lead to the initialisation of a branded food composition database (BFCD), conceptualising a specialised database for “quality label” foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Front of Pack Nutrition Label on Nutritional Behavior)
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Review
To Improve the Initial Inpatient Management of Adolescents Admitted with Severe Anorexia Nervosa: A Narrative Review and a Convenient Protocol
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010229 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Inadequate nutritional rehabilitation of severely malnourished adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) increases the risk of medical complications. There is no consensus on best practices for inpatient nutritional rehabilitation and medical stabilization for severe AN. This study aimed to elaborate an admission protocol for [...] Read more.
Inadequate nutritional rehabilitation of severely malnourished adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) increases the risk of medical complications. There is no consensus on best practices for inpatient nutritional rehabilitation and medical stabilization for severe AN. This study aimed to elaborate an admission protocol for adolescents with severe AN based on a comprehensive narrative review of current evidence. A Pubmed search was conducted in July 2017 and updated in August 2020, using the keywords severe AN or eating disorders (ED), management guidelines and adolescent. Relevant references cited in these guidelines were retrieved. A secondary search was conducted using AN or ED and refeeding protocol, refeeding syndrome (RS), hypophosphatemia, hypoglycemia, cardiac monitoring or cardiac complications. Evidence obtained was used to develop the admission protocol. Selective blood tests were proposed during the first three days of nutritional rehabilitation. Higher initial caloric intake is supported by evidence. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding was proposed for patients with a BMI < 12 kg/m2. We monitor hypoglycemia for 72 h. Continuous cardiac monitoring for bradycardia <30 BPM and systematic phosphate supplementation should be considered. Developing protocols is necessary to improve standardization of care. We provide an example of an inpatient admission protocol for adolescents with severe AN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management and Outcomes in Anorexia Nervosa)
Article
Effects of Loigolactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT 5711 on the Immune Response of Elderly Subjects to COVID-19 Vaccination: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010228 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Elderly people are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, with a high risk of developing severe disease and a reduced immune response to the COVID-19 vaccine. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of the consumption of the probiotic Loigolactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT [...] Read more.
Elderly people are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, with a high risk of developing severe disease and a reduced immune response to the COVID-19 vaccine. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of the consumption of the probiotic Loigolactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT 5711 on the immune response generated by the COVID-19 vaccine in an elderly population was performed. Two hundred nursing home residents >60 yrs that had not COVID-19 were randomized to receive L. coryniformis K8 or a placebo daily for 3 months. All volunteers received a complete vaccination schedule of a mRNA vaccine, starting the intervention ten days after the first dose. Specific IgG and IgA antibody levels were analyzed 56 days after the end of the immunization process. No differences between the groups were observed in the antibody levels. During the intervention, 19 subjects had COVID-19 (11 receiving K8 vs. 8 receiving placebo, p = 0.457). Subgroup analysis in these patients showed that levels of IgG were significantly higher in those receiving K8 compared to placebo (p = 0.038). Among subjects >85 yrs that did not get COVID-19, administration of K8 tended to increase the IgA levels (p = 0.082). The administration of K8 may enhance the specific immune response against COVID-19 and may improve the COVID-19 vaccine-specific responses in elderly populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lactobacillus and Probiotics in Human Health and Diseases)
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Article
Protective Effect of Probiotics Isolated from Traditional Fermented Tea Leaves (Miang) from Northern Thailand and Role of Synbiotics in Ameliorating Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010227 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of probiotics and synbiotics from traditional Thai fermented tea leaves (Miang) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, in comparison to sulfasalazine. C57BL/6 mice were treated with probiotics L. pentosus A14-6, CMY46 and synbiotics, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of probiotics and synbiotics from traditional Thai fermented tea leaves (Miang) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, in comparison to sulfasalazine. C57BL/6 mice were treated with probiotics L. pentosus A14-6, CMY46 and synbiotics, L. pentosus A14-6 combined with XOS, and L. pentosus CMY46 combined with GOS for 21 days. Colitis was induced with 2% DSS administration for seven days during the last seven days of the experimental period. The positive group was treated with sulfasalazine. At the end of the experiment, clinical symptoms, pathohistological changes, intestinal barrier integrity, and inflammatory markers were analyzed. The probiotics and synbiotics from Miang ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by protecting body weight loss, decreasing disease activity index, restoring the colon length, and reducing pathohistological damages. Furthermore, treatment with probiotics and synbiotics improved intestinal barrier integrity, accompanied by lowing colonic and systemic inflammation. In addition, synbiotics CMY46 combined with GOS remarkedly elevated the expression of IL-10. These results suggested that synbiotics isolated from Miang had more effectiveness than sulfasalazine. Thereby, they could represent a novel potential natural agent against colonic inflammation. Full article
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Article
Serum Leptin Levels, Nutritional Status, and the Risk of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Hospitalized Older Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010226 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
We aimed to determine whether serum leptin levels are predictive of the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitalized older patients. In a prospective cohort, 232 patients had available data for leptin and were monitored for HAIs for 3 months. Admission data included [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine whether serum leptin levels are predictive of the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitalized older patients. In a prospective cohort, 232 patients had available data for leptin and were monitored for HAIs for 3 months. Admission data included comorbidities, invasive procedures, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), BMI, leptin, albumin and C-reactive protein levels, and CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to identify predictors of HAIs. Of the 232 patients (median age: 84.8; females: 72.4%), 89 (38.4%) experienced HAIs. The leptin level was associated with the BMI (p < 0.0001) and MNA (p < 0.0001) categories. Women who experienced HAIs had significantly lower leptin levels than those who did not (5.9 μg/L (2.6–17.7) and 11.8 (4.6–26.3), respectively; p = 0.01; odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval): 0.67 (0.49–0.90)); no such association was observed for men. In a multivariate analysis of the women, a lower leptin level was significantly associated with HAIs (OR = 0.70 (0.49–0.97)), independently of comorbidities, invasive medical procedures, and immune status. However, leptin was not significantly associated with HAIs after adjustments for malnutrition (p = 0.26) or albuminemia (p = 0.15)—suggesting that in older women, the association between serum leptin levels and subsequent HAIs is mediated by nutritional status. Full article
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Systematic Review
Can Feeding a Millet-Based Diet Improve the Growth of Children?—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010225 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2681
Abstract
Undernutrition, such as stunting and underweight, is a major public health concern, which requires multi-sectoral attention. Diet plays a key role in growth and should optimally supply all required nutrients to support the growth. While millets (defined broadly to include sorghum) are traditional [...] Read more.
Undernutrition, such as stunting and underweight, is a major public health concern, which requires multi-sectoral attention. Diet plays a key role in growth and should optimally supply all required nutrients to support the growth. While millets (defined broadly to include sorghum) are traditional foods, and climate smart nutritious crops, which are grown across Africa and Asia, they have not been mainstreamed like rice, wheat, and maize. Diversifying staples with millets can potentially provide more macro and micro nutrients, compared to the mainstream crops. However, there is little known scientific evidence to prove millets’ efficacy on growth. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate evidence of the benefits of millets in improving the growth of children. Eight eligible randomized feeding trials were included in the meta-analysis. Results from the randomized effect model showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) of millet-based diets on mean height (+28.2%) (n = 8), weight (n = 9) (+26%), mid upper arm circumference (n = 5) (+39%) and chest circumference (n = 5) (+37%) in comparison to regular rice-based diets over for the period of 3 months to 4.5 years, which was based on largely substituting rice with millets. When an enhanced and diverse diet was served, replacing rice with millet had only minimal growth improvement on chest circumference (p < 0.05). The quality assessment using GRADE shows that the evidence used for this systematic review and meta-analysis had moderate quality, based on eight scoring criteria. These results demonstrate the value of adding millet as the staple for undernourished communities. Further understanding of the efficacy of millets on growth in a wider range of diets is important to develop appropriate dietary programs and improve the nutritional status of various age groups across Africa and Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Review
Iron Status, Anemia, and Iron Interventions and Their Associations with Cognitive and Academic Performance in Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010224 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
In adolescents, iron-deficiency anemia is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost. The World Health Organization recommends delivering iron supplementation through school-based platforms, requiring partnerships with the education sector. This anemia-reduction intervention is valued for the perceived benefits of improved learning and [...] Read more.
In adolescents, iron-deficiency anemia is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost. The World Health Organization recommends delivering iron supplementation through school-based platforms, requiring partnerships with the education sector. This anemia-reduction intervention is valued for the perceived benefits of improved learning and school performance. This article aims to systematically review the available evidence on the relationship between iron status and anemia and impacts of iron interventions on cognitive and academic performance in adolescents. Fifty studies were included: n = 26 cross-sectional and n = 24 iron-containing interventions. Our review suggests that iron status and anemia may be associated with academic performance in some contexts and that iron supplementation during adolescence may improve school performance, attention, and concentration. However, nearly all supplementation trials were judged to have moderate or high risk of bias. We did not find evidence suggesting that iron status and anemia influenced or were associated with attention, intelligence, nor memory in adolescents. Further, iron supplementation did not improve memory and recall or intelligence. Overall, more high-quality research is needed to guide programmers and policy makers to understand the relationships between anemia and educational performance and the potential impacts of iron interventions, which effectively reduce anemia, on adolescents’ learning and school performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation)
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Article
Predictors of Post-Exercise Energy Intake in Adolescents Ranging in Weight Status from Overweight to Severe Obesity
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010223 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Exercise may sensitize individuals with overweight and obesity to appetitive signals (e.g., hunger and fullness cues), overriding trait eating behaviors that contribute to overeating and obesity, such as uncontrolled eating. The objective of the current study was to measure predictors of objective ad [...] Read more.
Exercise may sensitize individuals with overweight and obesity to appetitive signals (e.g., hunger and fullness cues), overriding trait eating behaviors that contribute to overeating and obesity, such as uncontrolled eating. The objective of the current study was to measure predictors of objective ad libitum energy intake at a laboratory-based, post-exercise test-meal in adolescents ranging in weight status from overweight to severe obesity. We hypothesized that appetitive states, rather than appetitive traits, would be the strongest predictors of energy intake at a post-exercise test-meal, after controlling for body size. At Baseline, 30 adolescents (ages 10–16 years, 50% female (F), 43% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 83% with obesity (OB)) completed state and trait appetite measures and an ad libitum dinner meal following intensive exercise. Nineteen of those participants (47% F, 32% NHW, 79% OB) completed identical assessments two years later (Year 2). Energy intake (kcal) at each time point was adjusted for fat-free mass index (i.e., body size). Adjusted energy intake was reliable from Baseline to Year 2 (ICC = 0.84). Multiple pre-meal appetite ratings were associated with test-meal energy intake. In stepwise linear regression models, pre-meal prospective food consumption was the strongest and only significant predictor of test-meal energy intake at both Baseline (R2 = 0.25, p = 0.005) and Year 2 (R2 = 0.41, p = 0.003). Baseline post-exercise energy intake was associated with weight change over two years (R2 = 0.24, p = 0.04), but not with change in fat mass (p = 0.11). Appetitive traits were not associated with weight or body composition change (p > 0.22). State appetite cues were the strongest predictors of post-exercise energy intake, independent of body size. Future studies should examine whether long-term exercise programs enhance responsiveness to homeostatic appetite signals in youth with overweight and obesity, with a goal to reduce excess energy intake and risk for weight gain over time. Full article
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Article
Postoperative Dietary Intake Achievement: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010222 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Sufficient postoperative dietary intake is crucial for ensuring a better surgical outcome. This study aimed to investigate the postoperative dietary intake achievement and predictors of postoperative dietary intake among gynecologic cancer patients. A total of 118 participants were included in this secondary analysis. [...] Read more.
Sufficient postoperative dietary intake is crucial for ensuring a better surgical outcome. This study aimed to investigate the postoperative dietary intake achievement and predictors of postoperative dietary intake among gynecologic cancer patients. A total of 118 participants were included in this secondary analysis. Postoperative dietary data was pooled and re-classified into early postoperative dietary intake achievement (EDIA) (daily energy intake (DEI) ≥ 75% from the estimated energy requirement (EER)) and delay dietary intake achievement (DDIA) (DEI < 75% EER) There was a significant difference in postoperative changes in weight (p = 0.002), muscle mass (p = 0.018), and handgrip strength (p = 0.010) between the groups. Postoperative daily energy and protein intake in the EDIA was significantly greater than DDIA from operation day to discharged (p = 0.000 and p = 0.036). Four significant independent postoperative dietary intake predictors were found: preoperative whey protein-infused carbohydrate loading (p = 0.000), postoperative nausea vomiting (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.010), and time to tolerate clear fluid (p = 0.016). The multilinear regression model significantly predicted postoperative dietary intake, F (4, 116) = 68.013, p = 0.000, adj. R2 = 0.698. With the four predictors’ recognition, the integration of a more specific and comprehensive dietitian-led supportive care with individualized nutrition intervention ought to be considered to promote functional recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Perioperative Nutrition Support in Postoperative Recovery)
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Reproducibility Study of a Standard Camera Sensor Using Artificial Intelligence to Assess Food Items: The FoodIntech Project
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010221 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
Having a system to measure food consumption is important to establish whether individual nutritional needs are being met in order to act quickly and to minimize the risk of undernutrition. Here, we tested a smartphone-based food consumption assessment system named FoodIntech. FoodIntech, which [...] Read more.
Having a system to measure food consumption is important to establish whether individual nutritional needs are being met in order to act quickly and to minimize the risk of undernutrition. Here, we tested a smartphone-based food consumption assessment system named FoodIntech. FoodIntech, which is based on AI using deep neural networks (DNN), automatically recognizes food items and dishes and calculates food leftovers using an image-based approach, i.e., it does not require human intervention to assess food consumption. This method uses one-input and one-output images by means of the detection and synchronization of a QRcode located on the meal tray. The DNN are then used to process the images and implement food detection, segmentation and recognition. Overall, 22,544 situations analyzed from 149 dishes were used to test the reliability of this method. The reliability of the AI results, based on the central intra-class correlation coefficient values, appeared to be excellent for 39% of the dishes (n = 58 dishes) and good for 19% (n = 28). The implementation of this method is an effective way to improve the recognition of dishes and it is possible, with a sufficient number of photos, to extend the capabilities of the tool to new dishes and foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Flower Water Extract Disrupts the Cecal Microbiome, Brush Border Membrane Functionality, and Morphology In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010220 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is known as the most expensive spice. C. sativus dried red stigmas, called threads, are used for culinary, cosmetic, and medicinal purposes. The rest of the flower is often discarded, but is now being used in teas, as [...] Read more.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is known as the most expensive spice. C. sativus dried red stigmas, called threads, are used for culinary, cosmetic, and medicinal purposes. The rest of the flower is often discarded, but is now being used in teas, as coloring agents, and fodder. Previous studies have attributed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-depressant, and anticancer properties to C. sativus floral bio-residues. The aim of this study is to assess C. sativus flower water extract (CFWE) for its effects on hemoglobin, brush boarder membrane (BBM) functionality, morphology, intestinal gene expression, and cecal microbiome in vivo (Gallus gallus), a clinically validated model. For this, Gallus gallus eggs were divided into six treatment groups (non-injected, 18 Ω H2O, 1% CFWE, 2% CFWE, 5% CFWE, and 10% CFWE) with n~10 for each group. On day 17 of incubation, 1 mL of the extracts/control were administered in the amnion of the eggs. The amniotic fluid along with the administered extracts are orally consumed by the developing embryo over the course of the next few days. On day 21, the hatchlings were euthanized, the blood, duodenum, and cecum were harvested for assessment. The results showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in hemoglobin concentration, villus surface area, goblet cell number, and diameter. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in Paneth cell number and Mucin 2 (MUC2) gene expression proportional to the increase in CFWE concentration. Additionally, the cecum microbiome analysis revealed C. sativus flower water extract altered the bacterial populations. There was a significant dose-dependent reduction in Lactobacillus and Clostridium sp., suggesting an antibacterial effect of the extract on the gut in the given model. These results suggest that the dietary consumption of C. sativus flower may have negative effects on BBM functionality, morphology, mineral absorption, microbial populations, and iron status. Full article
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Communication
High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Human Milk Increases Apelin and GLP-1 Contents to Modulate Gut Contraction and Glucose Metabolism in Mice Compared to Holder Pasteurization
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010219 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Background: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is a non-thermal method proposed as an alternative to Holder pasteurization (HoP) for the sterilization of human breast milk (BM). HHP preserves numerous milk bioactive factors that are degraded by HoP, but no data are available for [...] Read more.
Background: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is a non-thermal method proposed as an alternative to Holder pasteurization (HoP) for the sterilization of human breast milk (BM). HHP preserves numerous milk bioactive factors that are degraded by HoP, but no data are available for milk apelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), two hormones implicated in the control of glucose metabolism directly and via the gut–brain axis. This study aims to determine the effects of HoP and HHP processing on apelin and GLP-1 concentrations in BM and to test the effect of oral treatments with HoP- and HHP-BM on intestinal contractions and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Methods: Mice were treated by daily oral gavages with HoP- or HHP-BM during one week before intestinal contractions, and glucose tolerance was assessed. mRNA expression of enteric neuronal enzymes known to control intestinal contraction was measured. Results: HoP-BM displayed a reduced concentration of apelin and GLP-1, whereas HHP processing preserved these hormones close to their initial levels in raw milk. Chronic HHP-BM administration to mice increased ileal mRNA nNos expression level leading to a decrease in gut contraction associated with improved glucose tolerance. Conclusion: In comparison to HoP, HPP processing of BM preserves both apelin and GLP-1 and improves glucose tolerance by acting on gut contractions. This study reinforces previous findings demonstrating that HHP processing provides BM with a higher biological value than BM treated by HoP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding in Preterm Infants)
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Article
Anxiolytic Effect and Improved Sleep Quality in Individuals Taking Lippia citriodora Extract
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010218 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
The current fast-moving, hectic lifestyle has increased the number of individuals worldwide with difficulties in managing stress, which in turn is also affecting their sleep quality. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to assess a natural plant-based dietary supplement comprised of [...] Read more.
The current fast-moving, hectic lifestyle has increased the number of individuals worldwide with difficulties in managing stress, which in turn is also affecting their sleep quality. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to assess a natural plant-based dietary supplement comprised of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) extract, purified in phenylpropanoids, in alleviating stress and improving quality of sleep. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week washout period. Both validated questionnaires and functional tests were performed during the study, whereas questionnaires were used after the washout. As a result, the group taking the lemon verbena extract significantly reduced their perception of stress after 8 weeks, which was corroborated by a significant decrease in cortisol levels. After the washout period, the subjects reported to present even lower stress levels, due to the lasting effect of the ingredient. As for sleep quality, the subjects taking the supplement reported feeling better rested, with a stronger effect observed in women. Sleep tracking using a wearable device revealed that the supplement users improved their times in the deeper stages of sleep, specifically their percentage of time in deep sleep and REM. In conclusion, lemon verbena extract purified in phenylpropanoids is revealed as a natural solution to help individuals to improve their stress and sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Sleep: The Towers of Lifestyle, Wellness, and Survival)
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Article
IBF-R Regulates IRE1α Post-Translational Modifications and ER Stress in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010217 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Obesity is a global health issue linked to the heightened risk of several chronic diseases. Rhus verniciflua (RV) is a traditional food supplement used for a range of pharmacological effects such as antitumor, antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory effects, hepatitis, and arthritis. Despite the traditional [...] Read more.
Obesity is a global health issue linked to the heightened risk of several chronic diseases. Rhus verniciflua (RV) is a traditional food supplement used for a range of pharmacological effects such as antitumor, antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory effects, hepatitis, and arthritis. Despite the traditional medicinal values, scientific evidence for its application in obesity is inadequate and unclear. Thus, this investigation was designed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of IBF-R, an RV extract, using a high-fat diet (HFD) model. The study has six groups: chow diet group; chow diet with 80 mg/kg IBF-R; HFD group; IBF-R group with 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. IBF-R supplementation significantly regulated the weight gain than the HFD fed mice. Further, IBF-R supplementation lowered the expressions of adipogenic transcription factors such as SREBP-1c, C/EBPα, FAS, and PPAR-γ in white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice. In addition, IBF-R supplementation reduced the lipogenic gene expression while enhancing genes was related to fatty acid oxidation. Obesity is linked to redox-based post-translational modifications (PTMs) of IRE1α such as S-nitrosylation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and chronic metabolic inflammation. The administration of IBF-R inhibits these PTMs. Notably, IBF-R administration significantly enhanced the expression of AMPK and sirtuin 1 in WAT of HFD-fed mice. Together, these findings reveal the IRE1α S-nitrosylation-inflammation axis as a novel mechanism behind the positive implications of IBF-R on obesity. In addition, it lays a firm foundation for the development of Rhus verniciflua extract as a functional ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Article
Acceptability of Plant-Based Diets for People with Chronic Kidney Disease: Perspectives of Renal Dietitians
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010216 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the perspective of renal dietitians regarding plant-based diets for chronic kidney disease (CKD) management and evaluate the acceptability of a hypothetical plant-based dietary prescription aiming for the consumption of 30 unique plant foods per week. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the perspective of renal dietitians regarding plant-based diets for chronic kidney disease (CKD) management and evaluate the acceptability of a hypothetical plant-based dietary prescription aiming for the consumption of 30 unique plant foods per week. This study used an exploratory mixed methods design. Forty-six renal dietitians participated in either an online survey (n = 35) or an in-depth interview (n = 11). Dietitians perceived that plant-based diets could address multiple clinical concerns relevant to CKD. Forty percent of survey respondents reported the hypothetical dietary prescription was realistic for people with CKD, 34.3% were unsure, and 25.7% perceived it as unrealistic. Strengths of the hypothetical prescription included shifting the focus to whole foods and using practical resources like recipes. Limited staffing, time, and follow-up opportunities with patients, as well as differing nutrition philosophies were the most commonly reported challenges to implementation; while a supportive multidisciplinary team was identified as an important enabler. To increase patient acceptance of plant-based dietary approaches, education about plant food benefits was recommended, as was implementing small, incremental dietary changes. Successful implementation of plant-based diets is perceived to require frequent patient contact and ongoing education and support by a dietitian. Buy-in from the multidisciplinary team was also considered imperative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Diets: Working towards a Sustainable Future)
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Article
The Cost-Effectiveness of Supplemental Carnosine in Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010215 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
In this paper, we assess the cost-effectiveness of 1 g daily of carnosine (an over the counter supplement) in addition to standard care for the management of type 2 diabetes and compare it to standard care alone. Dynamic multistate life table models were [...] Read more.
In this paper, we assess the cost-effectiveness of 1 g daily of carnosine (an over the counter supplement) in addition to standard care for the management of type 2 diabetes and compare it to standard care alone. Dynamic multistate life table models were constructed in order to estimate both clinical outcomes and costs of Australians aged 18 years and above with and without type 2 diabetes over a ten-year period, 2020 to 2029. The dynamic nature of the model allowed for population change over time (migration and deaths) and accounted for the development of new cases of diabetes. The three health states were ‘Alive without type 2 diabetes’, ‘Alive with type 2 diabetes’ and ‘Dead’. Transition probabilities, costs, and utilities were obtained from published sources. The main outcome of interest was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of cost per year of life saved (YoLS) and cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Over the ten-year period, the addition of carnosine to standard care treatment resulted in ICERs (discounted) of AUD 34,836 per YoLS and AUD 43,270 per QALY gained. Assuming the commonly accepted willingness to pay threshold of AUD 50,000 per QALY gained, supplemental dietary carnosine may be a cost-effective treatment option for people with type 2 diabetes in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of the Serum Metabolic Signature of Childhood Obesity
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010214 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Obesity rates among children are growing rapidly worldwide, placing massive pressure on healthcare systems. Untargeted metabolomics can expand our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity and elucidate mechanisms related to its symptoms. However, the metabolic signatures of obesity in children have not been [...] Read more.
Obesity rates among children are growing rapidly worldwide, placing massive pressure on healthcare systems. Untargeted metabolomics can expand our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity and elucidate mechanisms related to its symptoms. However, the metabolic signatures of obesity in children have not been thoroughly investigated. Herein, we explored metabolites associated with obesity development in childhood. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was performed on fasting serum samples from 27 obese Caucasian children and adolescents and 15 sex- and age-matched normal-weight children. Three metabolomic assays were combined and yielded 726 unique identified metabolites: gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC LC–MS/MS), and lipidomics. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed clear discrimination between the untargeted metabolomes of obese and normal-weight children, with 162 significantly differentially expressed metabolites between groups. Children with obesity had higher concentrations of branch-chained amino acids and various lipid metabolites, including phosphatidylcholines, cholesteryl esters, triglycerides. Thus, an early manifestation of obesity pathogenesis and its metabolic consequences in the serum metabolome are correlated with altered lipid metabolism. Obesity metabolite patterns in the adult population were very similar to the metabolic signature of childhood obesity. Identified metabolites could be potential biomarkers and used to study obesity pathomechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Nutritional Exposure and Nutritional Status)
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Article
Influence of a Nutrigenetic Intervention on Self-Efficacy, Emotions, and Rewarding Behaviors in Unhealthy Eating among Mexicans: An Exploratory Pilot Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010213 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
The Genome-based Mexican (GENOMEX) diet is a strategy for preventing and managing obesity. Emotion and eating behavior in the context of a nutrigenetic intervention have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to explore the influence of the GENOMEX diet on emotions, self-efficacy, and [...] Read more.
The Genome-based Mexican (GENOMEX) diet is a strategy for preventing and managing obesity. Emotion and eating behavior in the context of a nutrigenetic intervention have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to explore the influence of the GENOMEX diet on emotions, self-efficacy, and rewarding behaviors in unhealthy eating among subjects with risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases. Twenty-eight subjects included in the six-month GENOMEX intervention answered questions regarding emotions that influence food consumption. Additionally, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Reward-based eating drive scale (RED) were applied. In the study, minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression were present in 46.4%, 39.3%, 10.7%, and 3.6%, respectively. RED did not change, but it correlated with a higher intake of fats (r2 = 0.684, β = 2.066, p = 0.003). Mood influenced unhealthy eating in 71.7% of subjects, and 76.9% experienced binge episodes triggered by anxiety. Sugars were the most consumed foods during binge episodes (42.2%). Both low self-efficacy levels and binge episodes were associated with high consumption of unhealthy foods. After the intervention, 10.7% of subjects reported a high level of self-efficacy. In conclusion, a culturally acceptable and genetically compatible regional Mexican food diet reduced negative emotions and unhealthy eating while increasing self-efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
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Review
Interactions between Food and Drugs, and Nutritional Status in Renal Patients: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010212 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Drugs and food interact mutually: drugs may affect the nutritional status of the body, acting on senses, appetite, resting energy expenditure, and food intake; conversely, food or one of its components may affect bioavailability and half-life, circulating plasma concentrations of drugs resulting in [...] Read more.
Drugs and food interact mutually: drugs may affect the nutritional status of the body, acting on senses, appetite, resting energy expenditure, and food intake; conversely, food or one of its components may affect bioavailability and half-life, circulating plasma concentrations of drugs resulting in an increased risk of toxicity and its adverse effects, or therapeutic failure. Therefore, the knowledge of these possible interactions is fundamental for the implementation of a nutritional treatment in the presence of a pharmacological therapy. This is the case of chronic kidney disease (CKD), for which the medication burden could be a problem, and nutritional therapy plays an important role in the patient’s treatment. The aim of this paper was to review the interactions that take place between drugs and foods that can potentially be used in renal patients, and the changes in nutritional status induced by drugs. A proper definition of the amount of food/nutrient intake, an adequate definition of the timing of meal consumption, and a proper adjustment of the drug dosing schedule may avoid these interactions, safeguarding the quality of life of the patients and guaranteeing the effectiveness of drug therapy. Hence, a close collaboration between the nephrologist, the renal dietitian, and the patient is crucial. Dietitians should consider that food may interact with drugs and that drugs may affect nutritional status, in order to provide the patient with proper dietary suggestions, and to allow the maximum effectiveness and safety of drug therapy, while preserving/correcting the nutritional status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach for Patients with Advanced CKD)
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Article
Higher Iron Intake Is Independently Associated with Obesity in Younger Japanese Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010211 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 750
Abstract
We aimed to analyze the association between dietary iron intake and obesity assessed by BMI after adjustment for nutrient intake (macronutrients and fiber) and food groups. The study design was cross-sectional. Patients with type-2 diabetes (n = 1567; 63.1% males; mean age [...] Read more.
We aimed to analyze the association between dietary iron intake and obesity assessed by BMI after adjustment for nutrient intake (macronutrients and fiber) and food groups. The study design was cross-sectional. Patients with type-2 diabetes (n = 1567; 63.1% males; mean age 62.3 ± 11.6 years) were included in the study. To assess diet, consumption of typical food groups was determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. We performed a binary regression analysis between quartiles of iron intake and obesity by quartiles of age group. A direct linear association was found for the highest quartile of iron intake and obesity in the younger age group of 30 to 54 years (OR = 3.641, 95% CI = 1.020–12.990; p trend = 0.011). Multivariate analysis using food groups as opposed to nutrients revealed a positive trend for obesity in the younger age group after adjusting for lifestyle factors, energy intake and bean and vegetable intake (p trend = 0.023). In all participants, an inverse association was observed before adjustment by vegetable intake (OR = 0.453, 95% CI = 0.300–0.684; p trend = 0.001). Higher iron intake was associated with obesity independent of macronutrient and fiber intake but only in the youngest quartile of age group examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Properties, Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Absorption of Sea Fennel (Crithmum maritimum) Extract Encapsulated in Soy Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010210 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
A sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum) aqueous extract was prepared and loaded into soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomes. Both the free extract (FE), and the empty (L) and loaded (L-FE) liposomes were shown to be non-cytotoxic to THP-1 and Caco-2 cells. The anti-inflammatory effect [...] Read more.
A sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum) aqueous extract was prepared and loaded into soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomes. Both the free extract (FE), and the empty (L) and loaded (L-FE) liposomes were shown to be non-cytotoxic to THP-1 and Caco-2 cells. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested on THP-1 cells differentiated into macrophages. FE showed anti-inflammatory activity, revealed by the induced secretion of IL-10 cytokines in macrophages that were subsequently stimulated with LPS. Also, a decrease in TNF-α production by L was observed, evidencing that liposomes reduced the pro-inflammatory mediators’ secretion. The liposomes (L) showed protective anti-inflammatory activity and also were able to downregulate the inflammation. Furthermore, L-FE were also found to downregulate the inflammation response, as they were able to decrease TNF-α secretion in macrophages previously exposed to LPS. The simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GID) of FE diminished the chlorogenic acid content (the main polyphenolic compound of the extract) by 40%, while in L-FE, the amount of this phenolic compound increased with respect to the undigested liposomes. The amount of bioaccessible chlorogenic, however, was similar for FE and L-FE. The percentage of chlorogenic acid absorbed through a Caco-2 cell monolayer after 3 h of incubation, was significantly similar for the extract and the liposomes (~1.5%), without finding significant differences once the extract and liposomes were digested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Review
Behaviour Change Techniques in Weight Gain Prevention Interventions in Adults of Reproductive Age: Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010209 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Weight gain prevention interventions are likely to be more effective with the inclusion of behaviour change techniques. However, evidence on which behaviour change techniques (BCT) are most effective for preventing weight gain and improving lifestyle (diet and physical activity) is limited, especially in [...] Read more.
Weight gain prevention interventions are likely to be more effective with the inclusion of behaviour change techniques. However, evidence on which behaviour change techniques (BCT) are most effective for preventing weight gain and improving lifestyle (diet and physical activity) is limited, especially in reproductive-aged adults. This meta-analysis and meta-regression aimed to identify BCT associated with changes in weight, energy intake and physical activity in reproductive-aged adults. BCT were identified using the BCT Taxonomy (v1) from each intervention. Meta-regression analyses were used to identify BCT associated with change in weight, energy intake and physical activity. Thirty-four articles were included with twenty-nine articles for the meta-analysis. Forty-three of the ninety-three possible BCT listed in the taxonomy were identified in the included studies. Feedback on behaviour and Graded tasks were significantly associated with less weight gain, and Review behaviour goals was significantly associated with lower energy intake. No individual BCT were significantly associated with physical activity. Our analysis provides further evidence for which BCT are most effective in weight gain prevention interventions. The findings support that the use of key BCT within interventions can contribute to successful weight gain prevention in adults of reproductive age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Effect of Standardized Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. Leaves Extract on Body Weight and Body Fat Reduction in Overweight or Obese Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010208 - 03 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Obesity is a major health problem that is caused by body fat accumulation and that can lead to metabolic diseases. Owing to several side effects of the currently used antiobesity drugs, natural plants have risen as safe and potential candidates to alleviate obesity. [...] Read more.
Obesity is a major health problem that is caused by body fat accumulation and that can lead to metabolic diseases. Owing to several side effects of the currently used antiobesity drugs, natural plants have risen as safe and potential candidates to alleviate obesity. We have previously reported the antiobesity effect of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. leaves extract (WHS) and its underlying mechanisms. As an extension of our preclinical studies, this study aimed to investigate the effect of WHS on body weight and body fat reduction in overweight or obese humans. A total of 93 healthy overweight or obese males and females, aged 19–65 years, with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥ 25 and <32 kg/m2, were recruited and received either an oral administration of 600 mg of WHS, or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. Daily supplementation with WHS decreased body weights, body fat masses, and BMIs compared with the placebo-treated group. The hip circumferences, visceral fat areas, abdominal fat areas, and visceral-to-subcutaneous ratios decreased after WHS supplementation. No significant side effects were observed during or after the 12 weeks of WHS intake. In conclusion, WHS, which has beneficial effects on body weight and body fat reduction, could be a promising antiobesity supplement that does not produce any side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Malnutrition and Increased Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Elderly Patients Undergoing Elective Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Case-Control Study Nested in a Cohort
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010207 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Background: Malnutrition increases worse outcomes during hospital admission for elective colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery in older adults. Methods: This work was designed an observational, monocentric, case-control study nested in a cohort of patients undergoing elective surgery for CRC disease at the Hospital Universitario [...] Read more.
Background: Malnutrition increases worse outcomes during hospital admission for elective colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery in older adults. Methods: This work was designed an observational, monocentric, case-control study nested in a cohort of patients undergoing elective surgery for CRC disease at the Hospital Universitario de la Ribera (HULR) (Alzira, Valencia, Spain) between 2011 and 2019. The study considered patients with a CONUT score in the range of moderate to severe malnutrition (>4 points), with control patients with normal nutritional situations or mild malnutrition. Results: Moderate-to-severe malnutrition cases presented a greater length of stay (LOS), a higher incidence of adverse events (both medical and surgical complications), a higher incidence of surgical-wound infection, a greater need for blood transfusion, and a greater amount of transfused packed red blood cells. During hospitalization, the percentage of patients without nutritional risk decreased from 46 to 9%, and an increase in mild, moderate, and severe risk was observed. Patients with severe nutritional risk at hospital admission had significantly increased mortality at 365 days after discharge (HR: 2.96 (95% CI 1.14–7.70, p = 0.002)). After adjusting for sex, age, and Charlson index score, patients with severe nutritional risk at admission maintained a higher mortality risk (HR: 3.08 (95% CI 1.10–8.63, p = 0.032)). Conclusion: Malnutrition prevalence is high in older adults undergoing CRC elective surgery. Furthermore, this prevalence increases during hospital admission. Malnutrition is linked to worse outcomes, such as LOS, surgical and clinical complications, and mortality. For this reason, nutritional interventions are very important in the perioperative period Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
The Australian Feeding Infants and Toddler Study (OzFITS 2021): Breastfeeding and Early Feeding Practices
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010206 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The Australian Feeding Infants and Toddler Study 2021 (OzFITS 2021) is a nationwide survey of Australian caregivers’ infant and toddler feeding practices. Here, we describe breastfeeding rates and duration, use of breastmilk substitutes, and introduction of complementary (solid) foods, including common food allergens. [...] Read more.
The Australian Feeding Infants and Toddler Study 2021 (OzFITS 2021) is a nationwide survey of Australian caregivers’ infant and toddler feeding practices. Here, we describe breastfeeding rates and duration, use of breastmilk substitutes, and introduction of complementary (solid) foods, including common food allergens. Caregivers (n = 1140) were recruited by a digital marketing company and were interviewed using a structured telephone questionnaire to obtain information. Breastfeeding was initiated in 98% of infants, but the duration of exclusive breastfeeding to six months was less than 1%. Nearly 40% of children continued to receive breastmilk beyond one year, with 10% of toddlers receiving breastmilk at two years. One-quarter of infants were introduced to solid foods between 4 to 5 months, and nearly all infants had received solid foods by 7 months. New guidelines encourage the early introduction of potential food allergens to reduce the risk of allergy, and by 12 months, over 90% of children had been given eggs and peanuts. One-third of children received no breastmilk substitutes during their first year. One-third of infants first received breastmilk substitutes following birth and before discharge from the hospital. Of these infants, 30% ceased breastmilk substitute use after discharge. Our findings suggest a high rate of continued breastfeeding with 44% receiving breastmilk beyond 1 year. One approach to increase the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is to reduce breastmilk substitute use while in hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Australian Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (OZFITS), 2021)
Article
Testing the Accuracy of a Bedside Screening Tool Framework to Clinical Records for Identification of Patients at Risk of Malnutrition in a Rural Setting: An Exploratory Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010205 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) malnutrition risk screening tool when used to score patients based on their electronic medical records (EMR), compared to bedside screening interviews. In-patients at a rural health service were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) malnutrition risk screening tool when used to score patients based on their electronic medical records (EMR), compared to bedside screening interviews. In-patients at a rural health service were screened at the bedside (n = 50) using the PG-SGA, generating a bedside score. Clinical notes within EMRs were then independently screened by blinded researchers. The accuracy of the EMR score was assessed against the bedside score using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Participants were 62% female and 32% had conditions associated with malnutrition, with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 14.9). The EMR score had moderate diagnostic accuracy relative to PG-SGA bedside screen, AUC 0.74 (95% CI: 0.59–0.89). The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the EMR score was highest for patients with a score of 7, indicating EMR screen is more likely to detect patients at risk of malnutrition. This exploratory study showed that applying the PG-SGA screening tool to EMRs had enough sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients at risk of malnutrition to warrant further exploration in low-resource settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Extreme Birth Weight and Metabolic Syndrome in Children
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010204 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Small and large birth weights (BWs) for gestational age (GA) represent extremes, but the correlation between extreme BW and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined this correlation in obese children based on changes in their metabolic [...] Read more.
Small and large birth weights (BWs) for gestational age (GA) represent extremes, but the correlation between extreme BW and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined this correlation in obese children based on changes in their metabolic profile from childhood to adolescence. A retrospective observational study was performed on 535 obese patients aged 0–18 years in the Clinical and Emergency Hospital for Children “Louis Turcanu” in Timisoara, Romania, based on clinical and biological data from January 2015 to December 2019. We emphasized the links between extreme BW and obesity, extreme BW and cardiometabolic risk, obesity and cardiometabolic risk, and extreme BW, obesity and MetS. Children born large for gestational age (LGA) predominated over those born small for gestational age (SGA). Our findings showed that BW has an independent effect on triglycerides and insulin resistance, whereas obesity had a direct influence on hypertension, impaired glucose metabolism and hypertriglyceridemia. The influences of BW and obesity on the development of MetS and its components are difficult to separate; therefore, large prospective studies in normal-weight patients are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarker of Stress, Metabolic Syndrome and Human Health)
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Article
Physical Performance and Non-Esterified Fatty Acids in Men and Women after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010203 - 02 Jan 2022
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Background: Men and women with valvular heart disease have different risk profiles for clinical endpoints. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are possibly involved in cardio-metabolic disease. However, it is unclear whether NEFA concentrations are associated with physical performance in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve [...] Read more.
Background: Men and women with valvular heart disease have different risk profiles for clinical endpoints. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are possibly involved in cardio-metabolic disease. However, it is unclear whether NEFA concentrations are associated with physical performance in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and whether there are sex-specific effects. Methods: To test the hypothesis that NEFA concentration is associated with sex-specific physical performance, we prospectively analysed data from one hundred adult patients undergoing TAVI. NEFA concentrations, physical performance and anthropometric parameters were measured before and 6 and 12 months after TAVI. Physical performance was determined by a six-minute walking test (6-MWT) and self-reported weekly bicycle riding time. Results: Before TAVI, NEFA concentrations were higher in patients (44 women, 56 men) compared to the normal population. Median NEFA concentrations at 6 and 12 months after TAVI were within the reference range reported in the normal population in men but not women. Men but not women presented with an increased performance in the 6-MWT over time (p = 0.026, p = 0.142, respectively). Additionally, men showed an increased ability to ride a bicycle after TAVI compared to before TAVI (p = 0.034). NEFA concentrations before TAVI correlated with the 6-MWT before TAVI in women (Spearman’s rho −0.552; p = 0.001) but not in men (Spearman’s rho −0.007; p = 0.964). No association was found between NEFA concentrations and physical performance 6 and 12 months after TAVI. Conclusions: NEFA concentrations improved into the reference range in men but not women after TAVI. Men but not women have an increased physical performance after TAVI. No association between NEFA and physical performance was observed in men and women after TAVI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Article
Vitamin D Supplementation in Exclusively Breastfed Infants Is Associated with Alterations in the Fecal Microbiome
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010202 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Breastfeeding and introduction of solid food are the two major components of infant feeding practices that influence gut microbiota composition in early infancy. However, it is unclear whether additional factors influence the microbiota of infants either exclusively breastfed or not breastfed. We obtained [...] Read more.
Breastfeeding and introduction of solid food are the two major components of infant feeding practices that influence gut microbiota composition in early infancy. However, it is unclear whether additional factors influence the microbiota of infants either exclusively breastfed or not breastfed. We obtained 194 fecal samples from infants at 3–9 months of age, extracted DNA, and sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Feeding practices and clinical information were collected by questionnaire and abstraction of birth certificates. The gut microbiota of infants who were exclusively breastfed displayed significantly lower Shannon diversity (p-adjust < 0.001) and different gut microbiota composition compared to infants who were not breastfed (p-value = 0.001). Among the exclusively breastfed infants, recipients of vitamin D supplements displayed significantly lower Shannon diversity (p-adjust = 0.007), and different gut microbiota composition structure than non-supplemented, breastfed infants (p-value = 0.02). MaAslin analysis identified microbial taxa that associated with breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation. Breastfeeding and infant vitamin D supplement intake play an important role in shaping infant gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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