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The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 19430

Special Issue Editors

MEDOLIALI S.L. (DNANUTRICOACH®), Calle Almogavers 165, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: nutrition; nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics
Dr. Sarela Garcia-Santamarina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB NOVA), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: human microbiome; microbiome-xenobiotics interactions; gut microbiome; gut microbial metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of nutritional genomics, nutrigenetic and nutrigenomics is generating increasing attention, and consumers seem to be increasingly interested in understanding how general nutritional recommendations may be shaped by their unique genetic fingerprint. Gene–diet interactions play an enormous role in human health and are typically only partially assessed. Healthcare providers receive scarce knowledge on these interactions, thus jeopardizing the application of precision nutrition. Moreover, market initiatives have been developing to fulfill the market´s increasing interest in prevention through nutrition in order to optimize people’s health.

At the same time, the communication of studies and results assessing specific gene–diet interactions and how these may interfere with human health need to be accelerated to meet public health needs. In this Special Issue, we aim to communicate results assessing gene–diet interactions in humans, specifically those related to health effects and health claims. We would like to bring readers closer to the state-of-the-art developments in the field of nutritional genomics by gathering papers that cover different aspects of the relationships between genetics, nutrition and health effects. Original research articles and reviews (systematic reviews, critical reviews and meta-analyses) are welcome.

Dr. Valentini Konstantinidou
Dr. Sarela Garcia-Santamarina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Genetics
  • Health
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Diet
  • Genomics
  • Interaction
  • Homo sapiens
  • DNA

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Moving forward the Effects of Gene–Diet Interactions on Human Health
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183782 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Back in 2010, when we first published data on the in vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

8 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Association between Important Dietary Habits and Osteoporosis: A Genetic Correlation and Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132656 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3733
Abstract
Objective: Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common bone disease. The genetic and metabolic factors play important roles in OP development. However, the genetic basis of OP is still elusive. The study aimed to explore the relationships between OP and dietary habits. Methods: This [...] Read more.
Objective: Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common bone disease. The genetic and metabolic factors play important roles in OP development. However, the genetic basis of OP is still elusive. The study aimed to explore the relationships between OP and dietary habits. Methods: This study used large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from the UK Biobank to explore potential associations between OP and 143 dietary habits. The GWAS summary data of OP included 9434 self-reported OP cases and 444,941 controls, and the GWAS summary data of the dietary habits included 455,146 participants of European ancestry. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) was used to detect the genetic correlations between OP and each of the 143 dietary habits, followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to further assess the causal relationship between OP and candidate dietary habits identified by LDSC. Results: The LDSC analysis identified seven candidate dietary habits that showed genetic associations with OP including cereal type such as biscuit cereal (coefficient = −0.1693, p value = 0.0183), servings of raw vegetables per day (coefficient = 0.0837, p value = 0.0379), and spirits measured per month (coefficient = 0.115, p value = 0.0353). MR analysis found that OP and PC17 (butter) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.974, 95% confidence interval [CI] = (0.973, 0.976), p value = 0.000970), PC35 (decaffeinated coffee) (OR = 0.985, 95% CI = (0.983, 0.987), p value = 0.00126), PC36 (overall processed meat intake) (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = (1.033, 1.037), p value = 0.000976), PC39 (spirits measured per month) (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = (1.011, 1.015), p value = 0.00153), and servings of raw vegetables per day (OR = 0.978, 95% CI = (0.977, 0.979), p value = 0.000563) were clearly causal. Conclusions: Our findings provide new clues for understanding the genetic mechanisms of OP, which focus on the possible role of dietary habits in OP pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
15 pages, 1781 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Effects of Salmon Fishmeal and Whey on Metabolic Markers in Serum and Gene Expression in Liver Cells
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081593 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet, in part due to the content of long chain omega-3 fatty acids. However, both lean and fatty fish have beneficial health effects, suggesting that micronutrients and proteins may play a role. In a [...] Read more.
Fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet, in part due to the content of long chain omega-3 fatty acids. However, both lean and fatty fish have beneficial health effects, suggesting that micronutrients and proteins may play a role. In a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial, five healthy male participants consumed 5.2 g of protein from either salmon fishmeal or whey. Blood samples were taken before and 30 and 60 min after intake. The concentration of glucose, lipids, hormones and metabolites, including 28 different amino acids and derivatives, were measured in serum or plasma. Cultured HepG2 cells were incubated with or without serum from the participants, and transcriptomic profiling was performed using RNA sequencing. The ingestion of both salmon fishmeal and whey reduced the glucose and triglyceride levels in serum. Protein intake, independent of the source, increased the concentration of 22 amino acids and derivatives in serum. Fishmeal increased the concentration of arginine, methionine, serine, glycine, cystathionine and 2-aminobutyric acid more than whey did. Incubation with postprandial serum resulted in large transcriptomic alterations in serum-fasted HepG2 cells, with the differential expression of >4500 protein coding genes. However, when comparing cells cultivated in fasting serum to postprandial serum after the ingestion of fishmeal and whey, we did not detect any differentially regulated genes, neither with respect to the protein source nor with respect to the time after the meal. The comparable nutrigenomic effects of fishmeal and whey do not change the relevance of fish by-products as an alternative food source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
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17 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Colonic Microbiota Profile Characterization of the Responsiveness to Dietary Fibre Treatment in Hypercholesterolemia
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030525 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
This study aimed to determine how the microbiota profile might be predisposed to a better response in blood lipid profiles due to dietary fibre supplementation. A three-arm intervention study that included three different fibre types (mainly insoluble, soluble, and antioxidant fibre) supplemented (19.2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine how the microbiota profile might be predisposed to a better response in blood lipid profiles due to dietary fibre supplementation. A three-arm intervention study that included three different fibre types (mainly insoluble, soluble, and antioxidant fibre) supplemented (19.2 g/day) during 2 months in individuals with hypercholesterolemia was developed. Changes in faecal microbiota and blood lipid profile after fibre supplementation were determined. In all volunteers, regardless of fibre type, an increase in the abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed, and similarly, an inverse relationship between faecal propionic acid and blood LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size, and LDL/HDL particle ratio (p-values 0.0067, 0.0002, and 0.0067, respectively) was observed. However, not all volunteers presented an improvement in lipid profile. The non-responders to fibre treatment showed a decrease in microbiota diversity (Shannon and Simpson diversity index p-values of 0.0110 and 0.0255, respectively) after the intervention; where the reduction in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producing bacterial genera such as Clostridium XIVa and Ruminococcus after dietary fibre treatment was the main difference. It was concluded that the non-responsiveness to dietary fibre treatment might be mediated by the lack of ability to maintain a stable SCFA producing bacteria diversity and composition after extra fibre intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
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12 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Influence of a Nutrigenetic Intervention on Self-Efficacy, Emotions, and Rewarding Behaviors in Unhealthy Eating among Mexicans: An Exploratory Pilot Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010213 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
The Genome-based Mexican (GENOMEX) diet is a strategy for preventing and managing obesity. Emotion and eating behavior in the context of a nutrigenetic intervention have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to explore the influence of the GENOMEX diet on emotions, self-efficacy, and [...] Read more.
The Genome-based Mexican (GENOMEX) diet is a strategy for preventing and managing obesity. Emotion and eating behavior in the context of a nutrigenetic intervention have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to explore the influence of the GENOMEX diet on emotions, self-efficacy, and rewarding behaviors in unhealthy eating among subjects with risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases. Twenty-eight subjects included in the six-month GENOMEX intervention answered questions regarding emotions that influence food consumption. Additionally, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Reward-based eating drive scale (RED) were applied. In the study, minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression were present in 46.4%, 39.3%, 10.7%, and 3.6%, respectively. RED did not change, but it correlated with a higher intake of fats (r2 = 0.684, β = 2.066, p = 0.003). Mood influenced unhealthy eating in 71.7% of subjects, and 76.9% experienced binge episodes triggered by anxiety. Sugars were the most consumed foods during binge episodes (42.2%). Both low self-efficacy levels and binge episodes were associated with high consumption of unhealthy foods. After the intervention, 10.7% of subjects reported a high level of self-efficacy. In conclusion, a culturally acceptable and genetically compatible regional Mexican food diet reduced negative emotions and unhealthy eating while increasing self-efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
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14 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
The Association between Fasting Glucose and Sugar Sweetened Beverages Intake Is Greater in Latin Americans with a High Polygenic Risk Score for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010069 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3539
Abstract
Chile is one of the largest consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) world-wide. However, it is unknown whether the effects from this highly industrialized food will mimic those reported in industrialized countries or whether they will be modified by local lifestyle or population genetics. [...] Read more.
Chile is one of the largest consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) world-wide. However, it is unknown whether the effects from this highly industrialized food will mimic those reported in industrialized countries or whether they will be modified by local lifestyle or population genetics. Our goal is to evaluate the interaction effect between SSB intake and T2D susceptibility on fasting glucose. We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (GRSw) based on 16 T2D risk SNPs in 2828 non-diabetic participants of the MAUCO cohort. SSB intake was categorized in four levels using a food frequency questionnaire. Log-fasting glucose was regressed on SSB and GRSw tertiles while accounting for socio-demography, lifestyle, obesity, and Amerindian ancestry. Fasting glucose increased systematically per unit of GRSw (β = 0.02 ± 0.006, p = 0.00002) and by SSB intake (β[cat4] = 0.04 ± 0.01, p = 0.0001), showing a significant interaction, where the strongest effect was observed in the highest GRSw-tertile and in the highest SSB consumption category (β = 0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.02). SNP-wise, SSB interacted with additive effects of rs7903146 (TCF7L2) (β = 0.05 ± 0.01, p = 0.002) and with the G/G genotype of rs10830963 (MTNRB1B) (β = 0.19 ± 0.05, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The association between SSB intake and fasting glucose in the Chilean population without diabetes is modified by T2D genetic susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
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12 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
High-Salt Diet Impairs the Neurons Plasticity and the Neurotransmitters-Related Biological Processes
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114123 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
Salt, commonly known as sodium chloride, is an important ingredient that the body requires in relatively minute quantities. However, consuming too much salt can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease and even disruption of circadian rhythms. The biological process of the circadian [...] Read more.
Salt, commonly known as sodium chloride, is an important ingredient that the body requires in relatively minute quantities. However, consuming too much salt can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease and even disruption of circadian rhythms. The biological process of the circadian rhythm was first studied in Drosophila melanogaster and is well understood. Their locomotor activity gradually increases before the light is switched on and off, a phenomenon called anticipation. In a previous study, we showed that a high-salt diet (HSD) impairs morning anticipation behavior in Drosophila. Here, we found that HSD did not significantly disrupt clock gene oscillation in the heads of flies, nor did it disrupt PERIOD protein oscillation in clock neurons or peripheral tissues. Remarkably, we found that HSD impairs neuronal plasticity in the axonal projections of circadian pacemaker neurons. Interestingly, we showed that increased excitability in PDF neurons mimics HSD, which causes morning anticipation impairment. Moreover, we found that HSD significantly disrupts neurotransmitter-related biological processes in the brain. Taken together, our data show that an HSD affects the multiple functions of neurons and impairs physiological behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Gene-Diet Interactions in Human Health)
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