Next Issue
Volume 12, April
Previous Issue
Volume 12, February

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 289 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The prevalence of vascular dysfunction increases with advancing age, as does the loss of muscle [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessConcept Paper
A Case-Based Approach to New Directions in Dietary Therapy of Crohn’s Disease: Food for Thought
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030880 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Recent evidence has demonstrated that Crohn’s disease may have its roots in dysbiosis of the microbiome and other environmental factors. One of the strongest risk factors linked to immune activation appears to be diet. Exclusion diets have been shown to ameliorate inflammation and [...] Read more.
Recent evidence has demonstrated that Crohn’s disease may have its roots in dysbiosis of the microbiome and other environmental factors. One of the strongest risk factors linked to immune activation appears to be diet. Exclusion diets have been shown to ameliorate inflammation and induce remission in 70–80% of treatment-naïve children at disease onset, and to induce remission in patients that lose response or are refractory to currently recommended medical therapy. Recent studies have also linked dietary modulation of the microbiome with clinical remission, while reintroduction of the previous habitual diet led to reactivation of inflammation and reversion of the dysbiotic state. While dietary therapy has usually been used as a first line therapy as a bridge to immunomodulators, newer insights suggest that new treatment paradigms involving dietary therapy may allow different treatment strategies. This case-based narrative review will discuss the Crohn’s disease exclusion diet (CDED) as monotherapy, combination therapy with drugs, as a rescue therapy in refractory patients and for de-escalation from medical therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cytoprotective Effects of Natural Highly Bio-Available Vegetable Derivatives on Human-Derived Retinal Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030879 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Retinal pigment epithelial cells are crucial for retina maintenance, making their cytoprotection an excellent way to prevent or slow down retinal degeneration. In addition, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, neovascularization, and/or autophagy are key pathways involved in degenerative mechanisms. Therefore, here we studied the [...] Read more.
Retinal pigment epithelial cells are crucial for retina maintenance, making their cytoprotection an excellent way to prevent or slow down retinal degeneration. In addition, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, neovascularization, and/or autophagy are key pathways involved in degenerative mechanisms. Therefore, here we studied the effects of curcumin, lutein, and/or resveratrol on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Cells were incubated with individual or combined agent(s) before induction of (a) H2O2-induced oxidative stress, (b) staurosporin-induced apoptosis, (c) CoCl2-induced hypoxia, or (d) a LED-autophagy perturbator. Metabolic activity, cellular survival, caspase 3/7 activity (casp3/7), cell morphology, VEGF levels, and autophagy process were assessed. H2O2 provoked a reduction in cell survival, whereas curcumin reduced metabolic activity which was not associated with cell death. Cell death induced by H2O2 was significantly reduced after pre-treatment with curcumin and lutein, but not resveratrol. Staurosporin increased caspase-3/7 activity (689%) and decreased cell survival by 32%. Curcumin or lutein protected cells from death induced by staurosporin. Curcumin, lutein, and resveratrol were ineffective on the increase of caspase 3/7 induced by staurosporin. Pre-treatment with curcumin or lutein prevented LED-induced blockage of autophagy flux. Basal-VEGF release was significantly reduced by lutein. Therefore, lutein and curcumin showed beneficial protective effects on human-derived retinal cells against several insults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Relationships between Obesity, Nutrient Supply and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Koreans
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030878 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 687
Abstract
To investigate the association between nutrient intake and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Koreans, a population-based, cross-sectional survey, the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, was analyzed. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on criteria established by the International Society of Geographic and [...] Read more.
To investigate the association between nutrient intake and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Koreans, a population-based, cross-sectional survey, the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, was analyzed. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on criteria established by the International Society of Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between dietary intake and the prevalence of POAG in all enrolled subjects. In the low Body mass index(BMI) group (BMI <18.5), females with POAG had significantly lower intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, B-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin C than their non-glaucoma counterparts, based on a multivariate logistic regression analysis (all p < 0.05). In females with a medium BMI (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), POAG showed a significant association with lower food intake, energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, thiamin and niacin. (all p < 0.05). Lower protein thiamine intake in medium BMI males was related to POAG. Low dietary intake of several nutrients showed an association with glaucoma in low BMI female subjects. An insufficient intake of certain nutrients may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma in Koreans. Further large-scale cohort studies are needed to determine how specific nutrients alter the risk of glaucoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Food Agency in the United States: Associations with Cooking Behavior and Dietary Intake
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030877 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
“Food agency” is one’s ability to procure and prepare food within the contexts of one’s social, physical, and economic environment. In 2018, we used Amazon TurkPrime to field two large national surveys in the United States (US) to examine food agency and several [...] Read more.
“Food agency” is one’s ability to procure and prepare food within the contexts of one’s social, physical, and economic environment. In 2018, we used Amazon TurkPrime to field two large national surveys in the United States (US) to examine food agency and several food- and cooking-related factors. The first survey (n = 1,457) was fielded in a national sample of US adults. The second survey (n = 1,399) comprised of parents of 2–9-year-old children. Analyses included hierarchical linear regression to examine factors that explained variation in food agency and used Poisson and generalized linear models to examine the association between food agency and between cooking behavior and dietary intake, respectively. Cooking skills; food skills; and cooking confidence, attitudes, and perceptions explained a high degree of food agency variance. Higher food agency was associated with more frequent cooking of all meals, more frequent scratch cooking, and less frequent cooking with packaged ingredients among both adults and parents. Higher food agency was also associated with higher consumption of vegetables among both adults and children. Food agency encompasses a number of the interrelated factors important for home cooking and is a useful construct for understanding and promoting home cooking behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preparation Behaviours, Diet and Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Vending Machines to Encourage the Purchase and Consumption of Healthier Food and Drinks in the University Setting: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030876 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 711
Abstract
University food environments typically offer an abundance of unhealthy foods, including through vending machines. This review evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in vending machines in the university setting. Ten databases were searched for experimental studies published up to July 2019, evaluating nutrition [...] Read more.
University food environments typically offer an abundance of unhealthy foods, including through vending machines. This review evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in vending machines in the university setting. Ten databases were searched for experimental studies published up to July 2019, evaluating nutrition interventions that aimed to encourage the purchase or consumption of healthier foods and drinks in vending machines in the university setting. In total, 401 articles were identified, and 13 studies were included. Studies were pre-post test (n = 7, 54%), randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 5, 38%), and non-randomized controlled trial (n = 1, 8%). Most studies were from the USA (n = 10, 77%) and were published between 2014 and 2018 (n = 9, 69%). Eight interventions (62%) reported positive change in outcomes, including increased number/proportion of sales or revenue from healthier items (n = 6), improved adherence to guidelines for the ratio of healthy/unhealthy products available (n = 1), and improved consumer perception of items available (n = 1). Effective interventions involved the promotion, reduced pricing, increased availability, and/or optimized product placement of healthier items within vending machines. Strategies to improve the nutritional quality of food and drinks in vending machines are warranted. This may be achieved by making healthier options more available and promoting them; however, more robust intervention studies are needed to determine effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits and Health among College and University Students)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessComment
Reliable Measures of Sarcopenia in Cirrhosis. Comment on: “The Relationship of Obesity, Nutritional Status and Muscle Wasting in Patients Assessed for Liver Transplantation, Nutrients 2019, 11, 2097”
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030875 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 549
Abstract
We read with interest the manuscript by Vidot et al [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Adherence in Time-Restricted Feeding in Older Adults: Lessons from a Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030874 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is a type of intermittent fasting in which no calories are commonly consumed for approximately 12–18 hours on a daily basis. The health benefits of this eating pattern have been shown in overweight adults, with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors [...] Read more.
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is a type of intermittent fasting in which no calories are commonly consumed for approximately 12–18 hours on a daily basis. The health benefits of this eating pattern have been shown in overweight adults, with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors as well as the preservation of lean mass during weight loss. Although TRF has been well studied in younger and middle-aged adults, few studies have evaluated the effects of TRF in older adults. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate older-adult perspectives regarding the real-world advantages, disadvantages, and challenges to adopting a TRF eating pattern among participants aged 65 and over. A four-week single-arm pre- and post-test design was used for this clinical pilot trial TRF intervention study. Participants were instructed to fast for approximately 16 h per day with the daily target range between 14 and 18 h. Participants were provided with the TRF protocol at a baseline visit, along with a pictorial guide that depicted food items and beverages that were allowed and not allowed during fasting windows to reinforce that calorie-containing items were to be avoided. The trial interventionist called each participant weekly to promote adherence, review the protocol, monitor for adverse events, and provide support and guidance for any challenges faced during the intervention. Participants were instructed to complete daily eating time logs by recording the times at which they first consumed calories and when they stopped consuming calories. At the end of the intervention, participants completed an exit interview and a study-specific Diet Satisfaction Survey (Table 1) to assess their satisfaction, feasibility, and overall experience with the study intervention. Of the 10 participants who commenced the study (mean age = 77.1 y; 6 women, 4 men), nine completed the entire protocol. Seven of the ten participants reported easy adjustment to a 16-hour fast and rated the difference from normal eating patterns as minimal. Eight participants reported no decrease in energy during fasting periods, with greater self-reported activity levels in yardwork and light exercise. Adverse events were rare, and included transient headaches, which dissipated with increased water intake, and dizziness in one participant, which subsided with a small snack. The findings of the current trial suggest that TRF is an eating approach that is well tolerated by most older adults. Six participants, however, did not fully understand the requirements of the fasting regimen, despite being provided with specific instructions and a pictorial guide at a baseline visit. This suggests that more instruction and/or participant contact is needed in the early stages of a TRF intervention to promote adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Musculoskeletal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nutritional Challenges in Pregnant Women with Renal Diseases: Relevance to Fetal Outcomes
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030873 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Pregnancy in women affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become more common in recent years, probably as a consequence of increased CKD prevalence and improvements in the care provided to these patients. Management of this condition requires careful attention since many clinical [...] Read more.
Pregnancy in women affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become more common in recent years, probably as a consequence of increased CKD prevalence and improvements in the care provided to these patients. Management of this condition requires careful attention since many clinical aspects have to be taken into consideration, including the reciprocal influence of the renal disease and pregnancy, the need for adjustment of the medical treatments and the high risk of maternal and obstetric complications. Nutrition assessment and management is a crucial step in this process, since nutritional status may affect both maternal and fetal health, with potential effects also on the future development of adult diseases in the offspring. Nevertheless, few data are available on the nutritional management of pregnant women with CKD and the main clinical indications are based on small case series or are extrapolated from the general recommendations for non-pregnant CKD patients. In this review, we discuss the main issues regarding the nutritional management of pregnant women with renal diseases, including CKD patients on conservative treatment, patients on dialysis and kidney transplant patients, focusing on their relevance on fetal outcomes and considering the peculiarities of this population and the approaches that could be implemented into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parental Diet for Offspring Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030872 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
Medicinal plants have been used from ancient times for human healthcare as in the form of traditional medicines, spices, and other food components. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an aromatic herbaceous plant that is consumed worldwide as food and traditional remedy for [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants have been used from ancient times for human healthcare as in the form of traditional medicines, spices, and other food components. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an aromatic herbaceous plant that is consumed worldwide as food and traditional remedy for various diseases. It has been reported to possess several biological properties including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, renoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihypertensive activities in traditional medicines. A. sativum is rich in several sulfur-containing phytoconstituents such as alliin, allicin, ajoenes, vinyldithiins, and flavonoids such as quercetin. Extracts and isolated compounds of A. sativum have been evaluated for various biological activities including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities among others. This review examines the phytochemical composition, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacological activities of A. sativum extracts as well as its main active constituent, allicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary (Poly)Phenols and Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Queuine Micronutrient Deficiency Promotes Warburg Metabolism and Reversal of the Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Hela Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030871 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Queuine is a eukaryotic micronutrient, derived exclusively from eubacteria. It is incorporated into both cytosolic and mitochondrial transfer RNA to generate a queuosine nucleotide at position 34 of the anticodon loop. The transfer RNA of primary tumors has been shown to be hypomodified [...] Read more.
Queuine is a eukaryotic micronutrient, derived exclusively from eubacteria. It is incorporated into both cytosolic and mitochondrial transfer RNA to generate a queuosine nucleotide at position 34 of the anticodon loop. The transfer RNA of primary tumors has been shown to be hypomodified with respect to queuosine, with decreased levels correlating with disease progression and poor patient survival. Here, we assess the impact of queuine deficiency on mitochondrial bioenergetics and substrate metabolism in HeLa cells. Queuine depletion is shown to promote a Warburg type metabolism, characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis, concomitant with increased ammonia and lactate production and elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity but in the absence of significant changes to proliferation. In intact cells, queuine deficiency caused an increased rate of mitochondrial proton leak and a decreased rate of ATP synthesis, correlating with an observed reduction in cellular ATP levels. Data from permeabilized cells demonstrated that the activity of individual complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were not affected by the micronutrient. Notably, in queuine free cells that had been adapted to grow in galactose medium, the re-introduction of glucose permitted the mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase to operate in the reverse direction, acting to hyperpolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential; a commonly observed but poorly understood cancer trait. Together, our data suggest that queuosine hypomodification is a deliberate and advantageous adaptation of cancer cells to facilitate the metabolic switch between oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Diet and Skin Aging—From the Perspective of Food Nutrition
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030870 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
We regularly face primary challenges in deciding what to eat to maintain young and healthy skin, defining a healthy diet and the role of diet in aging. The topic that currently attracts maximum attention is ways to maintain healthy skin and delay skin [...] Read more.
We regularly face primary challenges in deciding what to eat to maintain young and healthy skin, defining a healthy diet and the role of diet in aging. The topic that currently attracts maximum attention is ways to maintain healthy skin and delay skin aging. Skin is the primary barrier that protects the body from external aggressions. Skin aging is a complex biological process, categorized as chronological aging and photo-aging, and is affected by internal factors and external factors. With the rapid breakthrough of medicine in prolonging human life and the rapid deterioration of environmental conditions, it has become urgent to find safe and effective methods to treat skin aging. For diet, as the main way for the body to obtain energy and nutrients, people have gradually realized its importance to the skin. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the skin structure, aging manifestations, and possible mechanisms, summarize the research progress, challenges, possible directions of diet management, and effects of foodborne antioxidants on skin aging from the perspective of food and nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReply
Reply to “Comments on the Editor Re: The Relationship of Obesity, Nutritional Status and Muscle Wasting in Patients Assessed for Liver Transplantation, Nutrients 2019, 11, 2097.”
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030869 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
We thank Drs [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Brassicaceae-Derived Anticancer Agents: Towards a Green Approach to Beat Cancer
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030868 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
Cancer is the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although a large variety of therapeutic approaches have been developed and translated into clinical protocols, the toxic side effects of cancer treatments negatively impact patients, allowing cancer to grow. Brassica metabolites are emerging [...] Read more.
Cancer is the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although a large variety of therapeutic approaches have been developed and translated into clinical protocols, the toxic side effects of cancer treatments negatively impact patients, allowing cancer to grow. Brassica metabolites are emerging as new weapons for anti-cancer therapeutics. The beneficial role of the consumption of brassica vegetables, the most-used vegetables in the Mediterranean diet, particularly broccoli, in the prevention of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, has been well-documented. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effects of the bioactive compounds from Brassica vegetables with regard to the compounds and types of cancer against which they show activity, providing current knowledge on the anti-cancer effects of Brassica metabolites against major types of tumors. In addition, we discuss the impacts of industrial and domestic processing on the compounds’ functional properties before their consumption as well as the main strategies used to increase the content of health-promoting metabolites in Brassica plants through biofortification. Finally, the impacts of microbiota on the compounds’ bioactivity are considered. This information will be helpful for the further development of efficacious anti-cancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Casein Hydrolysate Ingestion on Thermoregulatory Responses in Healthy Adults during Exercise in Heated Conditions: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030867 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Food ingestion has been shown to affect thermoregulation during exercise, while the impact of protein degradant consumption remains unclear. We investigated the effects of casein hydrolysate ingestion on thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, five [...] Read more.
Food ingestion has been shown to affect thermoregulation during exercise, while the impact of protein degradant consumption remains unclear. We investigated the effects of casein hydrolysate ingestion on thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, five men and five women consumed either 5 g of casein hydrolysate or placebo. Thirty minutes after ingestion, participants cycled at 60% VO2max until voluntary exhaustion wearing a hot-water (43 °C) circulation suit. Exercise time to exhaustion, body core temperature, forearm sweat rate, and forearm cutaneous vascular conductance did not differ different between the conditions. However, chest sweat rate and mean skin temperature increased upon casein hydrolysate ingestion compared with placebo during exercise. Increased chest sweat rate upon casein hydrolysate ingestion was associated with elevated sudomotor sensitivity to increasing body core temperature, but not the temperature threshold for initiating sweating. A positive correlation was found between chest sweat rate and plasma total amino acid concentration during exercise. These results suggest that casein hydrolysate ingestion enhances sweating heterogeneously by increasing peripheral sensitivity of the chest’s sweating mechanism and elevating skin temperature during exercise in the heat. However, the physiological link between plasma amino acid concentration and sweat rate remains unclear. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Serum Microelements in Early Pregnancy and their Risk of Large-for-Gestational Age Birth Weight
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030866 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
Excessive birth weight has serious perinatal consequences, and it “programs” long-term health. Mother’s nutritional status can be an important element in fetal “programming”; microelements such as selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) are involved in many metabolic processes. However, there [...] Read more.
Excessive birth weight has serious perinatal consequences, and it “programs” long-term health. Mother’s nutritional status can be an important element in fetal “programming”; microelements such as selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) are involved in many metabolic processes. However, there are no studies assessing the relationship of the microelements in the peri-conceptual period with the risk of excessive birth weight. We performed a nested case control study of serum microelements’ levels in the 10–14th week of pregnancy and assessed the risk of large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns using the data from a prospective cohort of pregnant women recruited in 2015–2016 in Poznań, Poland. Mothers delivering LGA newborns (n = 66) were examined with matched mothers delivering appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) newborns (n = 264). Microelements’ levels were quantified using mass spectrometry. The odds ratios of LGA (and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. In the whole group, women with the lowest quartile of Se had a 3 times higher LGA risk compared with women in the highest Se quartile (AOR = 3.00; p = 0.013). Importantly, the result was sustained in the subgroup of women with the normal pre-pregnancy BMI (AOR = 4.79; p = 0.033) and in women with a male fetus (AOR = 6.28; p = 0.004), but it was not sustained in women with a female fetus. There were no statistical associations between Zn, Cu, and Fe levels and LGA. Our study provides some preliminary evidence for the relationships between lower serum Se levels in early pregnancy and a higher risk of large-for-gestational age birth weight. Appropriate Se intake in the periconceptual period may be important for optimal fetal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Fetal Programming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Micronutrients Selenomethionine and Selenocysteine Modulate the Redox Status of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030865 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Selenium is a micronutrient which is found in many foods, with redox status modulation activity. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of two chemical forms of selenoamino acids, Seleno-L-methionine and Seleno-L-cystine (a diselenide derived from selenocysteine), at different concentrations on cell viability, [...] Read more.
Selenium is a micronutrient which is found in many foods, with redox status modulation activity. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of two chemical forms of selenoamino acids, Seleno-L-methionine and Seleno-L-cystine (a diselenide derived from selenocysteine), at different concentrations on cell viability, hydrogen peroxide production, antioxidant enzymes, UCP2 protein expression, as well as lipid and protein oxidative damage in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that Seleno-L-methionine did not cause an increase in hydrogen peroxide production at relatively low concentrations, accompanied by a rise in the antioxidant enzymes catalase and MnSOD, and UCP2 protein expression levels. Furthermore, a decrease in protein and lipid oxidative damage was observed at 10 µM concentration. Otherwise, Seleno-L-cystine increased hydrogen peroxide production from relatively low concentrations (100 nM) to a large increase at high concentrations. Moreover, at 10 µM, Seleno-L-cystine decreased UCP2 and MnSOD protein expression. In conclusion, the chemical form of selenoamino acid and their incorporation to selenoproteins could affect the regulation of the breast cancer cell redox status. Taken together, the results obtained in this study imply that it is important to control the type of selenium-enriched nutrient consumption, taking into consideration their composition and concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Mitochondrial Function)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Body Composition and Muscle Tone in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030864 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The monitoring of children with cerebral palsy (CP) should include a precise assessment of the nutritional status to identify children and adolescents at risk of nutrition disorders. Available studies assessing the nutritional status of children with CP mainly focus on the relationship between [...] Read more.
The monitoring of children with cerebral palsy (CP) should include a precise assessment of the nutritional status to identify children and adolescents at risk of nutrition disorders. Available studies assessing the nutritional status of children with CP mainly focus on the relationship between body composition and the coexistence of motor dysfunctions, frequently overlooking the role of muscle tone. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and muscle tone in children with CP. In a case-control study (n = 118; mean age 11 y; SD = 3.8), the children with CP presented various stages of functional capacities, corresponding to all the levels in gross motor function classification system (GMFSC), and muscle tone described by all the grades in Ashworth scale. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. The children with CP were found with significantly lower mean values of fat-free mass (FFM kg = 29.2 vs. 34.5, p < 0.001), muscle mass (MM kg = 18.6 vs. 22.6, p < 0.001), body cell mass (BCM kg = 15.1 vs. 18.3, p < 0.001), and total body water (TBW L = 23.0 vs. 26.7, p < 0.001). The same differences in body composition were identified with respect to gender (p < 0.01 respectively). Moreover, children with higher muscle tone (higher score in Ashworth scale) were found with significantly lower values of fat mass (FM), FFM, MM, BCM, and TBW (p < 0.05). The findings showed lower parameters of body composition in the children with CP compared to the healthy children, and a decrease in the parameters coinciding with higher muscle tone in the study group. This observation suggests that it is necessary to measure muscle tone while assessing nutritional status of children with CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Complications of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Older Patients with Dementia
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030863 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 851
Abstract
The prevalence of older patients with dementia and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is rising and management is poor. Our aim was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and long-term nutritional and respiratory complications during follow-up of OD in older demented patients. We designed a [...] Read more.
The prevalence of older patients with dementia and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is rising and management is poor. Our aim was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and long-term nutritional and respiratory complications during follow-up of OD in older demented patients. We designed a prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental study with 255 patients with dementia. OD was assessed with the Volume-Viscosity Swallowing Test and a geriatric evaluation was performed. OD patients received compensatory treatments based on fluid viscosity and texture modified foods and oral hygiene, and were followed up for 18 months after discharge. Mean age was 83.5 ± 8.0 years and Alzheimer’s disease was the main cause of dementia (52.9%). The prevalence of OD was 85.9%. Up to 82.7% patients with OD required fluid thickening and 93.6% texture modification, with poor compliance. OD patients were older (p < 0.007), had worse functionality (p < 0.0001), poorer nutritional status (p = 0.014), and higher severity of dementia (p < 0.001) than those without OD and showed higher rates of respiratory infections (p = 0.011) and mortality (p = 0.0002) after 18 months follow-up. These results show that OD is very prevalent among patients with dementia and is associated with impaired functionality, malnutrition, respiratory infections, and increased mortality. New nutritional strategies should be developed to increase the compliance and therapeutic effects for this growing population of dysphagic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Expression Profiles of Genes Encoding Cornified Envelope Proteins in Atopic Dermatitis and Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030862 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The skin barrier defect in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) was recently confirmed to be similar to the one observed in atopic dermatitis (AD). We have examined the expression level of cornified envelope (CE) proteins in CTCL, AD and healthy skin, to search for [...] Read more.
The skin barrier defect in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) was recently confirmed to be similar to the one observed in atopic dermatitis (AD). We have examined the expression level of cornified envelope (CE) proteins in CTCL, AD and healthy skin, to search for the differences and their relation to the courses of both diseases. The levels of FLG, FLG2, RPTN, HRNR, SPRR1A, SPRR1B, SPRR3 and LELP-1 mRNA were determined by qRT-PCR, while protein levels were examined using the ELISA method in skin samples. We have found that mRNA levels of FLG, FLG2, LOR, CRNN and SPRR3v1 were decreased (p ≤ 0.04), whereas mRNA levels of RPTN, HRNR and SPRR1Av1 were increased in lesional and nonlesional AD skin compared to the healthy control group (p ≤ 0.04). The levels of FLG, FLG2, CRNN, SPRR3v1 mRNA increased (p ≤ 0.02) and RPTN, HRNR and SPRR1Av1 mRNA decreased (p ≤ 0.005) in CTCL skin compared to the lesional AD skin. There was a strong correlation between the stage of CTCL and increased SPRR1Av1 gene expression at both mRNA (R = 0.89; p ≤ 0.05) and protein levels (R = 0.94; p ≤ 0.05). FLG, FLG2, RPTN, HRNR and SPRR1A seem to play a key role in skin barrier dysfunction in CTCL and could be considered a biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD and CTCL. SPRR1Av1 transcript levels seem to be a possible marker of CTCL stage, however, further studies on a larger study group are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Older African American Women, the PODA Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030861 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) detected on lateral vertebral fracture assessment is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D deficiency and toxicity have been linked with vascular calcification. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D on the [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) detected on lateral vertebral fracture assessment is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D deficiency and toxicity have been linked with vascular calcification. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D on the progression of AAC. The Physical Performance, Osteoporosis and vitamin D in African American Women (PODA) is a randomized, clinical trial examining the effect of vitamin D. There were 14.7% subjects with AAC in the vitamin D group, compared to 12.1% in the placebo group at baseline. The prevalence of extended AAC at baseline was 6.4% in the vitamin D group and 3.5% in the placebo group. The extended calcification scores over time were not different between groups. There was no association between AAC and serum 25(OH)D. However, PTH was associated with an increase in AAC in the placebo group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Recommended Intake of Key Food Groups and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Australian Older, Rural-Dwelling Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030860 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 613
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between diet quality scores and cardiometabolic risk factors in regionally-dwelling older Australian adults with increased cardiovascular risk. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic risk factor data from 458 participants of the Cardiovascular Stream [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between diet quality scores and cardiometabolic risk factors in regionally-dwelling older Australian adults with increased cardiovascular risk. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic risk factor data from 458 participants of the Cardiovascular Stream of the Hazelwood Health Study. Participants completed a 120 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression adjusting for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, education, diabetes, and body mass index was used to examine the relationship between diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean (SD) age of participants was 71 (8) years, and 55% were male. More than half of men and women did not meet recommended intakes of fibre, while 60% of men and 42% of women exceeded recommended dietary sodium intakes. Higher diet quality in terms of intake of vegetables, grains, and non-processed meat, as well as intake of non-fried fish, was associated with more favourable cardiometabolic risk profiles, while sugar-sweetened soft drink intake was strongly associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factor levels. In older, regionally-dwelling adults, dietary public health strategies that address whole grain products, vegetable and fish consumption, and sugar-sweetened soft-drink intake may be of benefit in reducing cardiometabolic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Chronic Disease Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Dietary Fiber, Gut Microbiota, and Metabolic Regulation—Current Status in Human Randomized Trials
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030859 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
New knowledge about the gut microbiota and its interaction with the host’s metabolic regulation has emerged during the last few decades. Several factors may affect the composition of the gut microbiota, including dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes, [...] Read more.
New knowledge about the gut microbiota and its interaction with the host’s metabolic regulation has emerged during the last few decades. Several factors may affect the composition of the gut microbiota, including dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes, but it is acted upon by gut microbes, and metabolites like short-chain fatty acids are produced. The short-chain fatty acids may be absorbed into the circulation and affect metabolic regulation in the host or be a substrate for other microbes. Some studies have shown improved insulin sensitivity, weight regulation, and reduced inflammation with increases in gut-derived short-chain fatty acids, all of which may reduce the risk of developing metabolic diseases. To what extent a dietary intervention with fiber may affect the human gut microbiota and hence metabolic regulation, is however, currently not well described. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research on human randomized, controlled intervention studies investigating the effect of dietary fiber on gut microbiota and metabolic regulation. Metabolic regulation is discussed with respect to markers relating to glycemic regulation and lipid metabolism. Taken together, the papers on which the current review is based, suggest that dietary fiber has the potential to change the gut microbiota and alter metabolic regulation. However, due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a firm conclusion describing the causal relationship between gut microbiota and metabolic regulation remains elusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Compounds Impact on Human Gut Microbiome and Gut Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Distinguishing Low and High Water Consumers—A Paradigm of Disease Risk
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030858 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
A long-standing body of clinical observations associates low 24-h total water intake (TWI = water + beverages + food moisture) with acute renal disorders such as kidney stones and urinary tract infections. These findings prompted observational studies and experimental interventions comparing habitual low [...] Read more.
A long-standing body of clinical observations associates low 24-h total water intake (TWI = water + beverages + food moisture) with acute renal disorders such as kidney stones and urinary tract infections. These findings prompted observational studies and experimental interventions comparing habitual low volume (LOW) and high volume (HIGH) drinkers. Investigators have learned that the TWI of LOW and HIGH differ by 1–2 L·d−1, their hematological values (e.g., plasma osmolality, plasma sodium) are similar and lie within the laboratory reference ranges of healthy adults and both groups appear to successfully maintain water-electrolyte homeostasis. However, LOW differs from HIGH in urinary biomarkers (e.g., reduced urine volume and increased osmolality or specific gravity), as well as higher plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol. Further, evidence suggests that both a low daily TWI and/or elevated plasma AVP influence the development and progression of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Based on these studies, we propose a theory of increased disease risk in LOW that involves chronic release of fluid-electrolyte (i.e., AVP) and stress (i.e., cortisol) hormones. This narrative review describes small but important differences between LOW and HIGH, advises future investigations and provides practical dietary recommendations for LOW that are intended to decrease their risk of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Macronutrients and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Capacity and Hepatoprotective Role of Chitosan-Stabilized Selenium Nanoparticles in Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030857 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 535
Abstract
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted wide attention for their use in nutritional supplements and nanomedicine applications. However, their potential to protect against autoimmune hepatitis has not been fully investigated, and the role of their antioxidant capacity in hepatoprotection is uncertain. In this study, [...] Read more.
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted wide attention for their use in nutritional supplements and nanomedicine applications. However, their potential to protect against autoimmune hepatitis has not been fully investigated, and the role of their antioxidant capacity in hepatoprotection is uncertain. In this study, chitosan-stabilized SeNPs (CS-SeNPs) were prepared by means of rapid ultra-filtration, and then their antioxidant ability and free-radical scavenging capacity were evaluated. The hepatoprotective potential of a spray-dried CS-SeNPs powder against autoimmune liver disease was also studied in the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury mouse model. CS-SeNPs with size of around 60 nm exhibited acceptable oxygen radical absorbance capacity and were able to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radicals. The CS-SeNPs powder alleviated Con A-caused hepatocyte necrosis and reduced the elevated levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase in Con A-treated mice. These results suggest that the CS-SeNPs powder protected the mice from Con-A-induced oxidative stress in the liver by retarding lipid oxidation and by boosting the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, partly because of its ability to improve Se retention. In conclusion, SeNPs present potent hepatoprotective potential against Con A-induced liver damage by enhancing the redox state in the liver; therefore, they deserve further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sugar Content and Nutritional Quality of Child Orientated Ready to Eat Cereals and Yoghurts in the UK and Latin America; Does Food Policy Matter?
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030856 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Ready to eat breakfast cereals (REBCs) and yoghurts provide important nutrients to children’s diets, but concerns about their high sugar content exist. Food reformulation could contribute to sugar reduction, but policies across countries are not uniform. We aimed to compare the sugar content [...] Read more.
Ready to eat breakfast cereals (REBCs) and yoghurts provide important nutrients to children’s diets, but concerns about their high sugar content exist. Food reformulation could contribute to sugar reduction, but policies across countries are not uniform. We aimed to compare the sugar content and nutritional quality of child-orientated REBCs and yoghurts in Latin American countries with the UK. In a cross-sectional study, nutritional information, marketing strategies, and claims were collected from the food labels and packaging of products available in Guatemala, Mexico, Ecuador and the UK. Nutritional quality was assessed using the UK Ofcom Nutrient Profiling System. In total, 262 products were analysed (59% REBCs/41% yoghurts). REBCs in the UK had a lower sugar content (mean ± SD) (24.6 ± 6.4) than products in Ecuador (34.6 ± 10.8; p < 0.001), Mexico (32.6 ± 7.6; p = 0.001) and Guatemala (31.5 ± 8.3; p = 0.001). Across countries, there were no differences in the sugar content of yoghurts. A large proportion (83%) of REBCs and 33% of yoghurts were classified as “less healthy”. In conclusion, the sugar content of REBCs in Latin America is higher than those of the UK, which could be attributed to the UK voluntary sugar reduction programme. Sugar reformulation policies are required in Guatemala, Mexico and Ecuador. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Marketing and Dietary Behaviors among Children)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio with Abdominal Obesity and Healthy Eating Index in a Representative Older Spanish Population
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030855 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
Poor diet quality and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have been associated with systemic inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an available and inexpensive inflammation biomarker. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of dietary patterns and obesity with an [...] Read more.
Poor diet quality and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have been associated with systemic inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an available and inexpensive inflammation biomarker. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of dietary patterns and obesity with an inflammatory state. A group of 1747 Spanish noninstitutionalized older adults individuals were included, and a food-frequency questionnaire was applied. The Global Food Score (GFS) and Healthy Eating Index for Spanish population (SHEI) were calculated. Weight, height and waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) determined. In addition, body-fat percentage was measured by bioimpedance. NLR was calculated (NLR ≥ p80: 2.6; 2.8 and 2.4 as inflammatory status in the entire population, men and women, respectively). The men with inflammatory status presented significative higher values of WC, WHtR, WHR, and body-fat percentage (101.82 ± 10.34 cm, 0.61 ± 0.06, 0.98 ± 0.06, and 31.68 ± 5.94%, respectively) than those with better inflammatory status (100.18 ± 10.22 cm, 0.59 ± 0.06, 0.97 ± 0.07, and 30.31 ± 6.16%, respectively). Those males with worse inflammatory state had lower scores for protein foods (OR = 0.898 (0.812–0.993); p = 0.037). The women with NLR ≥ 2.4 had higher WHtR and WHR (0.62 ± 0.09 and 0.91 ± 0.09) than those with NLR < 2.4 (0.60 ± 0.08 and 0.90 ± 0.08). In multiple linear regression analysis, NLR was positively related with WHtR and negatively related with SHEI score (β = 0.224 ± 0.094; R2 = 0.060; p < 0.05 and β = −0.218 ± 0.101; R2 = 0.061; p < 0.05), adjusting by sex, age, marital status, education level, smoking, hours of sleeping and inflammatory diseases. In women, the higher the SHEI and GFS scores were and the better meeting the aims of cereal and vegetable servings, the less the odds of inflammatory status (OR = 0.970 (0.948–0.992); p = 0.008; OR = 0.963 (0.932–0.995); p = 0.024; OR = 0.818 (0.688–0.974); p = 0.024 and OR = 0.829 (0.730–0.942); p = 0.004, respectively). WHtR and quality of diet is related to the inflammation status in older adults regardless to the sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Acute Ingestion of a Ketone Monoester Drink on LPS-Stimulated NLRP3 Activation in Humans with Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030854 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Activation of the NOD-like receptor pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolic diseases such as obesity. Mechanistic studies have shown that β-hydroxybutyrate (OHB) attenuates activation of NLRP3, but human data are limited. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled [...] Read more.
Activation of the NOD-like receptor pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolic diseases such as obesity. Mechanistic studies have shown that β-hydroxybutyrate (OHB) attenuates activation of NLRP3, but human data are limited. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial (n = 11) we tested the hypothesis that acutely raising β-OHB by ingestion of exogenous ketones would attenuate NLRP3 activation in humans with obesity. Blood was sampled before and 30 min post-ingestion of a ketone monoester drink ((R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, 482 mg/kg body mass) or placebo. A 75 g oral glucose load was then ingested, and a third blood sample was obtained 60 min following glucose ingestion. NLRP3 activation was quantified by assessing monocyte caspase-1 activation and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole-blood cultures. LPS-stimulated caspase-1 activation increased following glucose ingestion (main effect of time; p = 0.032), with no differences between conditions. IL-1β secretion did not differ between conditions but was lower 60 min post-glucose ingestion compared to the fasting baseline (main effect of time, p = 0.014). Plasma IL-1β was detectable in ~80% of samples and showed a decrease from fasting baseline to 60 min in the ketone condition only (condition × time interaction, p = 0.01). In individuals with obesity, an excursion into hyperglycemia following ingestion of a glucose load augments LPS-induced activation of caspase-1 in monocytes with no apparent impact of raising circulating β-OHB concentration via ingestion of exogenous ketones. Exogenous ketone supplementation may impact plasma IL-1β, but these findings require confirmation in studies with larger sample sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Human Health, Performance and Recovery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Presence of Hypertension Is Reduced by Mediterranean Diet Adherence in All Individuals with a More Pronounced Effect in the Obese: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030853 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Hypertension is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study’s aim was to examine associations between hypertension and a priori known lifestyle risk factors, including weight status and Mediterranean diet adherence. The study included a representative sample of the adult population (N = [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study’s aim was to examine associations between hypertension and a priori known lifestyle risk factors, including weight status and Mediterranean diet adherence. The study included a representative sample of the adult population (N = 3775 (40.8% males)), from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS), which took place from September 2013 to May 2015. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using validated questionnaires, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed for the two main metropolitan areas (N = 1040; 41.1%). Hypertension diagnosis was according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) guidelines. Weighted proportions, extended Mantel–Haenszel (M–H) analyses, and multiple logistic regressions (for the survey data) were performed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 118.6 mmHg and 72.2 mmHg respectively, with both values being higher in males compared to females in all age groups (p < 0.001). Study participants with hyperlipidemia or diabetes, and those overweight, were almost twice as likely to be hypertensives, with the odds increasing to 4 for those obese (p for all, < 0.05). Stricter Mediterranean diet adherence significantly decreased the likelihood of hypertension by 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.439, 0.943), and a significant interaction was found between Mediterranean diet adherence and weight status on hypertension. The presence of hypertension is clustered with comorbidities, but is significantly associated with modifiable risk factors, including Mediterranean diet and weight status, underlining the need for personalized medical nutritional treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Osteoarthritic Effects of a Mixture of Dried Pomegranate Concentrate Powder, Eucommiae Cortex, and Achyranthis Radix 5:4:1 (g/g) in a Surgically Induced Osteoarthritic Rabbit Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030852 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 622
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to determine the synergistic effects of a formula consisting of dried pomegranate concentrate powder, Eucommiae Cortex, and Achyranthis Radix 5:4:1 (g/g) (PCP:EC:AR) in a surgically induced osteoarthritis (OA) rabbit model. PCP:EC:AR was orally administered [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to determine the synergistic effects of a formula consisting of dried pomegranate concentrate powder, Eucommiae Cortex, and Achyranthis Radix 5:4:1 (g/g) (PCP:EC:AR) in a surgically induced osteoarthritis (OA) rabbit model. PCP:EC:AR was orally administered once per day. Knee thickness, maximum extension of the knee joint, gross articular defect area, and the histopathological appearance of the cartilage were monitored, along with serum collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and subchondral IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Roentgenographic images were also evaluated. PCP:EC:AR significantly inhibited the surgically induced increase in knee thickness, maximum extension of both knees, knee thickness after capsule exposure, gross femoral and tibial articular defect areas, loss of the knee joint area, serum and synovial COMP, CTX-II, and MMP expression, and synovial IL-1β, and TNF-α expression. In addition, surgically induced narrowing of the knee bones, loss of the joint area, cartilage damage, and osteophyte formation were reduced. PCP:EC:AR suppressed the surgically induced increases in the Mankin score, and subchondral IL-1β and TNF-α immunolabeled cell numbers. PCP:EC:AR exerted potent OA protective effects in a surgically induced OA rabbit model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Incorporating Milk Protein Isolate into an Energy-Restricted Western-Style Eating Pattern Augments Improvements in Blood Pressure and Triglycerides, but Not Body Composition Changes in Adults Classified as Overweight or Obese: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030851 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Unhealthy Western-style eating patterns (WSEP) predominate, adversely affecting health. Resistance to improving dietary patterns prompts interest to incorporate a potentially health-promoting ingredient into typical WSEP foods and beverages. We assessed the effect of incorporating isocalorically matched carbohydrates versus milk protein isolate (MPI) into [...] Read more.
Unhealthy Western-style eating patterns (WSEP) predominate, adversely affecting health. Resistance to improving dietary patterns prompts interest to incorporate a potentially health-promoting ingredient into typical WSEP foods and beverages. We assessed the effect of incorporating isocalorically matched carbohydrates versus milk protein isolate (MPI) into a WSEP on weight loss-induced changes in cardiometabolic health and body composition. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study, 44 participants (age 52 ± 1 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2, mean ± standard error) consumed a weight maintenance WSEP (0.8 g total protein/kg/day) for 3 weeks (baseline). After, participants consumed an energy-restricted (750 kcal/day below estimated requirement) WSEP for 16 weeks, randomly assigned to contain either an additional 0.7 g carbohydrate/kg/d (CON: n = 23, 0.8 g total protein/kg/day) or 0.7 g protein/kg/d from MPI (MPI: n = 21, 1.5 g total protein/kg/day) incorporated into foods and beverages. Compared to CON, the MPI favored reductions in average 24 h and sleeping systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), waking hours systolic BP, and fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations. Reductions in fasting plasma insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not different between groups. Among all participants, whole body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and thigh muscle area, each decreased over time. For adults finding it difficult to deviate from a WSEP, replacing a portion of their carbohydrate with foods and beverages containing MPI may be an effective dietary strategy to reduce BP after weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop