Special Issue "Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 October 2022 | Viewed by 24162

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Carlos Vasconcelos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sports Science and Motricity, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal
Interests: physical activity, exercise interventions, nutrition interventions, lifestyle interventions, health promotion, public health, community health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet and physical activity are two key modifiable lifestyle factors that influence health across the lifespan (prevention and management of chronic diseases and reduction of the risk of premature death through several biological mechanisms). Community-based interventions contribute to public health, as they have the potential to reach high population-level impact, through the focus on groups that share a common culture or identity in their natural living environment. While the health benefits of a balanced diet and regular physical activity are commonly studied separately, interventions that combine these two lifestyle factors have the potential to induce greater benefits in community groups than strategies focusing only on one or the other. Thus, this Special Issue entitled “Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups” will comprise manuscripts that highlight this combined approach (balanced diet and regular physical activity) in community settings. Original research articles and reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses) are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Carlos Vasconcelos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Physical activity
  • Nutrition
  • Diet
  • Lifestyle interventions
  • Community
  • Health promotion
  • Public health

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effectiveness of a Combined Healthy Eating, Physical Activity, and Sleep Hygiene Lifestyle Intervention on Health and Fitness of Overweight Airline Pilots: A Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091988 - 09 May 2022
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Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-component nutrition, sleep, and physical activity (PA) program on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and health behaviors in overweight airline pilots. (2) Methods: A parallel group study was conducted amongst [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-component nutrition, sleep, and physical activity (PA) program on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and health behaviors in overweight airline pilots. (2) Methods: A parallel group study was conducted amongst 125 airline pilots. The intervention group participated in a 16-week personalized healthy eating, sleep hygiene, and PA program. Outcome measures of objective health (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), body mass, skinfolds, girths, blood pressure, resting heart rate, push-ups, plank hold) and self-reported health (weekly PA, sleep quality and duration, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) were collected at baseline and post-intervention. The wait-list control completed the same assessments. (3) Results: Significant group main effects in favor of the intervention group were found for all outcome measures (p < 0.001) except for weekly walking (p = 0.163). All objective health measures significantly improved in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001, d = 0.41–1.04). Self-report measures (moderate-to-vigorous PA, sleep quality and duration, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) significantly increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001, d = 1.00–2.69). (4) Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that a personalized 16-week healthy eating, PA, and sleep hygiene intervention can elicit significant short-term improvements in physical and mental health outcomes among overweight airline pilots. Further research is required to examine whether the observed effects are maintained longitudinally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Improving Willingness to Try Fruits and Vegetables and Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children in Guam
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010093 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Early childhood interventions have the potential to promote long-term healthy eating and physical activity habits to prevent obesity. However, research studies including indigenous young children are lacking. This study examined the effectiveness of the Food Friends®: Fun with New Foods™ and [...] Read more.
Early childhood interventions have the potential to promote long-term healthy eating and physical activity habits to prevent obesity. However, research studies including indigenous young children are lacking. This study examined the effectiveness of the Food Friends®: Fun with New Foods™ and Get Movin’ with Mighty Moves™ (FFMM) curricula on willingness to try fruits and vegetables (FV) and gross motor (GM) skills among preschoolers in Guam. A pre-post community-based study included preschoolers from Head Start (HS), gifted and talented education (Pre-GATE), and Pre-Kindergarten programs during school years (SY) 2017–2018 and 2018–2019. In SY2017–2018, the intervention group had a significant increase in imported FV when compared with the other three groups. No significant differences between groups were found on the other FV scales. Regarding gross motor skills, no significant differences between groups were found. In SY2018–2019, the intervention group had a significant increase in all FV scales except imported FV when compared with the enhanced intervention group. With gross motor skills, no significant differences were found between groups on its progress. These results warrant FFMM adaptations for the prevention of obesity among Guam preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
Article
The Effects of a Brief Lifestyle Intervention on the Health of Overweight Airline Pilots during COVID-19: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124288 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6271
Abstract
The aim of this study was to perform a 12-month follow-up of health parameters after a 17-week lifestyle intervention in overweight airline pilots. A parallel-group (intervention and control) study was conducted amongst 72 overweight airline pilots (body mass index > 25) over a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to perform a 12-month follow-up of health parameters after a 17-week lifestyle intervention in overweight airline pilots. A parallel-group (intervention and control) study was conducted amongst 72 overweight airline pilots (body mass index > 25) over a 12-month period following the emergence of COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 35) received a personalized dietary, sleep, and physical activity program over a 17-week period. The control group (n = 37) received no intervention. Measurements for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) via an electronic survey, and objective measures of body mass and blood pressure were taken at baseline and at 12 months. Significant interactions for group × time from baseline to 12-months were found for all outcome measures (p < 0.001). Body mass and mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Outcome measures for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) significantly increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Results provide preliminary evidence that a brief three-component healthy sleep, diet and physical activity intervention can elicit and sustain long-term improvements in body mass and blood pressure management, health behaviors, and perceived subjective health in pilots and may support quality of life during an unprecedented global pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Evaluation of Latent Models Assessing Physical Fitness and the Healthy Eating Index in Community Studies: Time-, Sex-, and Diabetes-Status Invariance
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124258 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Accurate measurement requires assessment of measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) to demonstrate that the tests/measurements perform equally well and measure the same underlying constructs across groups and over time. Using structural equation modeling, the measurement properties (stability and responsiveness) of intervention measures used in a [...] Read more.
Accurate measurement requires assessment of measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) to demonstrate that the tests/measurements perform equally well and measure the same underlying constructs across groups and over time. Using structural equation modeling, the measurement properties (stability and responsiveness) of intervention measures used in a study of metabolic syndrome (MetS) treatment in primary care offices, were assessed. The primary study (N = 293; mean age = 59 years) had achieved 19% reversal of MetS overall; yet neither diet quality nor aerobic capacity were correlated with declines in cardiovascular disease risk. Factor analytic methods were used to develop measurement models and factorial invariance were tested across three time points (baseline, 3-month, 12-month), sex (male/female), and diabetes status for the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (2005 HEI-C) and several fitness measures combined (percentile VO2 max from submaximal exercise, treadmill speed, curl-ups, push-ups). The model fit for the original HEI-C was poor and could account for the lack of associations in the primary study. A reduced HEI-C and a 4-item fitness model demonstrated excellent model fit and measurement equivalence across time, sex, and diabetes status. Increased use of factor analytic methods increases measurement precision, controls error, and improves ability to link interventions to expected clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Modification Program Delivered under Real-World Conditions in a Rural Setting
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114040 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Whilst there is considerable evidence to support the efficacy of physical activity and dietary interventions in disease and death prevention, translation of knowledge into practice remains inadequate. We aimed to examine the uptake, retention, acceptability and effectiveness on physical activity, physical function, sitting [...] Read more.
Whilst there is considerable evidence to support the efficacy of physical activity and dietary interventions in disease and death prevention, translation of knowledge into practice remains inadequate. We aimed to examine the uptake, retention, acceptability and effectiveness on physical activity, physical function, sitting time, diet and health outcomes of a Healthy Eating Activity and Lifestyle program (HEALTM) delivered under real-world conditions. The program was delivered to 430 adults living across rural South Australia. Participants of the program attended weekly 2 h healthy lifestyle education and exercise group-based sessions for 8 weeks. A total of 47 programs were delivered in over 15 communities. In total, 548 referrals were received, resulting in 430 participants receiving the intervention (78% uptake). At baseline, 74.6% of participants were female, the mean age of participants was 53.7 years and 11.1% of participants identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. Follow-up assessments were obtained for 265 participants. Significant improvements were observed for walking, planned physical activity, incidental physical activity, total physical activity, 30 s chair stand, 30 s arm curl, 6 min walk, fruit consumption and vegetable consumption, sitting time and diastolic blood pressure. Positive satisfaction and favourable feedback were reported. The healthy lifestyle program achieved excellent real-world uptake and effectiveness, reasonable intervention attendance and strong program acceptability amongst rural and vulnerable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Feasibility Study to Assess the Impact of a Lifestyle Intervention during Colorectal Cancer Screening in France
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113685 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Current evidence suggests that 30–50% of cancers are attributable to established lifestyle risk factors. Cancer-screening has been identified as an opportunity for delivering advice on lifestyle behaviour change for cancer prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of promoting advice [...] Read more.
Current evidence suggests that 30–50% of cancers are attributable to established lifestyle risk factors. Cancer-screening has been identified as an opportunity for delivering advice on lifestyle behaviour change for cancer prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of promoting advice on the latest evidence-based lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention at the time of colorectal cancer screening at two hospitals in Lyon, France. This feasibility study included 49 patients (20 men and 29 women) who were invited for colonoscopy. Patients received a leaflet with lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention, accompanied with a logbook to plan and monitor their behavioural changes. Feedback from patients, hospital staff, and researchers was received via evaluation questionnaires (n = 26) completed after testing the educational material for at least two weeks and via two focus group discussions (n = 7 and n = 9 respectively) organized at the end of the study. All interviewed patients were interested in lowering their cancer risk, and the majority felt ready to change their lifestyle (88%), although most did not know how to decrease their risk of cancer (61%). All patients found the educational material easy to understand and sufficiently attractive and 50% of the patients reported having achieved at least one of the healthy behaviours recommended within the two weeks following the intervention. All hospital staff and almost all patients (92%) involved found that the screening program and the visits planned for colonoscopy was an appropriate moment to provide them with the educational material. This feasibility study has shown that the content, paper-based format, and time of delivery of the intervention were adequate. Health professionals seem to be willing to provide lifestyle recommendations, and patients appear interested in receiving advice for lowering their cancer risk during screening visits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Changes in Dietary Habits and Exercise Pattern of Korean Adolescents from Prior to during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103314 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12–18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12–18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Benefits of Adding an Aquatic Resistance Interval Training to a Nutritional Education on Body Composition, Body Image Perception and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Older Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082712 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
The human population is increasing due to lengthening life expectancy, but the quality of life and health of people is moving in the opposite direction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how aquatic resistance interval training can influence body composition, body [...] Read more.
The human population is increasing due to lengthening life expectancy, but the quality of life and health of people is moving in the opposite direction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how aquatic resistance interval training can influence body composition, body image perception and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) in older women participants in a nutrition education program and to study the relation between these variables. Thirty-four participants aged 69 ± 4 years were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental (aquatic resistance interval training plus nutritional intervention) and control (nutritional intervention). The intervention consisted of resistance training in an aquatic environment carried out for 14 weeks (three sessions per week; 60 min each). Body composition, body image perception and adherence to MD diet were evaluated at baseline and 14 weeks. No significant differences were found between groups regarding body image perception and adherence to the MD. There was a significant increase in muscle mass (kg) (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in fat mass (kg) (p < 0.001) in the intervention group when compared to the control group. The addition of aquatic resistance interval training to a nutritional intervention was not sufficient to change body image perception and adherence to MD but produced improvement in body composition (through an increase in muscle mass and decrease on fat mass) in older women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Utilizing Participatory Research to Engage Underserved Populations to Improve Health-Related Outcomes in Delaware
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072353 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Cooperative Extension is a community outreach program. Despite its large reach, there is a need for the evaluation of changes in health-related outcomes for individuals engaged with Cooperative Extension. A team-based challenge was developed using community-engaged participatory research integrated with Cooperative Extension to [...] Read more.
Cooperative Extension is a community outreach program. Despite its large reach, there is a need for the evaluation of changes in health-related outcomes for individuals engaged with Cooperative Extension. A team-based challenge was developed using community-engaged participatory research integrated with Cooperative Extension to encourage healthy eating and physical activity behaviors through Cooperative Extension programming. Thus, the primary purpose of this secondary analysis was to (1) evaluate changes in anthropometric outcomes and (2) evaluate changes in health behavior outcomes. Associations of anthropometric changes and health behavior changes with engagement in the three-month team-based challenge were explored. Anthropometrics were measured using standard procedures, and intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity were self-reported. Of the 145 participants in the community-engaged participatory research portion of the study, 52.4% (n = 76) had complete anthropometrics before and after the team-based challenge and were included in this study. At 3 months, there was a significant reduction in body mass index (−0.3 kg/m2, p = 0.024) and no significant change in waist circumference (p = 0.781). Fruit and vegetable intake significantly increased (+0.44 servings/day, p = 0.018). Physical activity did not significantly change based on (1) the number of days 30 or more minutes of physical activity was conducted (p = 0.765) and (2) Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores (p = 0.612). Changes in anthropometrics and health behaviors were not associated with engagement in the team-based challenge. Using community-engaged participatory research with community outreach programs, such as Cooperative Extension, can improve health-related outcomes in underserved populations. However, despite a participatory approach, changes in anthropometrics and health behaviors were not associated with engagement in the developed team-based challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
Article
Targeting Diet Quality at the Workplace: Influence on Cardiometabolic Risk
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072283 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The American Heart Association criteria for cardiovascular health include overall diet quality (DQ). The present study evaluated the effect of a workplace health promotion program targeting DQ and physical activity on features of cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Before and after the 3-month intervention, 2260 [...] Read more.
The American Heart Association criteria for cardiovascular health include overall diet quality (DQ). The present study evaluated the effect of a workplace health promotion program targeting DQ and physical activity on features of cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Before and after the 3-month intervention, 2260 employees (1462 men and 798 women) completed a health and fitness evaluation including assessment of DQ using a validated food-based questionnaire. After the 3-month lifestyle modification program, DQ increased significantly in both sexes (p < 0.0001) as well as physical activity level (p < 0.0001). A reduction in waist circumference (p < 0.0001) and improved lipid levels were also observed. Significant associations were found between changes in DQ index and changes in CMR variables in both men (standardized regression coefficients ranged from −0.19 (95% confidence interval: −0.26 to −0.12) to −0.29 (95% confidence interval: −0.34 to −0.25)) and women (standardized regression coefficients ranged from −0.18 (95% confidence interval: −0.25 to −0.11) to −0.27 (95% confidence interval: −0.41 to −0.13)). Multiple linear regression analyses showed a significant contribution of changes in the DQ index to the variation in some CMR variables, independent from changes in physical activity level and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study provides evidence that targeting DQ at the workplace is relevant to improve cardiometabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Article
Hunger and Health: Taking a Formative Approach to Build a Health Intervention Focused on Nutrition and Physical Activity Needs as Perceived by Stakeholders
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051584 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The intersections between hunger and health are beginning to gain traction. New interventions emphasize collaboration between the health and social service sectors. This study aimed to understand the nutrition and physical activity (PA) needs as perceived by food pantry stakeholders to inform a [...] Read more.
The intersections between hunger and health are beginning to gain traction. New interventions emphasize collaboration between the health and social service sectors. This study aimed to understand the nutrition and physical activity (PA) needs as perceived by food pantry stakeholders to inform a health intervention approach. The study used formative research incorporating mixed methods through surveying and semi-structured interviews with three food pantry stakeholder groups: Clients (n = 30), staff (n = 7), and volunteers (n = 10). Pantry client participants reported; high rates of both individual (60%, n = 18) and household (43%, n = 13) disease diagnosis; low consumption (0–1 servings) of fruits (67%, n = 20) and vegetables (47%, n = 14) per day; and low levels (0–120 min) of PA (67%, n = 20) per week. Interviews identified five final convergent major themes across all three stakeholder groups including food and PA barriers, nutrition and PA literacy, health status and lifestyle, current pantry operations and adjustments, and suggestions for health intervention programming. High rates of chronic disease combined with low health literacy among pantry clients demonstrate the need to address health behaviors. Further research piloting the design and implementation of a comprehensive health behavior intervention program in the food pantry setting is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
Article
The Combined Effects of Milk Intake and Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adolescents
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030731 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 858
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of milk intake and physical activity on bone mineral density in adolescents. This study was conducted using data from the 2009–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which provided measurements [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of milk intake and physical activity on bone mineral density in adolescents. This study was conducted using data from the 2009–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which provided measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) in addition to basic health-related data. This study included 1061 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (557 males and 504 females) whose data on milk intake and participation time in moderate to vigorous physical activity were available. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Milk intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method, and the levels of physical activity were examined using a questionnaire. The physical activity questions of 2009–2011 KNHANES were based on the Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. The subjects were classified into four groups according to milk intake and physical activity level: no milk intake + low-level physical activity group (MnoPlow), no milk intake + high-level physical activity group (MnoPhigh), milk intake + low-level physical activity group (MyesPlow), and milk intake + high-level physical activity group (MyesPhigh). The results of partial correlation controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake showed that the BMD variables were associated significantly with physical activity in both males and females. Among males, the MnoPlow group had the lowest BMD in all BMD variables, showing a significant difference from the high-level physical activity groups (MnoPhigh, MyesPhigh) by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among females, the MyesPhigh group showed a significantly higher lumbar BMD value than the other groups. The MnoPlow group had approximately 0.3 to 0.5 times lower odds ratio for median or higher BMD values, compared to MyesPhigh group. These results show that milk intake and physical activity have a combined effect on BMD, and suggest that to achieve healthy bone growth, it is important to encourage both moderate to vigorous physical activity and milk intake during adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Review

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Review
Behaviour Change Techniques in Weight Gain Prevention Interventions in Adults of Reproductive Age: Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010209 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Weight gain prevention interventions are likely to be more effective with the inclusion of behaviour change techniques. However, evidence on which behaviour change techniques (BCT) are most effective for preventing weight gain and improving lifestyle (diet and physical activity) is limited, especially in [...] Read more.
Weight gain prevention interventions are likely to be more effective with the inclusion of behaviour change techniques. However, evidence on which behaviour change techniques (BCT) are most effective for preventing weight gain and improving lifestyle (diet and physical activity) is limited, especially in reproductive-aged adults. This meta-analysis and meta-regression aimed to identify BCT associated with changes in weight, energy intake and physical activity in reproductive-aged adults. BCT were identified using the BCT Taxonomy (v1) from each intervention. Meta-regression analyses were used to identify BCT associated with change in weight, energy intake and physical activity. Thirty-four articles were included with twenty-nine articles for the meta-analysis. Forty-three of the ninety-three possible BCT listed in the taxonomy were identified in the included studies. Feedback on behaviour and Graded tasks were significantly associated with less weight gain, and Review behaviour goals was significantly associated with lower energy intake. No individual BCT were significantly associated with physical activity. Our analysis provides further evidence for which BCT are most effective in weight gain prevention interventions. The findings support that the use of key BCT within interventions can contribute to successful weight gain prevention in adults of reproductive age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions Provided by Nutrition and Exercise Practitioners for the Adult General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091729 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
Healthy dietary intake and physical activity reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of interventions including both nutrition and physical activity provided by nutrition and exercise practitioners for adults in the general population (those [...] Read more.
Healthy dietary intake and physical activity reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of interventions including both nutrition and physical activity provided by nutrition and exercise practitioners for adults in the general population (those without diagnosed disease). The MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and SportDiscus databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 2010 until April 2021. Outcomes included physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, waist circumference, percent weight loss, quality of life (QoL) and adverse events. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods were used to synthesize and grade evidence. Meta-analyses were stratified according to participant health status. The database search identified 11,205 articles, and 31 RCTs were included. Interventions increased physical activity amount [standardized mean difference (SMD) (95% CI): 0.25 (0.08, 0.43)] (low certainty evidence); increased vegetable intake [SMD (95% CI): 0.14 (0.05, 0.23)] (moderate certainty evidence); reduced waist circumference [MD (95% CI): −2.16 cm (−2.96, −1.36)] (high certainty evidence); and increased likelihood of achieving 5% weight loss for adults with overweight and obesity [relative risk (95% CI): 2.37 (1.76, 3.19)] (high certainty evidence). Very low and low certainty evidence described little-to-no effect on QoL or adverse events. Nutrition and exercise practitioners play key roles in facilitating positive lifestyle behaviors to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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Systematic Review
The Effectiveness of Web-Based Interventions to Promote Health Behaviour Change in Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061258 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Although web-based interventions are attractive to researchers and users, the evidence about their effectiveness in the promotion of health behaviour change is still limited. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of web-based interventions used in health behavioural change in adolescents regarding physical [...] Read more.
Although web-based interventions are attractive to researchers and users, the evidence about their effectiveness in the promotion of health behaviour change is still limited. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of web-based interventions used in health behavioural change in adolescents regarding physical activity, eating habits, tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behaviour, and quality of sleep. Studies published from 2016 till the search was run (May-to-June 2021) were included if they were experimental or quasi-experimental studies, pre-post-test studies, clinical trials, or randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of web-based intervention in promoting behaviour change in adolescents regarding those health behaviours. The risk of bias assessment was performed by using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP)—Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Fourteen studies were included. Most were in a school setting, non-probabilistic and relatively small samples. All had a short length of follow-up and were theory driven. Thirteen showed significant positive findings to support web-based interventions’ effectiveness in promoting health behaviour change among adolescents but were classified as low evidence quality. Although this review shows that web-based interventions may contribute to health behaviour change among adolescents, these findings rely on low-quality evidence, so it is urgent to test these interventions in larger controlled trials with long-term maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
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