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Review

The Exposome and Immune Health in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic

1
MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, Universidad de Cádiz, 11519 Cadiz, Spain
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Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, University of Cádiz, 11009 Cadiz, Spain
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Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
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Physical Activity and Health Research Group (‘PaHerg’), Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre (‘imas12′), 28041 Madrid, Spain
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Fissac—Physiology, Health and Physical Activity, 28015 Madrid, Spain
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LFE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
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CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Centre for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden
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Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco J. Pérez-Cano
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010024
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 19 December 2021 / Published: 22 December 2021
Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures—collectively referred to as the ‘exposome’—for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhythms, pollution, smoking, and gut microbiome) on immune function and inflammation, particularly in the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We highlight the potential role of ‘exposome improvements’ in the prevention—or amelioration, once established—of this disease as well as their effect on the response to vaccination. In light of the existing evidence, the promotion of a healthy exposome should be a cornerstone in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic and other eventual pandemics. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy lifestyle; environmental exposure; COVID-19; vaccines; infectious diseases healthy lifestyle; environmental exposure; COVID-19; vaccines; infectious diseases
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Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Morales, J.S.; Valenzuela, P.L.; Castillo-García, A.; Butragueño, J.; Jiménez-Pavón, D.; Carrera-Bastos, P.; Lucia, A. The Exposome and Immune Health in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients 2022, 14, 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010024

AMA Style

Morales JS, Valenzuela PL, Castillo-García A, Butragueño J, Jiménez-Pavón D, Carrera-Bastos P, Lucia A. The Exposome and Immune Health in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients. 2022; 14(1):24. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morales, Javier S., Pedro L. Valenzuela, Adrián Castillo-García, Javier Butragueño, David Jiménez-Pavón, Pedro Carrera-Bastos, and Alejandro Lucia. 2022. "The Exposome and Immune Health in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic" Nutrients 14, no. 1: 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010024

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