Special Issue "The Effect of Calorie Restriction and Intermittent Fasting on Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Hae-Young Chung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Biochemistry Lab., College of Pharmacy, Pusan Nation University, Busan 46241, Korea

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent biochemical studies indicate that calorie restriction (CR) is a widely accepted method for anti-aging intervention. CR and intermittent fasting (IF), which involves reduced calories but proper nutritional intake during specific periods, are interventions that can consistently promote health benefits, delay biological aging, and extend both average and maximal lifespan. Furthermore, CR can modulate age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others.

Advances in omics technologies have provided a technical breakthrough that enables the investigation of DNA, RNA, proteins, and other cellular molecules and their comprehensive interactions in a biological context. Nowadays, it is possible to analyze and integrate biological processes that occur in aging systems at the molecular level using state-of-the-art techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), proteomics, lipidomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics. Omics technologies and approaches analyze and provide predictive information on CR effects, molecular mechanisms, and pathways.

This Special Issue, “The effect of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting on health and disease”, focuses on the effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting on age-related inflammation, autophagy, metabolism, longevity, cancer, mitochondrial function, and age-related diseases.

Prof. Hae-Young Chung
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Calorie restriction
  • Intermittent fasting
  • Age-related diseases
  • Metabolism
  • Omics
  • Mitochondria
  • Autophagy
  • Inflammation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Myocardial Dysfunction after Severe Food Restriction Is Linked to Changes in the Calcium-Handling Properties in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091985 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Severe food restriction (FR) impairs cardiac performance, although the causative mechanisms remain elusive. Since proteins associated with calcium handling may contribute to cardiac dysfunction, this study aimed to evaluate whether severe FR results in alterations in the expression and activity of Ca2+ [...] Read more.
Severe food restriction (FR) impairs cardiac performance, although the causative mechanisms remain elusive. Since proteins associated with calcium handling may contribute to cardiac dysfunction, this study aimed to evaluate whether severe FR results in alterations in the expression and activity of Ca2+-handling proteins that contribute to impaired myocardial performance. Male 60-day-old Wistar–Kyoto rats were fed a control or restricted diet (50% reduction in the food consumed by the control group) for 90 days. Body weight, body fat pads, adiposity index, as well as the weights of the soleus muscle and lung, were obtained. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by morphological measures. The myocardial contractile performance was analyzed in isolated papillary muscles during the administration of extracellular Ca2+ and in the absence or presence of a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) specific blocker. The expression of Ca2+-handling regulatory proteins was analyzed via Western Blot. Severe FR resulted in a 50% decrease in body weight and adiposity measures. Cardiac morphometry was substantially altered, as heart weights were nearly twofold lower in FR rats. Papillary muscles isolated from FR hearts displayed mechanical dysfunction, including decreased developed tension and reduced contractility and relaxation. The administration of a SERCA2a blocker led to further decrements in contractile function in FR hearts, suggesting impaired SERCA2a activity. Moreover, the FR rats presented a lower expression of L-type Ca2+ channels. Therefore, myocardial dysfunction induced by severe food restriction is associated with changes in the calcium-handling properties in rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Six Weeks of Calorie Restriction Improves Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese and Overweight Former Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071461 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the impact of 6 weeks of reducing daily caloric intake by 20% of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)-CRI vs. reducing daily caloric intake by 30% of TDEE-CRII on body mass reduction and insulin metabolism [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the impact of 6 weeks of reducing daily caloric intake by 20% of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)-CRI vs. reducing daily caloric intake by 30% of TDEE-CRII on body mass reduction and insulin metabolism in former athletes. Methods: 94 males aged 35.7 ± 5.3 years, height 180.5 ± 4.1 cm, and body mass 96.82 ± 6.2 kg were randomly assigned to the CRI (n = 49) or CRII (n = 45) group. Thirty-one participants (18 subjects from CRI and 13 from CRII) resigned from the study. The effects of both diets on the body composition variables (body mass—BM; body fat—BF; fat free mass—FFM; muscle mass—MM; total body water—TBW), lipid profile (total lipids—TL; total cholesterol—TCh; HDL cholesterol—HDL; LDL cholesterol—LDL; triglycerides—TG), and glucose control variables (glucose—GL, insulin—I, HOMA-IR, insulin-like growth factor-1—IGF-1, leptin and adiponectin) were measured. Results: After adhering to the CR I diet, significant differences were observed in FFM, MM and TG. After adhering to the CR II diet, significant differences were registered in tCh, TL and LDL. Both diets had a significant influence on leptin and adiponectin concentrations. Significant differences in FFM, MM, and tCh were observed between the CR I and CR II groups. At the end of the dietary intervention, significant differences in BF, FFM, MM and TBW were observed between the CR I and CR II groups. Conclusion: The 6 weeks of CR II diet appeared to be more effective in reducing BF and lipid profile and proved to be especially suitable for subjects with high body fat content and an elevated level of lipoproteins and cholesterol. Both reductive diets were effective in improving the levels of leptin and adiponectin in obese former athletes. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Calorie Restriction on Autophagy: Role on Aging Intervention
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122923 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Autophagy is an important housekeeping process that maintains a proper cellular homeostasis under normal physiologic and/or pathologic conditions. It is responsible for the disposal and recycling of metabolic macromolecules and damaged organelles through broad lysosomal degradation processes. Under stress conditions, including nutrient deficiency, [...] Read more.
Autophagy is an important housekeeping process that maintains a proper cellular homeostasis under normal physiologic and/or pathologic conditions. It is responsible for the disposal and recycling of metabolic macromolecules and damaged organelles through broad lysosomal degradation processes. Under stress conditions, including nutrient deficiency, autophagy is substantially activated to maintain proper cell function and promote cell survival. Altered autophagy processes have been reported in various aging studies, and a dysregulated autophagy is associated with various age-associated diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is regarded as the gold standard for many aging intervention methods. Although it is clear that CR has diverse effects in counteracting aging process, the exact mechanisms by which it modulates those processes are still controversial. Recent advances in CR research have suggested that the activation of autophagy is linked to the observed beneficial anti-aging effects. Evidence showed that CR induced a robust autophagy response in various metabolic tissues, and that the inhibition of autophagy attenuated the anti-aging effects of CR. The mechanisms by which CR modulates the complex process of autophagy have been investigated in depth. In this review, several major advances related to CR’s anti-aging mechanisms and anti-aging mimetics will be discussed, focusing on the modification of the autophagy response. Full article
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