Special Issue "Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2020) | Viewed by 66555

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ana Rivas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Spain
Interests: human nutrition; hormones; food; microbiota; endocrine-related diseases
Dr. Margarita Aguilera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18011 Granada, Spain
2. Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (IBS), 18014 Granada, Spain
3. Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology "José Mataix", Center of Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n. Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
Interests: probiotics; next generation probiotics; molecular microbiology; microbiome; culturomics and toxicomicrobiomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last decade, growing evidence has identified the gut microbiota and its disturbance as a potential factor in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders, including obesity or diabetes. Diet effects on intestinal microbial composition and its role in pathogenetic mechanisms that are responsible for metabolic disorders represent, at the moment, one of thes most promising topics in nutrition research. However, it is necessary for them to be further explored in order to understand and interrupt the pathogenetic mechanisms, which support metabolic diseases.

Although not completely elucidated, the link between microbes and the onset of specific metabolic diseases such as obesity could lead to the development of therapeutic methods using nutrients or probiotics to prevent or cure these diseases.

Hence, the aim of the current Special Issue is to report evidence for a link of the gut microbiota with human metabolic disorders, to provide insights into this association, and to address the effect of diet on this relationship.

Prof. Ana Rivas
Dr. Margarita Aguilera
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Microbiota
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Article
Predicted Metabolic Pathway Distributions in Stool Bacteria in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: Potential Relationships with NICU Faltered Growth
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051345 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Many very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants experience growth faltering in early life despite adequate nutrition. Early growth patterns can affect later neurodevelopmental and anthropometric potentials. The role of the dysbiotic gut microbiome in VLBW infant growth is unknown. Eighty-four VLBW infants were followed for six [...] Read more.
Many very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants experience growth faltering in early life despite adequate nutrition. Early growth patterns can affect later neurodevelopmental and anthropometric potentials. The role of the dysbiotic gut microbiome in VLBW infant growth is unknown. Eighty-four VLBW infants were followed for six weeks after birth with weekly stool collection. DNA was extracted from samples and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. A similar microbiota database from full-term infants was used for comparing gut microbiome and predicted metabolic pathways. The class Gammaproteobacteria increased or remained consistent over time in VLBW infants. Out of 228 metabolic pathways that were significantly different between term and VLBW infants, 133 pathways were significantly lower in VLBW infants. Major metabolic differences in their gut microbiome included pathways involved in decreased glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, reduced biosynthetic capacity, interrupted amino acid metabolism, changes that could result in increased infection susceptibility, and many other system deficiencies. Our study reveals poor postnatal growth in a VLBW cohort who had dysbiotic gut microbiota and differences in predicted metabolic pathways compared to term infants. The gut microbiota in VLBW infants likely plays an important role in postnatal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Monobutyrin and Monovalerin Affect Brain Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles and Tight-Junction Protein Expression in ApoE-Knockout Rats Fed High-Fat Diets
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041202 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Monobutyrin (MB) and monovalerin (MV), esters of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have previously been shown to reduce liver cholesterol and inflammation in conventional rats fed high-fat diets. This study explored the potential effects of MB and MV in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) rats. [...] Read more.
Monobutyrin (MB) and monovalerin (MV), esters of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have previously been shown to reduce liver cholesterol and inflammation in conventional rats fed high-fat diets. This study explored the potential effects of MB and MV in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) rats. ApoE-/- rats were fed three high-fat (HF) diets, pure or supplemented with MB or MV (1%), for 5 weeks. One group of conventional rats (C) was also fed the pure high-fat diet and another group of ApoE-/- rats a low-fat (LF) diet. Blood and liver lipids, urinary lactulose/mannitol, SCFAs (blood and brain), tight junction proteins (small intestine and brain), and inflammation-related markers (blood, brain, and liver) were analyzed. MV supplementation elevated serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and valeric acid concentration (p < 0.05), while the amounts of isovaleric acid in the brain were reduced (p < 0.05). MB increased butyric acid amounts in the brain, while the plasma concentration of interleukin 10 (IL-10) was lowered (p < 0.05). Both MV and MB upregulated the expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the brain (p < 0.05). Supplementation of MB or MV affected HDL cholesterol, the expression of tight junction proteins, and SCFA profiles. MB and MV may therefore be promising supplements to attenuate lipid metabolic disorders caused by high-fat intake and genetic deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Sex-Specific Effects of Dietary Methionine Restriction on the Intestinal Microbiome
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030781 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Dietary methionine restriction is associated with improved health outcomes and an increase in lifespan in animal models. We have previously shown that an increase in dietary methionine induces alteration in the intestinal microbiome. The composition of the intestinal microbiota is a determinant of [...] Read more.
Dietary methionine restriction is associated with improved health outcomes and an increase in lifespan in animal models. We have previously shown that an increase in dietary methionine induces alteration in the intestinal microbiome. The composition of the intestinal microbiota is a determinant of health and we, therefore, hypothesized that dietary methionine restriction would also induce changes in the murine microbiome. After one month on a methionine-restricted diet, five-month-old male and female C57BL/6 mice had decreased levels of serum methionine, without changes in body weight. We identified a decrease in the hepatic methylation status of animals fed a methionine-restricted diet compared to controls. This decrease was not associated with changes in DNA or protein methylation in the liver. In males, we saw an increase in families Bacteroidaceae and Verrucoccaceae (mostly A. mucinophila) and a decrease in Rumminococcaceae in animals fed a methionine-restricted diet compared to controls. In females, Bacteroidales family S24-7 was increased two-fold, while families Bacteroidaceae, Verrucoccaceae, Rumminococcaceae, and Rikenellaceae were decreased compared to controls. In summary, feeding a methionine-restricted diet for one month was associated with significant and sex-specific changes in the intestinal microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
The Relationship between Circulating Acetate and Human Insulin Resistance before and after Weight Loss in the DiOGenes Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020339 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
Microbially-produced acetate has been reported to beneficially affect metabolic health through effects on satiety, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and substrate utilization. Here, we investigate the association between sex-specific concentrations of acetate and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), circulating [...] Read more.
Microbially-produced acetate has been reported to beneficially affect metabolic health through effects on satiety, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and substrate utilization. Here, we investigate the association between sex-specific concentrations of acetate and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), circulating insulin and Matsuda Index) in the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) Dietary study at baseline and after a low-calorie diet (LCD, 800 kcal/d). In this analysis, 692 subjects (Body Mass Index >27 kg/m2) were included, who underwent an LCD for 8 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed, which were adjusted for mean acetate concentration, center (random factor), age, weight loss, and fat-free mass (FFM). At baseline, no associations between plasma acetate and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices were found. We found a slight positive association between changes in acetate and changes in HOMA-IR (stdβ 0.130, p = 0.033) in women, but not in men (stdβ −0.072, p = 0.310) independently of age, weight loss and FFM. We were not able to confirm previously reported associations between acetate and insulin sensitivity in this large European cohort. The mechanisms behind the sex-specific relationship between LCD-induced changes in acetate and insulin sensitivity require further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
Article
Murine Genetic Background Overcomes Gut Microbiota Changes to Explain Metabolic Response to High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020287 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play essential roles in the development of metabolic diseases. A/J and C57BL/6J (C57) are two mouse strains known to display different susceptibilities to metabolic disorders. In this context, we analyzed gut microbiota composition in A/J [...] Read more.
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play essential roles in the development of metabolic diseases. A/J and C57BL/6J (C57) are two mouse strains known to display different susceptibilities to metabolic disorders. In this context, we analyzed gut microbiota composition in A/J and C57 mice, and assessed its responses to high-fat diet (HFD) and antibiotic (AB) treatment. We also exchanged the gut microbiota between the two strains following AB treatment to evaluate its impact on the metabolism. We showed that A/J and C57 mice have different microbiome structure and composition at baseline. Moreover, A/J and C57 microbiomes responded differently to HFD and AB treatments. Exchange of the gut microbiota between the two strains was successful as recipients’ microbiota resembled donor-strain microbiota. Seven weeks after inoculation, the differences between recipients persisted and were still closer from the donor-strain microbiota. Despite effective microbiota transplants, the response to HFD was not markedly modified in C57 and A/J mice. Particularly, body weight gain and glucose intolerance in response to HFD remained different in the two mouse strains whatever the changes in microbiome composition. This indicated that genetic background has a much stronger impact on metabolic responses to HFD than gut microbiome composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Lactate-Fortified Puerariae Radix Fermented by Bifidobacterium breve Improved Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation via Alteration of Gut Microbial Communities
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020276 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Background: Puerariae Radix (PR), the dried root of Pueraria lobata, is reported to possess therapeutic efficacies against various diseases including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Fermentation-driven bioactivation of herbal medicines can result in improved therapeutic potencies and efficacies. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed [...] Read more.
Background: Puerariae Radix (PR), the dried root of Pueraria lobata, is reported to possess therapeutic efficacies against various diseases including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Fermentation-driven bioactivation of herbal medicines can result in improved therapeutic potencies and efficacies. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet and fructose in water with PR (400 mg/kg) or PR fermented by Bifidobacterium breve (400 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. Histological staining, qPCR, Western blot, and 16s rRNA sequencing were used to determine the protective effects of PR and fermented PR (fPR) against metabolic dysfunction. Results: Treatment with both PR and fPR for 10 weeks resulted in a reduction in body weight gain with a more significant reduction in the latter group. Lactate, important for energy metabolism and homeostasis, was increased during fermentation. Both PR and fPR caused significant down-regulation of the intestinal expression of the MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α genes. However, for the IL-6 and TNF-α gene expressions, the inhibitory effect of fPR was more pronounced (p < 0.01) than that of PR (p < 0.05). Oral glucose tolerance test results showed that both PR and fPR treatments improved glucose homeostasis. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the expression of hepatic gene PPARγ, a key regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, following fPR but not PR treatment. Activation of hepatic AMPK phosphorylation was significantly enhanced by both PR and fPR treatment. In addition, both PR and fPR reduced adipocyte size in highly significant manners (p < 0.001). Treatment by fPR but not PR significantly reduced the expression of PPARγ and low-density lipoproteins in adipose tissue. Conclusion: Treatment with fPR appears to be more potent than that of PR in improving the pathways related to glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)+fructose-fed animals. The results revealed that the process of fermentation of PR enhanced lactate and facilitated the enrichment of certain microbial communities that contribute to anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Seabuckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) Freeze-Dried Powder Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Lipid Metabolism Disorders by Modulating the Gut Microbiota of Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010265 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder on high-fat diet-induced obesity and related lipid metabolism disorders, and further explored if this improvement is associated with gut microbiota. Results showed that seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder administration decreased body weight, Lee’s [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder on high-fat diet-induced obesity and related lipid metabolism disorders, and further explored if this improvement is associated with gut microbiota. Results showed that seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder administration decreased body weight, Lee’s index, adipose tissue weight, liver weight, and serum lipid levels. Moreover, treatment with seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder effectively reduced fat accumulation by modulating the relative expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism through down-regulation of encoding lipogenic and store genes, including SREBP-1c, PPAR-γ, ACC, and SCD1, and up-regulation of regulating genes of fatty acid oxidation, including HSL, CPT-1, and ACOX. Especially, seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder regulated the composition of gut microbiota, such as increasing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, decreasing relative abundance of harmful bacteria (Desulfovibrio), and increasing relative abundance of beneficial bacteria (Akkermansia and Bacteroides). The changes of beneficial bacteria had a positive correlation with genes encoding lipolysis and a negative correlation with genes encoding lipid lipogenesis and store. The harmful bacteria were just the opposite. Besides, changes in gut microbiota had an obvious effect in the secretion of main metabolites—short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid. Thus, our results indicated that the seabuckthorn freeze-dried powder could ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated lipid metabolism disorders by changing the composition and structure of gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Antibiotic Treatment Does Not Ameliorate the Metabolic Changes in Rats Presenting Dysbiosis After Consuming a High Fructose Diet
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010203 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
High fructose consumption is one of the hallmarks of Western diets and has been found to induce MeS symptoms in parallel to gut microbial dysbiosis. However, the causality between those two is still elusive. Here, we studied whether a significant modification of gut [...] Read more.
High fructose consumption is one of the hallmarks of Western diets and has been found to induce MeS symptoms in parallel to gut microbial dysbiosis. However, the causality between those two is still elusive. Here, we studied whether a significant modification of gut microbial composition by antibiotics can influence the fructose-induced metabolic changes. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups including controls, controls + antibiotics, high fructose diet (HFrD, 60% fructose), HFrD + antibiotics (n = 7–8 in each group) for a period of 8-weeks. The high fructose diet increased blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG), fatty liver and the expression of hepatic genes related to lipogenesis, and fructose transport and metabolism. In addition, fructose changed the microbial composition and increased acetic and butyric acids in fecal samples but not in the blood. Antibiotic treatment significantly reduced microbial diversity and modified the microbial composition in the samples. However, minimal or no effect was seen in the metabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, high fructose consumption (60%) induced metabolic changes and dysbiosis in rats. However, antibiotic treatment did not reverse the metabolic phenotype. Therefore, the metabolic changes are probably independent of a specific microbiome profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Rice Endosperm Protein Administration to Juvenile Mice Regulates Gut Microbiota and Suppresses the Development of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Related Disorders in Adulthood
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2919; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122919 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Obesity and related disorders, which are increasing in adults worldwide, are closely linked to childhood diet and are associated with chronic inflammation. Rice endosperm protein (REP) intake during adulthood has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and suppress the progression of diabetic kidney [...] Read more.
Obesity and related disorders, which are increasing in adults worldwide, are closely linked to childhood diet and are associated with chronic inflammation. Rice endosperm protein (REP) intake during adulthood has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and suppress the progression of diabetic kidney disease in animal models. However, the effects of REP intake during childhood on adulthood health are unclear. Therefore, we used a mouse model to experimentally investigate the preconditioning effects of REP intake during childhood on the development of obesity and related disorders in adulthood. Male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a normal-fat diet containing casein or REP during the juvenile period and then a high-fat diet (HFD) containing casein or REP during adulthood. Mice fed REP during the juvenile period showed better body weight, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels, and glucose tolerance in adulthood than those fed casein during the juvenile period. HFD-induced renal tubulo-glomerular alterations and hepatic microvesicular steatosis were less evident in REP-fed mice than in casein-fed ones. REP intake during the juvenile period improved HFD-induced dysbiosis (i.e., Escherichia genus proliferation and reduced gut microbiota diversity), thereby suppressing endotoxin-related chronic inflammation. Indeed, REP-derived peptides showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, a major producer of LPS. In conclusion, REP supplementation during the juvenile period may regulate the gut microbiota and thus suppress the development of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review

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Review
Gut Feelings: How Microbiota Might Impact the Development and Course of Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113295 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) can probably be regarded as a “model” for studying the interaction of nutrition with the gut–brain axis, which has drawn increased attention from researchers and clinicians alike. The gut microbiota influences somatic effects, such as energy extraction from food and [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) can probably be regarded as a “model” for studying the interaction of nutrition with the gut–brain axis, which has drawn increased attention from researchers and clinicians alike. The gut microbiota influences somatic effects, such as energy extraction from food and body weight gain, as well as appetite, gut permeability, inflammation and complex psychological behaviors, such as depression or anxiety, all of which play important roles in AN. As nutrition is one of the main factors that influence the gut microbiota, nutritional restriction and selective eating in AN are likely influencing factors; however, nutritional rehabilitation therapy is surprisingly understudied. Here, we review the general mechanisms of the interactions between nutrition, the gut microbiota and the host that may be relevant to AN, paying special attention to the gut–brain axis, and we present the first specific findings in patients with AN and corresponding animal models. In particular, nutritional interventions, including food selection, supplements, and pre-, pro- and synbiotics that have the potential to influence the gut microbiota, are important research targets to potentially support future AN therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Diet Supplementation, Probiotics, and Nutraceuticals in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061718 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 97 | Viewed by 12437
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Effect of Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Role of Intestinal Microbiota on Hesperidin Bioavailability
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051488 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3434
Abstract
Recently, hesperidin, a flavonone mainly present in citrus fruits, has emerged as a new potential therapeutic agent able to modulate several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors. Animal and in vitro studies demonstrate beneficial effects of hesperidin and its derived compounds on CVD risk [...] Read more.
Recently, hesperidin, a flavonone mainly present in citrus fruits, has emerged as a new potential therapeutic agent able to modulate several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors. Animal and in vitro studies demonstrate beneficial effects of hesperidin and its derived compounds on CVD risk factors. Thus, hesperidin has shown glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory properties in diabetic models, dyslipidemia-, atherosclerosis-, and obesity-preventing effects in CVDs and obese models, and antihypertensive and antioxidant effects in hypertensive models. However, there is still controversy about whether hesperidin could contribute to ameliorate glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity, and blood pressure in humans, as evidenced by several clinical trials reporting no effects of treatments with this flavanone or with orange juice on these cardiovascular parameters. In this review, we focus on hesperidin’s beneficial effects on CVD risk factors, paying special attention to the high interindividual variability in response to hesperidin-based acute and chronic interventions, which can be partly attributed to differences in gut microbiota. Based on the current evidence, we suggest that some of hesperidin’s contradictory effects in human trials are partly due to the interindividual hesperidin variability in its bioavailability, which in turn is highly dependent on the α-rhamnosidase activity and gut microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Connecting the Dots Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Metabolic Syndrome: A Focus on Gut-Derived Metabolites
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051434 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2951
Abstract
The role of the microbiome in health and disease has gained considerable attention and shed light on the etiology of complex diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Since the microorganisms inhabiting the gut can confer either protective or harmful [...] Read more.
The role of the microbiome in health and disease has gained considerable attention and shed light on the etiology of complex diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Since the microorganisms inhabiting the gut can confer either protective or harmful signals, understanding the functional network between the gut microbes and the host provides a comprehensive picture of health and disease status. In IBD, disruption of the gut barrier enhances microbe infiltration into the submucosae, which enhances the probability that gut-derived metabolites are translocated from the gut to the liver and pancreas. Considering inflammation and the gut microbiome can trigger intestinal barrier dysfunction, risk factors of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance may have common roots with IBD. In this review, we focus on the overlap between IBD and MetS, and we explore the role of common metabolites in each disease in an attempt to connect a common origin, the gut microbiome and derived metabolites that affect the gut, liver and pancreas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Endocrine Disruptors in Food: Impact on Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041158 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4595
Abstract
Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) have been associated with the increased incidence of metabolic disorders. In this work, we conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to identify the current knowledge of the interactions between EDCs in food, the gut microbiota, and metabolic [...] Read more.
Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) have been associated with the increased incidence of metabolic disorders. In this work, we conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to identify the current knowledge of the interactions between EDCs in food, the gut microbiota, and metabolic disorders in order to shed light on this complex triad. Exposure to EDCs induces a series of changes including microbial dysbiosis and the induction of xenobiotic pathways and associated genes, enzymes, and metabolites involved in EDC metabolism. The products and by-products released following the microbial metabolism of EDCs can be taken up by the host; therefore, changes in the composition of the microbiota and in the production of microbial metabolites could have a major impact on host metabolism and the development of diseases. The remediation of EDC-induced changes in the gut microbiota might represent an alternative course for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
You Are What You Eat—The Relationship between Diet, Microbiota, and Metabolic Disorders—A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041096 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 8325
Abstract
The gut microbiota (GM) is defined as the community of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses) colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. GM regulates various metabolic pathways in the host, including those involved in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism. The relationship [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota (GM) is defined as the community of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses) colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. GM regulates various metabolic pathways in the host, including those involved in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism. The relationship between alterations in intestinal microbiota and diseases associated with civilization is well documented. GM dysbiosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Multiple factors modulate the composition of the microbiota and how it physically functions, but one of the major factors triggering GM establishment is diet. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the relationship between nutrition, gut microbiota, and host metabolic status. We described how macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, fat) and different dietary patterns (e.g., Western-style diet, vegetarian diet, Mediterranean diet) interact with the composition and activity of GM, and how gut bacterial dysbiosis has an influence on metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
Review
Gut Microbiome, Intestinal Permeability, and Tissue Bacteria in Metabolic Disease: Perpetrators or Bystanders?
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041082 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 6210
Abstract
The emerging evidence on the interconnectedness between the gut microbiome and host metabolism has led to a paradigm shift in the study of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes with implications on both underlying pathophysiology and potential treatment. Mounting preclinical [...] Read more.
The emerging evidence on the interconnectedness between the gut microbiome and host metabolism has led to a paradigm shift in the study of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes with implications on both underlying pathophysiology and potential treatment. Mounting preclinical and clinical evidence of gut microbiota shifts, increased intestinal permeability in metabolic disease, and the critical positioning of the intestinal barrier at the interface between environment and internal milieu have led to the rekindling of the “leaky gut” concept. Although increased circulation of surrogate markers and directly measurable intestinal permeability have been linked to increased systemic inflammation in metabolic disease, mechanistic models behind this phenomenon are underdeveloped. Given repeated observations of microorganisms in several tissues with congruent phylogenetic findings, we review current evidence on these unanticipated niches, focusing specifically on the interaction between gut permeability and intestinal as well as extra-intestinal bacteria and their joint contributions to systemic inflammation and metabolism. We further address limitations of current studies and suggest strategies drawing on standard techniques for permeability measurement, recent advancements in microbial culture independent techniques and computational methodologies to robustly develop these concepts, which may be of considerable value for the development of prevention and treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Probiotics Dietary Supplementation for Modulating Endocrine and Fertility Microbiota Dysbiosis
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030757 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3548
Abstract
Human microbiota seems to play a key role in endocrine and reproductive systems. Fortunately, microbiota reproductive dysbiosis start to be treated by probiotics using typical species from genus Lactobacillus. This work presents the compiled and analysed results from the most up-to-date information [...] Read more.
Human microbiota seems to play a key role in endocrine and reproductive systems. Fortunately, microbiota reproductive dysbiosis start to be treated by probiotics using typical species from genus Lactobacillus. This work presents the compiled and analysed results from the most up-to-date information from clinical trials regarding microbiota, fertility, probiotics and oral route administration, reviewing open access scientific documents. These studies analyse the clinical impact of probiotics administered on several endocrine disorders’ manifestations in women: mastitis; vaginal dysbiosis; pregnancy complication disorders; and polycystic ovary syndrome. In all cases, the clinical modulation achieved by probiotics was evaluated positively through the improvement of specific disease outcomes with the exception of the pregnancy disorders studies, where the sample sizes results were statistically insufficient. High amounts of studies were discarded because no data were provided on specific probiotic strains, doses, impact on the individual autochthon microbiota, or data regarding specific hormonal values modifications and endocrine regulation effects. However, most of the selected studies with probiotics contained no protocolised administration. Therefore, we consider that intervention studies with probiotics might allocate the focus, not only in obtaining a final outcome, but in how to personalise the administration according to the disorder to be palliated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Effects of Probiotics on Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010124 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5417
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether the use of probiotics has any effect on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) before patients develop type 2 diabetes. A qualitative systematic review, following the Cochrane methodology, and a comprehensive literature search [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether the use of probiotics has any effect on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) before patients develop type 2 diabetes. A qualitative systematic review, following the Cochrane methodology, and a comprehensive literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in PubMed and Scopus from inception until 4 July 2019. According to our inclusion criteria, nine clinical studies were finally analyzed, corresponding to six RCTs. Probiotics intake in patients with MetS resulted in improvements in body mass index, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid profile in some studies. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, probiotics also positively affected the soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), interleukine-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and thrombomodulin. Despite the diversity of the published studies, the intake of probiotics for patients with MetS may offer a discrete improvement in some of the clinical characteristics of the MetS and a decrease in inflammatory biomarkers. Nevertheless, these beneficial effects seem to be marginal compared to drug therapy and a healthy lifestyle and clinically non-relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
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