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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake and Hydration on Health in Japanese Adults

1
Suntory Global Innovation Center Ltd. Research Institute, 8-1-1 Seikadai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0284, Japan
2
Department of Medical Management and Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Nishi-Nopporo 59-2, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8585, Japan
3
Department of Pharmacology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041191
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Increased hydration is recommended as healthy habit with several merits. However, supportive data are sparse. To assess the efficacy of increased daily water intake, we tested the effect of water supplementation on biomarkers in blood, urine, and saliva. Twenty-four healthy Japanese men and 31 healthy Japanese women with fasting blood glucose levels ranging from 90–125 mg/dL were included. An open-label, two-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks. Two additional 550 mL bottles of water on top of habitual fluid intake were consumed in the intervention group. The subjects drank one bottle of water (550 mL) within 2 h of waking, and one bottle (550 mL) 2 h before bedtime. Subjects increased mean fluid intake from 1.3 L/day to 2.0 L/day, without changes in total energy intake. Total body water rate increased with associated water supplementation. There were no significant changes in fasting blood glucose and arginine vasopressin levels, but systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the intervention group. Furthermore, water supplementation increased body temperature, reduced blood urea nitrogen concentration, and suppressed estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction. Additionally, existence of an intestinal microbiome correlated with decreased systolic blood pressure and increased body temperature. Habitual water supplementation after waking up and before bedtime in healthy subjects with slightly elevated fasting blood glucose levels is not effective in lowering these levels. However, it represents a safe and promising intervention with the potential for lowering blood pressure, increasing body temperature, diluting blood waste materials, and protecting kidney function. Thus, increasing daily water intake could provide several health benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: water intake; hydration; blood pressure; body temperature; microbiome water intake; hydration; blood pressure; body temperature; microbiome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakamura, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Tanaka, A.; Yasui, M.; Nishihira, J.; Murayama, N. Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake and Hydration on Health in Japanese Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041191

AMA Style

Nakamura Y, Watanabe H, Tanaka A, Yasui M, Nishihira J, Murayama N. Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake and Hydration on Health in Japanese Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041191

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakamura, Yumi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Yasui, Masato; Nishihira, Jun; Murayama, Norihito. 2020. "Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake and Hydration on Health in Japanese Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041191

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