Special Issue "The Regulation of Human Skeletal Muscle Metabolism by Nutrients across the Lifespan"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Philip J. Atherton
Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Interests: skeletal muscle; nutrition; metabolism; protein synthesis; ageing; cell signalling
Dr. Bethan E. Phillips
Website
Guest Editor
Clinical, Metabolic & Molecular Physiology, MRC-ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research & NIHR Nottingham BRC, Division of Medical Sciences & Graduate Entry Medicine,School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Nottingham, UK
Interests: skeletal muscle; protein; ageing; nutrition-exercise; interactions; prehabilitation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Skeletal muscle is the body’s largest organ by mass (~45%–55% body weight), and one which plays a crucial role in locomotion and the regulation of homeostasis, e.g., glycaemic control, thermogenesis, substrate liberation in response to illness/injury. This is reflected by the robust epidemiological links between low skeletal muscle mass and all-cause morbidity/mortality.

In healthy, weight-bearing individuals, skeletal muscle mass is regulated by nutrition and contractile activity (movement/exercise). As such, the manner by which muscles respond to nutrients—across the human lifespan—are critical determinants of muscle mass maintenance.

Therefore, optimising nutrition (e.g., protein quantity/quality, energy, eating patterns, novel nutraceuticals) to maximise muscle maintenance across the lifespan, both in isolation and in tandem with physical activity, is highly important; as is the identification of mechanisms underlying nutrient mishandling, and propagating a failure in muscle homeostasis, i.e., in ageing and co-morbidities. The purpose of this Special Edition is to help to address these questions via encouraging submission of relevant reviews and clinical studies in humans.

Prof. Philip J. Atherton
Dr. Bethan E. Phillips
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Skeletal muscle
  • Metabolism
  • Nutrition
  • Protein
  • Ageing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Potato Protein Isolate Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis at Rest and with Resistance Exercise in Young Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051235 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
Skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) increases in response to protein feeding and to resistance exercise (RE), where each stimuli acts synergistically when combined. The efficacy of plant proteins such as potato protein (PP) isolate to stimulate MPS is unknown. We aimed to [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) increases in response to protein feeding and to resistance exercise (RE), where each stimuli acts synergistically when combined. The efficacy of plant proteins such as potato protein (PP) isolate to stimulate MPS is unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of PP ingestion on daily MPS with and without RE in healthy women. In a single blind, parallel-group design, 24 young women (21 ± 3 years, n = 12/group) consumed a weight-maintaining baseline diet containing 0.8 g/kg/d of protein before being randomized to consume either 25 g of PP twice daily (1.6 g/kg/d total protein) or a control diet (CON) (0.8 g/kg/d total protein) for 2 wks. Unilateral RE (~30% of maximal strength to failure) was performed thrice weekly with the opposite limb serving as a non-exercised control (Rest). MPS was measured by deuterated water ingestion at baseline, following supplementation (Rest), and following supplementation + RE (Exercise). Ingestion of PP stimulated MPS by 0.14 ± 0.09 %/d at Rest, and by 0.32 ± 0.14 %/d in the Exercise limb. MPS was significantly elevated by 0.20 ± 0.11 %/d in the Exercise limb in CON (p = 0.008). Consuming PP to increase protein intake to levels twice the recommended dietary allowance for protein augmented rates of MPS. Performance of RE stimulated MPS regardless of protein intake. PP is a high-quality, plant-based protein supplement that augments MPS at rest and following RE in healthy young women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effect of the Timing of Resistance Exercise and Nutrient Intake on Muscle Protein Breakdown
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041177 - 22 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Combining resistance exercise (RE) with nutrient intake stimulates muscle protein net balance. However, it is still unclear whether the optimal timing of nutrient intake is before or after RE, especially on muscle protein breakdown (MPB) for an augmented muscle anabolic response. The [...] Read more.
Background: Combining resistance exercise (RE) with nutrient intake stimulates muscle protein net balance. However, it is still unclear whether the optimal timing of nutrient intake is before or after RE, especially on muscle protein breakdown (MPB) for an augmented muscle anabolic response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a substantial mixed meal (i.e., nutrient- and protein-dense whole foods) before or after RE, compared with RE without a meal on the acute response of MPB in a crossover-design study. Methods: Eight healthy young men performed three trials: (1) meal intake before RE (Pre), (2) meal intake after RE (Post), and (3) RE without meal intake (No). Plasma insulin and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), an MPB marker, were measured. Results: Time course change in plasma insulin level after RE was significantly higher in the Post condition than in the Pre and No conditions. The area under the curve of 3-MH concentration was significantly lower in the Post condition than in the Pre and No conditions. Conclusions: These results suggest that a substantial mixed meal immediately after RE may effectively suppress MPB in the morning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Whey Protein Supplementation on Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis and Performance Recovery in Resistance-Trained Men
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030845 - 21 Mar 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein supplementation on myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) and muscle recovery over a 7-d period of intensified resistance training (RT). Methods: In a double-blind randomised parallel group design, 16 resistance-trained men [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein supplementation on myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) and muscle recovery over a 7-d period of intensified resistance training (RT). Methods: In a double-blind randomised parallel group design, 16 resistance-trained men aged 18 to 35 years completed a 7-d RT protocol, consisting of three lower-body RT sessions on non-consecutive days. Participants consumed a controlled diet (146 kJ·kg−1·d−1, 1.7 g·kg−1·d−1 protein) with either a whey protein supplement or an isonitrogenous control (0.33 g·kg−1·d−1 protein). To measure myoPS, 400 ml of deuterium oxide (D2O) (70 atom %) was ingested the day prior to starting the study and m. vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before and after RT-intervention. Myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate (myoFSR) was calculated via deuterium labelling of myofibrillar-bound alanine, measured by gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Pyr-IRMS). Muscle recovery parameters (i.e., countermovement jump height, isometric-squat force, muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase) were assessed daily. Results: MyoFSR PRE was 1.6 (0.2) %∙d−1 (mean (SD)). Whey protein supplementation had no effect on myoFSR (p = 0.771) or any recovery parameter (p = 0.390–0.989). Conclusions: Over an intense 7-d RT protocol, 0.33 g·kg−1·d−1 of supplemental whey protein does not enhance day-to-day measures of myoPS or postexercise recovery in resistance-trained men. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Supplementation with the Leucine Metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not Improve Resistance Exercise-Induced Changes in Body Composition or Strength in Young Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051523 (registering DOI) - 23 May 2020
Abstract
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that is purported to increase fat-free mass (FFM) gain and performance in response to resistance exercise training (RET). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of HMB supplementation in augmenting FFM [...] Read more.
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that is purported to increase fat-free mass (FFM) gain and performance in response to resistance exercise training (RET). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of HMB supplementation in augmenting FFM and strength gains during RET in young adults. Outcomes investigated were: total body mass (TBM), FFM, fat mass (FM), total single repetition maximum (1RM), bench press (BP) 1RM, and lower body (LwB) 1RM. Databases consulted were: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Excerpta Medica database (Embase), The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and SportDiscus. Fourteen studies fit the inclusion criteria; however, 11 were analyzed after data extraction and funnel plot analysis exclusion. A total of 302 participants (18–45 y) were included in body mass and composition analysis, and 248 were included in the strength analysis. A significant effect was found on TBM. However, there were no significant effects for FFM, FM, or strength outcomes. We conclude that HMB produces a small effect on TBM gain, but this effect does not translate into significantly greater increases in FFM, strength or decreases in FM during periods of RET. Our findings do not support the use of HMB aiming at improvement of body composition or strength with RET. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Exploring the Association between Vascular Dysfunction and Skeletal Muscle Mass, Strength and Function in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030715 - 07 Mar 2020
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of vascular dysfunction increases with advancing age, as does the loss of muscle mass, strength and function. This systematic review explores the association between vascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle health in healthy adults. Methods: EMBASE and MEDLINE were [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of vascular dysfunction increases with advancing age, as does the loss of muscle mass, strength and function. This systematic review explores the association between vascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle health in healthy adults. Methods: EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for cross-sectional and randomized controlled studies between January 2009 and April 2019, with 33 out of 1246 studies included based on predefined criteria. Assessments of muscular health included muscle mass, strength and function. Macrovascular function assessment included arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity or augmentation index), carotid intima-media thickness, and flow-mediated dilation. Microvascular health assessment included capillary density or microvascular flow (contrast enhanced ultrasound). Results: All 33 studies demonstrated a significant association between vascular function and skeletal muscle health. Significant negative associations were reported between vascular dysfunction and -muscle strength (10 studies); -mass (9 studies); and -function (5 studies). Nine studies reported positive correlations between muscle mass and microvascular health. Conclusions: Multiple studies have revealed an association between vascular status and skeletal muscle health in healthy adults. This review points to the importance of screening for muscle health in adults with vascular dysfunction with a view to initiating early nutrition and exercise interventions to ameliorate functional decline over time. Full article
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