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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 323 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Treating sarcopenia in older individuals remains a challenge, and nutritional interventions present [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Social-Psychological Factors in Food Consumption of Rural Residents: The Role of Perceived Need and Habit within the Theory of Planned Behavior
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041203 - 24 Apr 2020
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Abstract
To address the problem of malnutrition in poor rural areas of China, this study aims to examine the effects of social-psychological factors in food consumption of rural residents in poor counties of Southwest China. In addition, it investigates the role of perceived need [...] Read more.
To address the problem of malnutrition in poor rural areas of China, this study aims to examine the effects of social-psychological factors in food consumption of rural residents in poor counties of Southwest China. In addition, it investigates the role of perceived need and habit within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting food consumption. A survey with random sampling was conducted on rural residents (n = 424), and the theoretical frameworks of both the standard and extended TPB were applied for comparison purposes. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the relationships among constructs. Consumption of five food items was studied, respectively: meat, eggs, dairy, fish, and fruits. Results showed that incorporation of perceived need and habit substantially increased the explanatory power of the TPB, but these factors only had significant direct effects on intention rather than behavior. Perceived need and habit are stronger predictors of intention than any other TPB construct for consumption of all food items except for meat. We found indirect effects of the constructs in the extended TPB model on consumption to be different across food items. Practical implications to improve consumption of different food items were proposed accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Monobutyrin and Monovalerin Affect Brain Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles and Tight-Junction Protein Expression in ApoE-Knockout Rats Fed High-Fat Diets
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041202 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Monobutyrin (MB) and monovalerin (MV), esters of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have previously been shown to reduce liver cholesterol and inflammation in conventional rats fed high-fat diets. This study explored the potential effects of MB and MV in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) rats. [...] Read more.
Monobutyrin (MB) and monovalerin (MV), esters of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have previously been shown to reduce liver cholesterol and inflammation in conventional rats fed high-fat diets. This study explored the potential effects of MB and MV in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) rats. ApoE-/- rats were fed three high-fat (HF) diets, pure or supplemented with MB or MV (1%), for 5 weeks. One group of conventional rats (C) was also fed the pure high-fat diet and another group of ApoE-/- rats a low-fat (LF) diet. Blood and liver lipids, urinary lactulose/mannitol, SCFAs (blood and brain), tight junction proteins (small intestine and brain), and inflammation-related markers (blood, brain, and liver) were analyzed. MV supplementation elevated serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and valeric acid concentration (p < 0.05), while the amounts of isovaleric acid in the brain were reduced (p < 0.05). MB increased butyric acid amounts in the brain, while the plasma concentration of interleukin 10 (IL-10) was lowered (p < 0.05). Both MV and MB upregulated the expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the brain (p < 0.05). Supplementation of MB or MV affected HDL cholesterol, the expression of tight junction proteins, and SCFA profiles. MB and MV may therefore be promising supplements to attenuate lipid metabolic disorders caused by high-fat intake and genetic deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Adipokines Profile in Prepubertal Children with a History of Prematurity or Extrauterine Growth Restriction
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041201 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Adipose tissue programming could be developed in very preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR), with an adverse impact on long-term metabolic status, as was studied in intrauterine growth restriction patterns. The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the difference in [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue programming could be developed in very preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR), with an adverse impact on long-term metabolic status, as was studied in intrauterine growth restriction patterns. The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the difference in levels of plasma adipokines in children with a history of EUGR. A total of 211 school age prepubertal children were examined: 38 with a history of prematurity and EUGR (EUGR), 50 with a history of prematurity with adequate growth (PREM), and 123 healthy children born at term. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic markers and adipokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin) were measured. Children with a history of EUGR showed lower values of adiponectin (μg/mL) compared with the other two groups: (EUGR: 10.6 vs. PREM: 17.7, p < 0.001; vs. CONTROL: 25.7, p = 0.004) and higher levels of resistin (ng/mL) (EUGR: 19.2 vs. PREM: 16.3, p =0.007; vs. CONTROL: 7.1, p < 0.001. The PREM group showed the highest values of leptin (ng/mL), compared with the others: PREM: 4.9 vs. EUGR: 2.1, p = 0.048; vs. CONTROL: 3.2, p = 0.029). In conclusion, EUGR in premature children could lead to a distinctive adipokines profile, likely associated with an early programming of the adipose tissue, and likely to increase the risk of adverse health outcomes later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Involvement, Eating Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Adults: Expected Effects of Their Relationships (LifeStyle Study)
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041200 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Understanding the factors that coexist with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors is prevalent and important for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between food involvement, eating restrictions, and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish adults. [...] Read more.
Understanding the factors that coexist with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors is prevalent and important for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between food involvement, eating restrictions, and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish adults. The study was conducted among a group of 1007 adults. Questions with the answers yes or no were used to obtain the data regarding eating restrictions. Data relating to food involvement were obtained with the Food Involvement Scale (FIS). Questions from the Beliefs and Eating Habits questionnaire were used to measure the frequency of consumption of different food groups. Five dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using principal component analysis (PCA), i.e., ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Wholemeal food’, ‘Fast foods and sweets’, ‘Fruit and vegetable juices’ and “Meat and meat products’. In each of the DPs, three groups of participants were identified based on tertile distribution with the upper tertile denoting the most frequent consumption. Nearly two-thirds of the study sample declared some restrictions in food consumption. The probability of implementing restrictions in consumption of foods high in sugar, fat and high-fat foods increased in the upper tertile of ‘Fruit and vegetables’ and ‘Wholemeal’ DPs. Moreover, the probability of implementing restrictions in consumption of meat and high-starch products increased in ‘Wholemeal’ DP. The probability of using eating restrictions decreased in the upper tertile of ‘Fast foods and sweets’ and Meat and meat products’ DPs. In conclusion, individuals characterized by high food involvement were more inclined to use eating restrictions than individuals with lower food involvement. Their DPs were also healthier compared to those of individuals manifesting low food involvement. Therefore, promoting personal commitment to learning about and experiencing food may be an effective way of inducing a change of eating habits, and therefore a healthier diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-Based Nutrition Epidemiology)
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Open AccessReview
Microbial Adaptation Due to Gastric Bypass Surgery: The Nutritional Impact
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041199 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Bariatric surgery leads to sustained weight loss and the resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested that changes in gut microbiota are associated with the weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. Several studies have observed major changes in the microbial composition following [...] Read more.
Bariatric surgery leads to sustained weight loss and the resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested that changes in gut microbiota are associated with the weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. Several studies have observed major changes in the microbial composition following gastric bypass surgery. However, there are inconsistencies between the reported alterations in microbial compositions in different studies. Furthermore, it is well established that diet is an important factor shaping the composition and function of intestinal microbiota. However, most studies on gastric bypass have not assessed the impact of dietary intake on the microbiome composition in general, let alone the impact of restrictive diets prior to bariatric surgery, which are recommended for reducing liver fat content and size. Thus, the relative impact of bariatric surgery on weight loss and gut microbiota remains unclear. Therefore, this review aims to provide a deeper understanding of the current knowledge of the changes in intestinal microbiota induced by bariatric surgery considering pre-surgical nutritional changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Kokumi Taste Active Peptides Modulate Salt and Umami Taste
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041198 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Kokumi taste substances exemplified by γ-glutamyl peptides and Maillard Peptides modulate salt and umami tastes. However, the underlying mechanism for their action has not been delineated. Here, we investigated the effects of a kokumi taste active and inactive peptide fraction (500–10,000 Da) isolated [...] Read more.
Kokumi taste substances exemplified by γ-glutamyl peptides and Maillard Peptides modulate salt and umami tastes. However, the underlying mechanism for their action has not been delineated. Here, we investigated the effects of a kokumi taste active and inactive peptide fraction (500–10,000 Da) isolated from mature (FIIm) and immature (FIIim) Ganjang, a typical Korean soy sauce, on salt and umami taste responses in humans and rodents. Only FIIm (0.1–1.0%) produced a biphasic effect in rat chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to lingual stimulation with 100 mM NaCl + 5 μM benzamil, a specific epithelial Na+ channel blocker. Both elevated temperature (42 °C) and FIIm produced synergistic effects on the NaCl + benzamil CT response. At 0.5% FIIm produced the maximum increase in rat CT response to NaCl + benzamil, and enhanced salt taste intensity in human subjects. At 2.5% FIIm enhanced rat CT response to glutamate that was equivalent to the enhancement observed with 1 mM IMP. In human subjects, 0.3% FIIm produced enhancement of umami taste. These results suggest that FIIm modulates amiloride-insensitive salt taste and umami taste at different concentration ranges in rats and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Better Dietary Knowledge and Socioeconomic Status (SES), Better Body Mass Index? Evidence from China—An Unconditional Quantile Regression Approach
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041197 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Obesity is a rapidly growing public health threat in China. Improvement of dietary knowledge may potentially reduce the risk of obesity and being overweight. However, existing studies focus on measuring the mean effects of nutrition knowledge on body mass index (BMI). There is [...] Read more.
Obesity is a rapidly growing public health threat in China. Improvement of dietary knowledge may potentially reduce the risk of obesity and being overweight. However, existing studies focus on measuring the mean effects of nutrition knowledge on body mass index (BMI). There is a lack of literature on the effect of dietary knowledge on BMI, and the potential heterogeneity of the effect across the whole BMI distribution and across socioeconomic status (SES) groups. This study aims to investigate the heterogeneous nature of the relationship between dietary knowledge, SES, and BMI, using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2015. We employed unconditional quantile regression (UQR) to assess how the relationship between dietary knowledge, SES, and BMI varies across the whole BMI distribution, and conducted subgroup analyses using different socio-economic subsamples. Results indicate that dietary knowledge had no statistically significant impact on BMI across the BMI distribution. There was a large degree of heterogeneity in the SES effect across the BMI distribution as well as a major gender difference in the SES effect on BMI. Education had a significant and inverse association with BMI across the BMI distribution, greater at higher BMI quantiles. Income growth had a larger effect on the 50th quantile of BMI for males in the middle-income group, but was not significant for females. As income increased, males without college educations had higher BMI while females with college or higher education generally had lower BMI. The findings of this study reveal the heterogeneous nature of the relationship between SES, gender, and obesity across the entire BMI distribution, suggesting that quantile regressions might offer a valuable framework for exploring the complex relationship of dietary knowledge, demographic, and socio-economic factors on obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Proinflammatory Dietary Intake is Associated with Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Results from the Population-Based Prospective Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1196; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041196 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health challenge throughout the world, although studies on its association with the inflammatory potential of diet are inconsistent. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII® [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health challenge throughout the world, although studies on its association with the inflammatory potential of diet are inconsistent. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and the risk of MetS and its components in a Korean population. Data from 157,812 Korean adults (mean age 52.8 years; 53,304 men and 104,508 women with mean follow-up of 7.4 years) collected by members of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study form the basis for this report. DII scores were calculated based on Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire data. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between DII scores and MetS. In women, higher DII scores (pro-inflammatory diet) increased the risk of MetS (hazard ratio [HR]quintile5 v. 1 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–1.69; p for trend ≤ 0.0001) and its five components. A positive association was observed for postmenopausal women, with a 50% higher risk of developing MetS (HRquintile5 v. 1 1.50; 95% CI 1.23–1.83; p for trend = 0.0008) after fully adjusting for potential confounders. Irrespective of the menopausal status of women, higher DII (=Q5) scores were positively associated with all 5 components of MetS (p < 0.05). In men, higher DII scores significantly increased the risk of low HDL cholesterol [HR]quintile5 v. 1 1.59 (1.27–1.99); p for trend = 0.0001], elevated waist circumferences [HR]quintile5 v. 1 1.28 (1.08–1.52); p for trend = 0.01], and high blood pressure [HR]quintile5 v. 1 1.17 (1.03–1.32); p for trend = 0.05]. These results indicate that diet with pro-inflammatory potential, as represented by higher DII scores, is prospectively associated with increased risk of MetS, and the relationship is stronger in women than in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Index and Non-communicable Disease Risk)
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Open AccessReview
Does ENaC Work as Sodium Taste Receptor in Humans?
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041195 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Taste reception is fundamental for the proper selection of food and beverages. Among the several chemicals recognized by the human taste system, sodium ions (Na+) are of particular relevance. Na+ represents the main extracellular cation and is a key factor [...] Read more.
Taste reception is fundamental for the proper selection of food and beverages. Among the several chemicals recognized by the human taste system, sodium ions (Na+) are of particular relevance. Na+ represents the main extracellular cation and is a key factor in many physiological processes. Na+ elicits a specific sensation, called salty taste, and low-medium concentrations of table salt (NaCl, the common sodium-containing chemical we use to season foods) are perceived as pleasant and appetitive. How we detect this cation in foodstuffs is scarcely understood. In animal models, such as the mouse and the rat, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has been proposed as a key protein for recognizing Na+ and for mediating preference responses to low-medium salt concentrations. Here, I will review our current understanding regarding the possible involvement of ENaC in the detection of food Na+ by the human taste system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health)
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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms of Lifespan Regulation by Calorie Restriction and Intermittent Fasting in Model Organisms
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041194 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Genetic and pharmacological interventions have successfully extended healthspan and lifespan in animals, but their genetic interventions are not appropriate options for human applications and pharmacological intervention needs more solid clinical evidence. Consequently, dietary manipulations are the only practical and probable strategies to promote [...] Read more.
Genetic and pharmacological interventions have successfully extended healthspan and lifespan in animals, but their genetic interventions are not appropriate options for human applications and pharmacological intervention needs more solid clinical evidence. Consequently, dietary manipulations are the only practical and probable strategies to promote health and longevity in humans. Caloric restriction (CR), reduction of calorie intake to a level that does not compromise overall health, has been considered as being one of the most promising dietary interventions to extend lifespan in humans. Although it is straightforward, continuous reduction of calorie or food intake is not easy to practice in real lives of humans. Recently, fasting-related interventions such as intermittent fasting (IF) and time-restricted feeding (TRF) have emerged as alternatives of CR. Here, we review the history of CR and fasting-related strategies in animal models, discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying these interventions, and propose future directions that can fill the missing gaps in the current understanding of these dietary interventions. CR and fasting appear to extend lifespan by both partially overlapping common mechanisms such as the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway and circadian clock, and distinct independent mechanisms that remain to be discovered. We propose that a systems approach combining global transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic analyses followed by genetic perturbation studies targeting multiple candidate pathways will allow us to better understand how CR and fasting interact with each other to promote longevity. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
A Novel Combination of Vitamin C, Curcumin and Glycyrrhizic Acid Potentially Regulates Immune and Inflammatory Response Associated with Coronavirus Infections: A Perspective from System Biology Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041193 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Novel coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged periodically around the world in recent years. The recurrent spreading of CoVs imposes an ongoing threat to global health and the economy. Since no specific therapy for these CoVs is available, any beneficial approach (including nutritional and dietary [...] Read more.
Novel coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged periodically around the world in recent years. The recurrent spreading of CoVs imposes an ongoing threat to global health and the economy. Since no specific therapy for these CoVs is available, any beneficial approach (including nutritional and dietary approach) is worth investigation. Based on recent advances in nutrients and phytonutrients research, a novel combination of vitamin C, curcumin and glycyrrhizic acid (VCG Plus) was developed that has potential against CoV infection. System biology tools were applied to explore the potential of VCG Plus in modulating targets and pathways relevant to immune and inflammation responses. Gene target acquisition, gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were conducted consecutively along with network analysis. The results show that VCG Plus can act on 88 hub targets which are closely connected and associated with immune and inflammatory responses. Specifically, VCG Plus has the potential to regulate innate immune response by acting on NOD-like and Toll-like signaling pathways to promote interferons production, activate and balance T-cells, and regulate the inflammatory response by inhibiting PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. All these biological processes and pathways have been well documented in CoV infections studies. Therefore, our findings suggest that VCG Plus may be helpful in regulating immune response to combat CoV infections and inhibit excessive inflammatory responses to prevent the onset of cytokine storm. However, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are warranted to validate the current findings with system biology tools. Our current approach provides a new strategy in predicting formulation rationale when developing new dietary supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Bus Stops Near Schools Advertising Junk Food and Sugary Drinks
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041192 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Children rarely understand the full extent of the persuasive purpose of advertising on their eating behaviours. Addressing the obesogenic environments in which children live, through a quantification of outdoor advertising, is essential in informing policy changes and enforcing stricter regulations. This research explores [...] Read more.
Children rarely understand the full extent of the persuasive purpose of advertising on their eating behaviours. Addressing the obesogenic environments in which children live, through a quantification of outdoor advertising, is essential in informing policy changes and enforcing stricter regulations. This research explores the proportion of bus stop advertisements promoting non-core food and beverages within walking distance (500 m) from schools in Auckland, New Zealand while using Google Street View. Information was collected on: school type, decile, address, Walk Score®, and Transit Score for all 573 schools in the Auckland region. Ground-truthing was conducted on 10% of schools and showed an alignment of 87.8%. The majority of advertisements on bus shelters were for non-food items or services (n = 541, 64.3%). Of the advertisements that were for food and/or beverages, the majority were for non-core foods (n = 108, 50.2%). There was no statistically significant difference between the variables core and non-core food and beverages and School decile (tertiles), Walk Score (quintiles), and Transit Score (quintiles). 12.8% of all bus stop advertisements in this study promoted non-core dietary options; highlighting an opportunity for implementing stricter regulations and policies preventing advertising unhealthy food and drink to children in New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Marketing and Dietary Behaviors among Children)
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Open AccessArticle
Spirulina Enhances Bone Modeling in Growing Male Rats by Regulating Growth-Related Hormones
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041187 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
In recent years, growth hormone deficiency in children has been treated with hormone therapy despite the possible significant side effects. Therefore, it was deemed beneficial to develop functional foods or dietary supplements for safely improving children’s growth. Spirulina platensis is known for its [...] Read more.
In recent years, growth hormone deficiency in children has been treated with hormone therapy despite the possible significant side effects. Therefore, it was deemed beneficial to develop functional foods or dietary supplements for safely improving children’s growth. Spirulina platensis is known for its high antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-cancer, and immunity-enhancing properties, as well as its high digestibility and high protein content, but little has been reported about its influence on bone development in children with a normal supply of protein. In this study, we evaluated the effects of spirulina on the bone metabolism and antioxidant profiles of three-week-old growing male rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 17 per group) and were fed AIN93G diets with 0% (control), 30% (SP30), 50% (SP50), and 70% (SP70) of casein protein replaced by spirulina, respectively, for seven weeks. We observed that spirulina enhanced bone growth and bone strength by stimulating parathyroid hormone and growth hormone activities, as well its increased antioxidant activity. These results indicate that spirulina provides a suitable dietary supplement and alternative protein source with antioxidant benefits for growth improvement in early developmental stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake and Hydration on Health in Japanese Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041191 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Increased hydration is recommended as healthy habit with several merits. However, supportive data are sparse. To assess the efficacy of increased daily water intake, we tested the effect of water supplementation on biomarkers in blood, urine, and saliva. Twenty-four healthy Japanese men and [...] Read more.
Increased hydration is recommended as healthy habit with several merits. However, supportive data are sparse. To assess the efficacy of increased daily water intake, we tested the effect of water supplementation on biomarkers in blood, urine, and saliva. Twenty-four healthy Japanese men and 31 healthy Japanese women with fasting blood glucose levels ranging from 90–125 mg/dL were included. An open-label, two-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks. Two additional 550 mL bottles of water on top of habitual fluid intake were consumed in the intervention group. The subjects drank one bottle of water (550 mL) within 2 h of waking, and one bottle (550 mL) 2 h before bedtime. Subjects increased mean fluid intake from 1.3 L/day to 2.0 L/day, without changes in total energy intake. Total body water rate increased with associated water supplementation. There were no significant changes in fasting blood glucose and arginine vasopressin levels, but systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the intervention group. Furthermore, water supplementation increased body temperature, reduced blood urea nitrogen concentration, and suppressed estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction. Additionally, existence of an intestinal microbiome correlated with decreased systolic blood pressure and increased body temperature. Habitual water supplementation after waking up and before bedtime in healthy subjects with slightly elevated fasting blood glucose levels is not effective in lowering these levels. However, it represents a safe and promising intervention with the potential for lowering blood pressure, increasing body temperature, diluting blood waste materials, and protecting kidney function. Thus, increasing daily water intake could provide several health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Kaempferide Enhances Chemosensitivity of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells Mediated by the Decrease in Phosphorylation of Akt and Claudin-2 Expression
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041190 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Claudins (CLDNs) play crucial roles in the formation of tight junctions. We have reported that abnormal expression of CLDN2 confers chemoresistance in the spheroids of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. A food composition, which can reduce CLDN2 expression, may function to prevent the [...] Read more.
Claudins (CLDNs) play crucial roles in the formation of tight junctions. We have reported that abnormal expression of CLDN2 confers chemoresistance in the spheroids of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. A food composition, which can reduce CLDN2 expression, may function to prevent the malignant progression. Here, we found that ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis (EBGP) and kaempferide, a major component of EBGP, decrease CLDN2 expression. In the two-dimensional culture model, EBGP decreased the tight junctional localization of CLDN2 without affecting that of zonula occludens-1, an adaptor protein, and enhanced paracellular permeability to doxorubicin, a cytotoxic anticancer drug. EBGP reduced hypoxic stress, and enhanced the accumulation and sensitivity of doxorubicin in the spheroid of A549 cells. Kaempferide dose-dependently decreased CLDN2 expression, although dihydrokaempferide and pinocembrin did not. The phosphorylation of Akt, a regulatory factor of CLDN2 expression, was inhibited by kaempferide but not by dihydrokaempferide. The 2,3-double bond in the C ring may be important to inhibit Akt. Kaempferide decreased the mRNA level and promoter activity of CLDN2, indicating that it inhibits the transcription of CLDN2. In accordance with EBGP, kaempferide decreased the tight junctional localization of CLDN2 and increased a paracellular permeability to doxorubicin, suggesting that it diminished the paracellular barrier to small molecules. In addition, kaempferide reduced hypoxic stress, and enhanced the accumulation and sensitivity of doxorubicin in the spheroids. In contrast, dihydrokaempferide did not improve the sensitivity to doxorubicin. Further study is needed using an animal model, but we suggest that natural foods abundantly containing kaempferide are candidates for the prevention of the chemoresistance of lung adenocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dietary Combination of Forskolin with Homotaurine, Spearmint and B Vitamins Protects Injured Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Rodent Model of Hypertensive Glaucoma
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041189 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
There is indication that nutritional supplements protect retinal cells from degeneration. In a previous study, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with an association of forskolin, homotaurine, spearmint extract and B vitamins efficiently counteracts retinal dysfunction associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused [...] Read more.
There is indication that nutritional supplements protect retinal cells from degeneration. In a previous study, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with an association of forskolin, homotaurine, spearmint extract and B vitamins efficiently counteracts retinal dysfunction associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by optic nerve crush. We extended our investigation on the efficacy of dietary supplementation with the use of a mouse model in which RGC degeneration depends as closely as possible on intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. In this model, injecting the anterior chamber of the eye with methylcellulose (MCE) causes IOP elevation leading to RGC dysfunction. The MCE model was characterized in terms of IOP elevation, retinal dysfunction as determined by electrophysiological recordings, RGC loss as determined by brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A immunoreactivity and dysregulated levels of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Except for IOP elevation, dysfunctional retinal parameters were all recovered by dietary supplementation indicating the involvement of non-IOP-related neuroprotective mechanisms of action. Our hypothesis is that the diet supplement may be used to counteract the inflammatory processes triggered by glial cell activation, thus leading to spared RGC loss and the preservation of visual dysfunction. In this respect, the present compound may be viewed as a potential remedy to be added to the currently approved drug therapies for improving RGC protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Metabolome Alterations Associated with Extrauterine Growth Restriction
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041188 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Very preterm infants (VPI, born at or before 32 weeks of gestation) are at risk of adverse health outcomes, from which they might be partially protected with appropriate postnatal nutrition and growth. Metabolic processes or biochemical markers associated to extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) [...] Read more.
Very preterm infants (VPI, born at or before 32 weeks of gestation) are at risk of adverse health outcomes, from which they might be partially protected with appropriate postnatal nutrition and growth. Metabolic processes or biochemical markers associated to extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) have not been identified. We applied untargeted metabolomics to plasma samples of VPI with adequate weight for gestational age at birth and with different growth trajectories (29 well-grown, 22 EUGR) at the time of hospital discharge. A multivariate analysis showed significantly higher levels of amino-acids in well-grown patients. Other metabolites were also identified as statistically significant in the comparison between groups. Relevant differences (with corrections for multiple comparison) were found in levels of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and other lipids. Levels of many of the biochemical species decreased progressively as the level of growth restriction increased in severity. In conclusion, an untargeted metabolomic approach uncovered previously unknown differences in the levels of a range of plasma metabolites between well grown and EUGR infants at the time of discharge. Our findings open speculation about pathways involved in growth failure in preterm infants and the long-term relevance of this metabolic differences, as well as helping in the definition of potential biomarkers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Basal Metabolic Rate and Nutrients Oxidation with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity in Sedentary Middle-Aged Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041186 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 610
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and basal fat and carbohydrate oxidation (BFox and BCHox, respectively) with cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 71 healthy sedentary adults (37 women) [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and basal fat and carbohydrate oxidation (BFox and BCHox, respectively) with cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 71 healthy sedentary adults (37 women) aged 40–65 years participated in the current study. Data were collected during the baseline assessments of the FIT-AGEING randomized controlled trial. BMR was measured via indirect calorimetry, and BFox and BCHox estimated by stoichiometric equations. Blood pressure, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides plasma levels were selected as cardiometabolic risk factors and assessed following standard procedures. We observed positive associations of BMR with plasma insulin and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA; all p < 0.05) which were attenuated or disappeared after controlling by sex, age, and/or lean mass. There were positive associations between BFox and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI; p < 0.015), while negative associations were noted between BFox and plasma insulin and HOMA (p < 0.015). There was a significant negative association between BCHox with QUICKI (p < 0.01), whereas significant positive relationships were obtained when BCHox was associated with plasma insulin and HOMA (p < 0.01). These associations persisted in almost all cases when controlling by sex, age and/or lean mass. No further relationships were found when BMR, BFox, and BCHox were associated with other cardiometabolic risk factors. In conclusion, our study findings support that greater BFox and lower BCHox are related to improved insulin sensitivity, whereas BMR seems to be not associated with neither cardiometabolic risk nor insulin sensitivity in sedentary middle-aged adults. Further intervention studies are necessary to well-understand the physiological mechanism implied in this relationship. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Intestinal Permeability, Inflammation and the Role of Nutrients
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041185 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The interaction between host and external environment mainly occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, where the mucosal barrier has a critical role in many physiologic functions ranging from digestion, absorption, and metabolism. This barrier allows the passage and absorption of nutrients, but at the [...] Read more.
The interaction between host and external environment mainly occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, where the mucosal barrier has a critical role in many physiologic functions ranging from digestion, absorption, and metabolism. This barrier allows the passage and absorption of nutrients, but at the same time, it must regulate the contact between luminal antigens and the immune system, confining undesirable products to the lumen. Diet is an important regulator of the mucosal barrier, and the cross-talk among dietary factors, the immune system, and microbiota is crucial for the modulation of intestinal permeability and for the maintenance of gastrointestinal tract (GI) homeostasis. In the present review, we will discuss the role of a number of dietary nutrients that have been proposed as regulators of inflammation and epithelial barrier function. We will also consider the metabolic function of the microbiota, which is capable of elaborating the diverse nutrients and synthesizing products of great interest. Better knowledge of the influence of dietary nutrients on inflammation and barrier function can be important for the future development of new therapeutic approaches for patients with mucosal barrier dysfunction, a critical factor in the pathogenesis of many GI and non-GI diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Digestive Diseases)
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Open AccessReply
Reply to “Limitations of the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) and Choice of Statistical Reporting. Comment on “A Comparison of Dietary Protein Digestibility, Based on DIAAS Scoring, in Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Athletes.” Nutrients 2019, 11, 3106”
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041184 - 23 Apr 2020
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Abstract
We appreciate the critique of our paper (Ciuris et al [...] Full article
Open AccessComment
Limitations of the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) and Choice of Statistical Reporting. Comment on “A Comparison of Dietary Protein Digestibility, Based on DIAAS Scoring, in Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Athletes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3106”
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041183 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Dear Editor, [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Cooked Black Beans Stimulates a Cluster of Some Clostridia Class Bacteria Decreasing Inflammatory Response and Improving Insulin Sensitivity
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041182 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
There is limited information on the effect of black beans (BB) as a source of protein and resistant starch on the intestinal microbiota. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of cooked black beans with and without high fat [...] Read more.
There is limited information on the effect of black beans (BB) as a source of protein and resistant starch on the intestinal microbiota. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of cooked black beans with and without high fat and sugar (HF + S) in the diet on body composition, energy expenditure, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, NF-κB, occluding and insulin signaling in a rat model and the area under the curve for glucose, insulin and incretins in healthy subjects. The consumption of BB reduced the percentage of body fat, the area under the curve of glucose, serum leptin, LPS, glucose and insulin concentrations and increased energy expenditure even in the presence of HF + S. These results could be mediated in part by modification of the gut microbiota, by increasing a cluster of bacteria in the Clostridia class, mainly R. bromii, C. eutactus, R. callidus, R. flavefaciens and B. pullicaecorum and by an increase in the concentration of fecal butyrate. In conclusion, the consumption of BB can be recommended to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic endotoxemia by modifying the gut microbiota. Finally, the groups fed BB showed lower abundance of hepatic FMO-3, even with a high-fat diet protecting against the production of TMAO and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041181 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 20638
Abstract
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in [...] Read more.
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of a 12-Week Almond-Enriched Diet on Biomarkers of Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Cardiometabolic Health in Older Overweight Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041180 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Long term nut consumption is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and better cognitive function. This study examined supplementing habitual diets with almonds or carbohydrate-rich snack foods (providing 15% energy) on biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health, mood and cognitive performance. [...] Read more.
Long term nut consumption is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and better cognitive function. This study examined supplementing habitual diets with almonds or carbohydrate-rich snack foods (providing 15% energy) on biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health, mood and cognitive performance. Participants (overweight/obese, 50–80 years) were randomised to an almond-enriched diet (AED) or isocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness, cell adhesions molecules, C reactive protein (CRP), mood, and cognitive performance (working memory primary outcome), dietary profiles and energy intake/expenditure were measured at baseline and Week 12 in 128 participants (n = 63 AED, n = 65 NFD). Compared with NFD, AED was associated with altered macro and micronutrient profiles, but no differences in energy intake or expenditure. The AED significantly reduced triglycerides and SBP but there were no other changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers, mood, or cognitive performance. The inclusion of almonds in the diet improves aspects of cardiometabolic health without affecting cognitive performance or mood in overweight/obese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuts Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Eye Health: Opinions and Self-Reported Practice Behaviors of Optometrists in Australia and New Zealand
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041179 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 780
Abstract
This study investigated optometrists’ attitudes and self-reported practice behaviors towards omega-3 fatty acids for eye health, and knowledge and understanding of their potential risks and benefits. An anonymous online survey was distributed to optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Questions included practitioner demographics [...] Read more.
This study investigated optometrists’ attitudes and self-reported practice behaviors towards omega-3 fatty acids for eye health, and knowledge and understanding of their potential risks and benefits. An anonymous online survey was distributed to optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Questions included practitioner demographics and practice modality; self-reported practices and recommendations relating to diet, nutritional supplements, and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and dry eye disease (DED); and practitioner knowledge about omega-3 fatty acids. Of 206 included surveys, most respondents (79%) indicated recommending for their patients to consume omega-3 fatty acids to improve their eye health. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated recommending omega-3-rich foods for AMD management, while 62% indicated recommending omega-3 supplements. Most respondents (78%) indicated recommending omega-3-rich foods or supplements for DED. For DED, recommended omega-3 supplement dosages were (median [inter-quartile range, IQR]) 2000 mg [1000–2750 mg] per day. The main sources of information reported by respondents to guide their clinical decision making were continuing education articles and conferences. In conclusion, optometrists routinely make clinical recommendations about diet and omega-3 fatty acids. Future education could target improving optometrists’ knowledge of differences in the evidence for whole-food versus supplement sources of omega-3 fatty acids in AMD. Further research is needed to address uncertainties in the evidence regarding optimal omega-3 dosage and formulation composition in DED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Education in Medicine)
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Open AccessRetraction
Retraction: Nassef, Y. et al. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise and Badminton on HDL Cholesterol Levels in Adult Taiwanese. Nutrients 2019, 11, 515
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041178 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The published article [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Acute Effect of the Timing of Resistance Exercise and Nutrient Intake on Muscle Protein Breakdown
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041177 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Background: Combining resistance exercise (RE) with nutrient intake stimulates muscle protein net balance. However, it is still unclear whether the optimal timing of nutrient intake is before or after RE, especially on muscle protein breakdown (MPB) for an augmented muscle anabolic response. The [...] Read more.
Background: Combining resistance exercise (RE) with nutrient intake stimulates muscle protein net balance. However, it is still unclear whether the optimal timing of nutrient intake is before or after RE, especially on muscle protein breakdown (MPB) for an augmented muscle anabolic response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a substantial mixed meal (i.e., nutrient- and protein-dense whole foods) before or after RE, compared with RE without a meal on the acute response of MPB in a crossover-design study. Methods: Eight healthy young men performed three trials: (1) meal intake before RE (Pre), (2) meal intake after RE (Post), and (3) RE without meal intake (No). Plasma insulin and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), an MPB marker, were measured. Results: Time course change in plasma insulin level after RE was significantly higher in the Post condition than in the Pre and No conditions. The area under the curve of 3-MH concentration was significantly lower in the Post condition than in the Pre and No conditions. Conclusions: These results suggest that a substantial mixed meal immediately after RE may effectively suppress MPB in the morning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Ingestion of a Novel Nitrate-Rich Dietary Supplement Significantly Increases Plasma Nitrate/Nitrite in Physically Active Men and Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041176 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Background: Dietary supplements purported to increase circulating nitric oxide are very popular among consumers. We determined the acute impact of two novel dietary supplements on plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and nitrite alone. Methods: 20 men and women (age: 24 ± 5 years) ingested two [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary supplements purported to increase circulating nitric oxide are very popular among consumers. We determined the acute impact of two novel dietary supplements on plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and nitrite alone. Methods: 20 men and women (age: 24 ± 5 years) ingested two different nitrate-rich supplements (Resync Recovery Blend at 7.5 g and 15 g; Resync Collagen Blend at 21 g), or placebo, on four different days. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and 75 min following ingestion and analyzed for NOx and nitrite. Results: Nitrite was not differently impacted by treatment (p > 0.05). The NOx response for men and women was very similar, with no sex interactions noted (p > 0.05). Condition (p < 0.0001), time (p < 0.0001), and condition x time (p < 0.0001) effects were noted for NOx. Values increased from baseline to post-ingestion for the Resync Recovery Blend at 7.5 g (11 ± 9 to 101 ± 48 µM) and at 15 g (9 ± 5 to 176 ± 91 µM), as well as for the Resync Collagen Blend (9 ± 9 to 46 ± 21 µM), while values for placebo remained stable (9 ± 7 to 8 ± 5 µM). Conclusion: While nitrite alone was not impacted by treatment, both Resync products result in an increase in plasma NOx, with the increase proportionate to the quantity of “nitric oxide blend” ingredients contained within each product. Future studies are needed to determine the physiological implications of the increased NOx, as pertaining to exercise performance and recovery, in addition to other aspects of human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Glycomacropeptide Prevents Iron/Ascorbate-Induced Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Insulin Sensitivity with an Impact on Lipoprotein Production in Intestinal Caco-2/15 Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041175 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Background. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a major worldwide concern for the public health system, refers to a cluster of key metabolic components, and represents a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As oxidative stress (OxS) and inflammation are the major triggers of insulin [...] Read more.
Background. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a major worldwide concern for the public health system, refers to a cluster of key metabolic components, and represents a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As oxidative stress (OxS) and inflammation are the major triggers of insulin sensitivity (IS), a cardinal MetS feature, the principal aim of the present work is to determine whether glycomacropeptide (GMP), a milk-derived bioactive peptide, exerts beneficial effects on their expression. Methods. Fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2/15 cells are used to evaluate the preventive action of 2 mg/mL GMP against OxS and inflammation induced by the mixture iron-ascorbate (Fe/Asc) (200 μM:2 mM). The potency of GMP of decreasing the production of lipoproteins, including chylomicrons (CM), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is also assessed. Results. The administration of GMP significantly reduces malondialdehyde, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and raises superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase via the induction of the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2, a transcription factor, which orchestrates cellular antioxidant defenses. Similarly, GMP markedly lowers the inflammatory agents tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2 via abrogation of the nuclear transcription factor-kB. Moreover, GMP-treated cells show a down-regulation of Fe/Asc-induced mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, suggesting greater IS. Finally, GMP decreases the production of CM, VLDL, and LDL. Conclusions. Our results highlight the effectiveness of GMP in attenuating OxS, inflammation and lipoprotein biogenesis, as well as improving IS, the key components of MetS. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the preventive action of GMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Facial EMG Correlates of Subjective Hedonic Responses During Food Consumption
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041174 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
An exploration of physiological correlates of subjective hedonic responses while eating food has practical and theoretical significance. Previous psychophysiological studies have suggested that some physiological measures, including facial electromyography (EMG), may correspond to hedonic responses while viewing food images or drinking liquids. However, [...] Read more.
An exploration of physiological correlates of subjective hedonic responses while eating food has practical and theoretical significance. Previous psychophysiological studies have suggested that some physiological measures, including facial electromyography (EMG), may correspond to hedonic responses while viewing food images or drinking liquids. However, whether consuming solid food could produce such subjective–physiological concordance remains untested. To investigate this issue, we assessed participants’ subjective ratings of liking, wanting, valence, and arousal while they consumed gel-type food stimuli of various flavors and textures. We additionally measured their physiological signals, including facial EMG from the corrugator supercilii. The results showed that liking, wanting, and valence ratings were negatively correlated with corrugator supercilii EMG activity. Only the liking rating maintained a negative association with corrugator supercilii activity when the other ratings were partialed out. These data suggest that the subjective hedonic experience, specifically the liking state, during food consumption can be objectively assessed using facial EMG signals and may be influenced by such somatic signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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