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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Oral glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), while widely marketed as [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Ergosterol Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy by Attenuating Mesangial Cell Proliferation and Extracellular Matrix Deposition via the TGF-β1/Smad2 Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020483
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Diabetic nephropathy, a microvascular complication of diabetes, is one of the principal causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of ergosterol on diabetic nephropathy. (2) Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced C57BL/6 diabetic mice [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Diabetic nephropathy, a microvascular complication of diabetes, is one of the principal causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of ergosterol on diabetic nephropathy. (2) Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced C57BL/6 diabetic mice were treated with ergosterol (10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks by oral gavage. The in vitro study employed rat mesangial cells exposed to 30 mM glucose for 48 h in the presence of 10 or 20 μM ergosterol. (3) Results: Ergosterol treatment improved body weights, ameliorated the majority of biochemical and renal functional parameters and histopathological changes, and reduced extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in diabetic mice. In vitro, ergosterol suppressed proliferation, reduced the levels of ECM proteins, and increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in high glucose-induced mesangial cells; Furthermore, ergosterol markedly improved transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression, enhanced phosphorylation levels of drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic 2 (Smad2), and regulated the downstream factors in vivo and in vitro. (4) Conclusions: Ergosterol alleviated mesangial cell proliferation and the subsequent ECM deposition by regulating the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessReview Vitamin B12 in Relation to Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020482
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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The triage theory posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies may induce reallocation of nutrients to processes necessary for immediate survival at the expense of long-term health. Neglected processes could in time contribute to the onset of age-related diseases, in which oxidative stress is believed [...] Read more.
The triage theory posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies may induce reallocation of nutrients to processes necessary for immediate survival at the expense of long-term health. Neglected processes could in time contribute to the onset of age-related diseases, in which oxidative stress is believed to be a major factor. Vitamin B12 (B12) appears to possess antioxidant properties. This review aims to summarise the potential antioxidant mechanisms of B12 and investigate B12 status in relation to oxidative stress markers. A systematic query-based search of PubMed was performed to identify eligible publications. The potential antioxidant properties of B12 include: (1) direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide; (2) indirect stimulation of ROS scavenging by preservation of glutathione; (3) modulation of cytokine and growth factor production to offer protection from immune response-induced oxidative stress; (4) reduction of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress; and (5) reduction of oxidative stress caused by advanced glycation end products. Some evidence appears to suggest that lower B12 status is related to increased pro-oxidant and decreased antioxidant status, both overall and for subclinically deficient individuals compared to those with normal B12 status. However, there is a lack of randomised controlled trials and prospective studies focusing specifically on the relation between B12 and oxidative stress in humans, resulting in a low strength of evidence. Further work is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inclusion of Sunflower Oil in the Bovine Diet Improves Milk Nutritional Profile
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020481
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Milk and its derivatives are important foods that contribute to daily nutrient requirements and improve consumers’ health. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing the diet of lactating dairy cows with sunflower oil (SFO), selenium, and vitamin E on the milk’s fatty acid [...] Read more.
Milk and its derivatives are important foods that contribute to daily nutrient requirements and improve consumers’ health. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing the diet of lactating dairy cows with sunflower oil (SFO), selenium, and vitamin E on the milk’s fatty acid profile and fat oxidative stability as well as the acceptability of the milk by consumers. For this purpose, 32 Jersey dairy cows were allocated to four treatment groups for 60 days, as follows: C (control diet); A (3.5 mg/kg DM (dry matter) organic selenium + 2000 IU vitamin E/cow per day); O (4% SFO DM); OA (equal doses of A and O treatments). The inclusion of SFO decreased the contents of 10:0, 10:1, 11:0, 12:0, 12:1, 14:0, and 9c-14:1 fatty acids as well as odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (13:0, iso 13:0, anteiso 13:0, 15:0, iso 15:0, and 17:0). There was also a tendency for 8:0 and 16:0 fatty acid concentrations to decrease when SFO was included in the cows´ diet. SFO decreased the concentration of 10:0 to 15:0 fatty acids in milk. The sum of the conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), conjugated alpha-linolenic acid intermediates (CLnAs; 18:3 ω6 + 18:3 ω3), and 22:0 fatty acids in milk tended to increase, and there were significant increases in 18:0 and 9c11t-18:2 with SFO. In terms of the effects of SFO on the health-related lipid indices, the atherogenicity index tended to decrease and h/H tended to increase. When cows were supplemented with antioxidants, the concentration of 20:2 fatty acids decreased, the 6 + 7 + 8 + 9t-18:1, 16t-18:1, 20:0, 22:2, and 24:0 fatty acid concentrations increased, and there was a trend for the 22:1 ω9 fatty acid concentration to increase with antioxidants plus oil. There was a tendency for ω6 fatty acids and ω6/ω3 to increase with milk treated with antioxidants plus oil. The oxidative stability of milk was not influenced by the presence of SFO or antioxidants in the diet of dairy cows. Consumers desired the color and mouthfeel of the milk that was treated with SFO. Cows fed with 4% sunflower oil produced milk with an improved fatty acid profile for human nutrition, containing a higher CLA content and an improved ratio of hypocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, without increasing the milk’s susceptibility to oxidation. The milk was also rated as being more acceptable by consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Animal-Source Protein is Associated with Improved Height-for-Age z Scores in Rural Malawian Children Aged 12–36 Months
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020480
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
Linear growth faltering, caused by insufficient diet, recurrent infections and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), continues to plague young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Diets in LMICs are primarily plant based, and thus have poor-quality protein and low levels of essential micronutrients. [...] Read more.
Linear growth faltering, caused by insufficient diet, recurrent infections and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), continues to plague young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Diets in LMICs are primarily plant based, and thus have poor-quality protein and low levels of essential micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess the association of the type and protein quality of food consumed with stunting, EED and acute malnutrition in children aged 6–36 months in Limera and Masenjere, two rural Southern Malawian communities. This is a secondary analysis of two randomized controlled trials that tested the effects of common bean and cowpea flour on stunting in children aged 6–36 months. We used data from two interactive 24-h dietary recalls conducted 12 weeks after enrolment into each trial. Food intakes were compared between the regions using Chi-square and Student’s t-test. There were 355 children that participated in the dietary recalls. The diets of children were of poor quality, but the children from Limera consumed more fish (54% vs. 35%, p = 0.009) and more bioavailable protein (26.0 ± 10.3 g/day vs. 23.1 ± 8.1 g/day, p = 0.018, respectively) than children in Masenjere. Food type and protein quality were not associated with any of the outcomes except an association between animal protein consumption and improvement in height-for-age z scores in children aged 12–36 months (p = 0.047). These findings support the notion that animal-source food (ASF) consumption in this vulnerable population promotes linear growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bean Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Phenotype of Celiac Disease Has Low Concordance between Siblings, Despite a Similar Distribution of HLA Haplotypes
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020479
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
The factors determining the presentation of celiac disease are unclear. We investigated the phenotypic concordance and the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk haplotypes in affected siblings. One hundred sibling pairs were included. Clinical and histological parameters and HLA haplotypes were compared [...] Read more.
The factors determining the presentation of celiac disease are unclear. We investigated the phenotypic concordance and the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk haplotypes in affected siblings. One hundred sibling pairs were included. Clinical and histological parameters and HLA haplotypes were compared between the first diagnosed indexes and their siblings. The phenotype was categorized into gastrointestinal, extra-intestinal, malabsorption/anemia, and asymptomatic. The phenotype was fully concordant in 21 pairs. The most common concordant phenotype was gastrointestinal (14 pairs). Indexes had more anemia/malabsorption and extra-intestinal symptoms than siblings (45% vs. 20%, p < 0.001 and 33% vs. 12%, p < 0.001, respectively). Twenty siblings and none of the indexes were asymptomatic. The indexes were more often women (81% vs. 63%, p = 0.008). They were also more often seronegative (11% vs. 0%, p = 0.03) and younger (37 vs. 43 year, p < 0.001), and had more severe histopathology (total/subtotal atrophy 79% vs. 58%, p = 0.047) at diagnosis. The indexes and siblings were comparable in other disease features. Pairs with discordant presentation had similar HLA haplotypes more often than the concordant pairs. The phenotype was observed to vary markedly between siblings, with the indexes generally having a more severe presentation. HLA did not explain the differences, suggesting that non-HLA genes and environmental factors play significant roles. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Weight and Body Composition in Healthy Non-Athlete Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020478
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract
Background: Ramadan involves one month of fasting from sunrise to sunset. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition. Methods: In May 2018, we searched six databases for publications that measured weight and body [...] Read more.
Background: Ramadan involves one month of fasting from sunrise to sunset. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition. Methods: In May 2018, we searched six databases for publications that measured weight and body composition before and after Ramadan, and that did not attempt to influence physical activity or diet. Results: Data were collected from 70 publications (90 comparison groups, 2947 participants). There was a significant positive correlation between starting body mass index and weight lost during the fasting period. Consistently, there was a significant reduction in fat percentage between pre-Ramadan and post-Ramadan in people with overweight or obesity (−1.46 (95% confidence interval: −2.57 to −0.35) %, p = 0.010), but not in those of normal weight (−0.41 (−1.45 to 0.63) %, p = 0.436). Loss of fat-free mass was also significant between pre-Ramadan and post-Ramadan, but was about 30% less than loss of absolute fat mass. At 2–5 weeks after the end of Ramadan, there was a return towards, or to, pre-Ramadan measurements in weight and body composition. Conclusions: Even with no advice on lifestyle changes, there are consistent—albeit transient—reductions in weight and fat mass with the Ramadan fast, especially in people with overweight or obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gender Differences with Dose–Response Relationship between Serum Selenium Levels and Metabolic Syndrome—A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020477
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Few studies have investigated the association between selenium and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to explore the associations between the serum selenium level and metabolic syndrome as well as examining each metabolic factor. In this case-control study, the participants were 1165 adults aged [...] Read more.
Few studies have investigated the association between selenium and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to explore the associations between the serum selenium level and metabolic syndrome as well as examining each metabolic factor. In this case-control study, the participants were 1165 adults aged ≥40 (65.8 ± 10.0) years. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The associations between serum selenium and metabolic syndrome were examined by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The least square means were computed by general linear models to compare the serum selenium levels in relation to the number of metabolic factors. The mean serum selenium concentration was 96.34 ± 25.90 μg/L, and it was positively correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in women, but it was only correlated with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR in men. After adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) of having metabolic syndrome increased with the selenium quartile groups (p for trend: <0.05), especially in women. The study demonstrated that the serum selenium levels were positively associated with metabolic syndrome following a non-linear dose–response trend. Selenium concentration was positively associated with insulin resistance in men and women, but it was associated with adiposity and lipid metabolism in women. The mechanism behind this warrants further confirmation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Selenium in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReply Reply: “Letter to the editor Re: Diaz M., et al. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1481”
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020476
Received: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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The objective of this letter of reply is to provide answers to the doubts and critical issues that Martín Martinez and López Liñan [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Hepatic and Visceral Fat in Overweight Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020475
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Being overweight increases the risk of the development of metabolic conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is itself an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is recommended for prevention of chronic disease, and is thought [...] Read more.
Being overweight increases the risk of the development of metabolic conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is itself an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is recommended for prevention of chronic disease, and is thought to reduce raised liver fat, yet there have been few randomized controlled trials with accurate measurement of liver fat. We assessed the effect of 12 weeks of supplementation with omega-3 PUFA from fish oil versus placebo on quantified liver fat, liver tests, and body composition including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty apparently healthy overweight men (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2; waist > 94 cm) were randomly allocated to consume fish oil (total daily dose: 1728 mg marine triglycerides, of which 588 mg EPA and 412 mg DHA, combined with 200 mg antioxidant, coenzyme Q10) or placebo (olive oil capsules) daily for 12 weeks. Liver fat was assessed using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and following 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation. Baseline liver fat was 4.6 ± 0.5% (range: 0.6 to 18.2%); 16 (32%) participants met the criteria for NAFLD (>5.5% liver fat). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant time or group × time effect for fish oil versus placebo for liver fat, liver enzymes, anthropometry, or body composition including VAT (p > 0.05 for all), with similar finding for sub-analysis of participants with NAFLD. Omega-3 PUFA did not appear to be an effective agent for reducing liver fat in overweight men. The factors determining the health benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on an individual level need to be clarified. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Role of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) in Antiphotoaging, Stress Resistance, Neuroprotection, and Autophagy
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020474
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, and is available in various forms. Green tea is richer in antioxidants compared to other forms of tea. Tea is composed of polyphenols, caffeine, minerals, and trace amounts of vitamins, amino acids, and [...] Read more.
Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, and is available in various forms. Green tea is richer in antioxidants compared to other forms of tea. Tea is composed of polyphenols, caffeine, minerals, and trace amounts of vitamins, amino acids, and carbohydrates. The composition of the tea varies depending on the fermentation process employed to produce it. The phytochemicals present in green tea are known to stimulate the central nervous system and maintain overall health in humans. Skin aging is a complex process mediated by intrinsic factors such as senescence, along with extrinsic damage induced by external factors such as chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation—A process known as photoaging—Which can lead to erythema, edema, sunburn, hyperplasia, premature aging, and the development of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. UV can cause skin damage either directly, through absorption of energy by biomolecules, or indirectly, by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Green tea phytochemicals are a potent source of exogenous antioxidant candidates that could nullify excess endogenous ROS and RNS inside the body, and thereby diminish the impact of photoaging. Several in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that green tea supplementation increases the collagen and elastin fiber content, and suppresses collagen degrading enzyme MMP-3 production in the skin, conferring an anti-wrinkle effect. The precise mechanism behind the anti-photoaging effect of green tea has not been explored yet. Studies using the worm model have suggested that green tea mediated lifespan extension depends on the DAF-16 pathway. Apart from this, green tea has been reported to have stress resistance and neuroprotective properties. Its ROS scavenging activity makes it a potent stress mediator, as it can also regulate the stress induced by metal ions. It is known that tea polyphenols can induce the expression of different antioxidant enzymes and hinder the DNA oxidative damage. Growing evidence suggests that green tea can also be used as a potential agent to mediate neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. EGCG, an abundant catechin in tea, was found to suppress the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ as it activates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), along with inhibiting c-Abl/FE65—the cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase which is involved in the development of the nervous system and in nuclear translocation. Additionally, green tea polyphenols induce autophagy, thereby revitalizing the overall health of the organism consuming it. Green tea was able to activate autophagy in HL-60 xenographs by increasing the activity of PI3 kinase and BECLIN-1. This manuscript describes the reported anti-photoaging, stress resistance, and neuroprotective and autophagy properties of one of the most widely known functional foods—green tea. Full article
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Open AccessReview Infant Cereals: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Opportunities for Whole Grains
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020473
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Infant cereals play an important role in the complementary feeding period. The aim of this study was to review existing research about the quantity, type, and degree of infant cereal processing, with a special focus on whole grain infant cereals. Accumulating evidence shows [...] Read more.
Infant cereals play an important role in the complementary feeding period. The aim of this study was to review existing research about the quantity, type, and degree of infant cereal processing, with a special focus on whole grain infant cereals. Accumulating evidence shows many benefits of whole grain consumption for human health. Likewise, consumers are frequently linking the term whole grains to healthiness and naturality, and sustainable food production becomes a more important aspect when choosing an infant cereal brand. Whole grain cereals should be consumed as early as possible, i.e., during infancy. However, there are several challenges that food manufacturers are facing that need to be addressed. Recommendations are needed for the intake of whole grain cereals for infants and young children, including product-labeling guidelines for whole grain foods targeting these age stages. Another challenge is minimizing the higher contaminant content in whole grains, as well as those formed during processing. Yet, the greatest challenge may be to drive consumers’ acceptance, including taste. The complementary feeding period is absolutely key in shaping the infant’s food preferences and habits; therefore, it is the appropriate stage in life at which to introduce whole grain cereals for the acceptance of whole grains across the entire lifespan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Intraintestinal Delivery of Tastants Using a Naso-Duodenal-Ileal Catheter Does Not Influence Food Intake or Satiety
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020472
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Intraduodenal activity of taste receptors reduces food intake. Taste receptors are expressed throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there are no data available on the effects of distal taste receptor activation. In this study, we investigate the effect of intraduodenal and/or intraileal activation [...] Read more.
Intraduodenal activity of taste receptors reduces food intake. Taste receptors are expressed throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there are no data available on the effects of distal taste receptor activation. In this study, we investigate the effect of intraduodenal and/or intraileal activation of taste receptors on food intake and satiety. In a single-blind randomized crossover trial, fourteen participants were intubated with a naso-duodenal-ileal catheter and received four infusion regimens: duodenal placebo and ileal placebo (DPIP), duodenal tastants and ileal placebo (DTIP), duodenal placebo and ileal tastants (DPIT), duodenal tastants and ileal tastants (DTIT). Fifteen minutes after cessation of infusion, subjects received an ad libitum meal to measure food intake. Visual analog scale scores for satiety feelings were collected at regular intervals. No differences in food intake were observed between the various interventions (DPIP: 786.6 ± 79.2 Kcal, DTIP: 803.3 ± 69.0 Kcal, DPIT: 814.7 ± 77.3 Kcal, DTIT: 834.8 ± 59.2 Kcal, p = 0.59). No differences in satiety feelings were observed. Intestinal infusion of tastants using a naso-duodenal-ileal catheter did not influence food intake or satiety feelings. Possibly, the burden of the four-day naso-duodenal-ileal intubation masked a small effect that tastants might have on food intake and satiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taste, Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Production of Bioactive Compounds by Food Associated Galactomyces geotrichum 38, as Determined by Proteome Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020471
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Fried cottage cheese is a dairy product, popular in some parts of Poland. Proteomic analysis of a culture of the mold Galactomyces geotrichum 38 isolated from fried cottage cheese was performed using UHPLC/MS. From the proteins identified, we selected those involved in the [...] Read more.
Fried cottage cheese is a dairy product, popular in some parts of Poland. Proteomic analysis of a culture of the mold Galactomyces geotrichum 38 isolated from fried cottage cheese was performed using UHPLC/MS. From the proteins identified, we selected those involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and those useful in industry. In the G. geotrichum 38 culture, the production quantities of vitamin B2 (224 μg/L), ergosterol (54.63 mg/kg), and trehalose (0.91 g/L) were determined by HPLC. The identified proteins were also used to prepare a hypothetical fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, and the percentage of individual sphingolipids in the culture was determined. Sphingolipids are also bioactive compounds. During culturing of G. geotrichum 38, the percentage of three sphingolipids increased. The last step of the research was to prepare a model of fried cottage cheese. The mold G. geotrichum 38, used in the process of ripening fried cottage cheese, synthesized vitamin B2 and erogsterol, which influenced the nutritional value of the product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Status and Body Composition Across a Collegiate Women’s Lacrosse Season
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020470
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Little data is available regarding the energy and nutritional status of female collegiate team sport athletes. Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse athletes (mean ± SD: 20.4 ± 1.8 years; 68.8 ± 8.9 kg; 168.4 ± 6.6 cm; 27.9 ± 3% body fat) [...] Read more.
Little data is available regarding the energy and nutritional status of female collegiate team sport athletes. Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse athletes (mean ± SD: 20.4 ± 1.8 years; 68.8 ± 8.9 kg; 168.4 ± 6.6 cm; 27.9 ± 3% body fat) recorded dietary intake and wore a physical activity monitor over four consecutive days at five different time points (20 days total) during one academic year. Body composition, bone health, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in conjunction with wearing the monitor during off-season, pre-season, and season-play. Body fat percentage decreased slightly during the course of this study (p = 0.037). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) (p < 0.001) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) (p = 0.001) energy were found to change significantly over the course of the year, with pre-season training resulting in the highest energy expenditures (TDEE: 2789 ± 391 kcal/day; AEE: 1001 ± 267 kcal/day). Caloric (2124 ± 448 kcal/day), carbohydrate (3.6 ± 1.1 g/kg), and protein (1.2 ± 0.3 g/kg) intake did not change over the course of the year (p > 0.05). Athletes self-reported a moderate negative energy balance (366–719 kcal/day) and low energy availability (22.9–30.4 kcal/kg FFM) at each measurement period throughout the study. Reported caloric and macronutrient intake was low given the recorded energy expenditure and macronutrient intake recommendations for athletes. Athletic support staff should provide athletes with appropriate fueling strategies, particularly during pre-season training, to adequately meet energy demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessLetter Letter to the Editor Re: Diaz M., et al. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1481
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020468
Received: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
We have read with interest the article published by Diaz et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
Open AccessCommunication Effects of Pharmacological Thermogenic Adipocyte Activation on Metabolism and Atherosclerotic Plaque Regression
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020463
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Thermogenic adipocytes burn nutrients in order to produce heat. Upon activation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) clears vast amounts of lipids and glucose from the circulation and thus substantially lowers plasma lipid levels. As a consequence, BAT activation protects from the development of atherosclerosis. [...] Read more.
Thermogenic adipocytes burn nutrients in order to produce heat. Upon activation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) clears vast amounts of lipids and glucose from the circulation and thus substantially lowers plasma lipid levels. As a consequence, BAT activation protects from the development of atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear if pharmacologic activation of BAT can be exploited therapeutically to reduce plaque burden in established atherosclerotic disease. Here we study the impact of thermogenic adipose tissues on plaque regression in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Thermogenic adipocytes in atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice were pharmacologically activated by dietary CL316,243 (CL) treatment for 4 weeks and the outcomes on metabolically active tissues, plasma lipids and atherosclerosis were analyzed. While the chronic activation of thermogenic adipocytes reduced adiposity, increased browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), altered liver gene expression, and reduced plasma triglyceride levels, atherosclerotic plaque burden remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that despite improving adiposity and plasma triglycerides, pharmacologic activation of thermogenic adipocytes is not able to reverse atherosclerosis in LDLR-deficient mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndromes)
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Open AccessReview Raw Cow’s Milk and Its Protective Effect on Allergies and Asthma
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020469
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Living on a farm and having contact with rural exposures have been proposed as one of the most promising ways to be protected against allergy and asthma development. There is a significant body of epidemiological evidence that consumption of raw milk in childhood [...] Read more.
Living on a farm and having contact with rural exposures have been proposed as one of the most promising ways to be protected against allergy and asthma development. There is a significant body of epidemiological evidence that consumption of raw milk in childhood and adulthood in farm but also nonfarm populations can be one of the most effective protective factors. The observation is even more intriguing when considering the fact that milk is one of the most common food allergens in childhood. The exact mechanisms underlying this association are still not well understood, but the role of raw milk ingredients such as proteins, fat and fatty acids, and bacterial components has been recently studied and its influence on the immune function has been documented. In this review, we present the current understanding of the protective effect of raw milk on allergies and asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Tumor Growth by Dietary Indole-3-Carbinol in a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model May Be Associated with Disrupted Gut Microbial Interactions
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020467
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Accumulated evidence suggests that the cruciferous vegetables-derived compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) may protect against prostate cancer, but the precise mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that the beneficial effect of dietary I3C may be due to its [...] Read more.
Accumulated evidence suggests that the cruciferous vegetables-derived compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) may protect against prostate cancer, but the precise mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that the beneficial effect of dietary I3C may be due to its modulatory effect on the gut microbiome of mice. Athymic nude mice (5–7 weeks old, male, Balb c/c nu/nu) with established tumor xenografts were fed a basal diet (AIN-93) with or without 1 µmoles I3C/g for 9 weeks. The effects of dietary I3C on gut microbial composition and microbial species interactions were then examined by 16s rRNA gene-based sequencing and co-occurrence network analysis. I3C supplementation significantly inhibited tumor growth (p < 0.0001) and altered the structure of gut microbiome. The abundance of the phylum Deferribacteres, more specifically, Mucispirillum schaedleri, was significantly increased by dietary I3C. Additionally, I3C consumption also changed gut microbial co-occurrence patterns. One of the network modules in the control group, consisting of seven bacteria in family S-27, was positively correlated with tumor size (p < 0.009). Moreover, dietary I3C disrupted microbial interactions and altered this association between specific microbial network and tumor development. Our results unraveled complex relationships among I3C ingestion, gut microbiota, and prostate tumor development and may provide a novel insight into the mechanism for the chemopreventive effect of dietary I3C on prostate cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interesterified Fats Induce Deleterious Effects on Adipose Tissue and Liver in LDLr-KO Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020466
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Interesterified fats are being widely used by the food industry in an attempt to replace trans fatty acids. The effect of interesterified fats containing palmitic or stearic acids on lipid metabolism and inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose and hepatic tissues was evaluated. Male [...] Read more.
Interesterified fats are being widely used by the food industry in an attempt to replace trans fatty acids. The effect of interesterified fats containing palmitic or stearic acids on lipid metabolism and inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose and hepatic tissues was evaluated. Male LDLr-KO mice were fed a high-fat diet containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR), or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER) fats for 16 weeks. The expression of genes and protein levels involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes in liver and white adipose tissue was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and by Western blot, respectively. The infiltration of inflammatory cells in hepatic and adipose tissues was determined by eosin and hematoxylin, while liver collagen content was determined by Sirius Red staining. Both interesterified fats increased liver collagen content and JNK phosphorylation. Additionally, the STEAR INTER group developed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) associated with higher neutrophil infiltration. PALM INTER induced adipose tissue expansion and enlargement of adipocytes. Furthermore, PALM INTER triggered increased IKK phosphorylation and TNFα protein content, conditions associated with the upstream activation of the NFkB signaling pathway. STEAR INTER induced NASH, while PALM INTER triggered hepatic fibrosis and adipocyte hypertrophy with inflammatory response in LDLr-KO mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake Reflected by Adipose Tissue Alkylresorcinols and Breast Cancer: A Case-Cohort Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020465
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Whole grain rye (WGR) and whole grain wheat (WGW) have been suggested to protect against the development of breast cancer. In this study, we estimated long-term intake of WGR and WGW, using both a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and alkylresorcinol concentrations in adipose [...] Read more.
Whole grain rye (WGR) and whole grain wheat (WGW) have been suggested to protect against the development of breast cancer. In this study, we estimated long-term intake of WGR and WGW, using both a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and alkylresorcinol concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies, in relation to the risk of developing invasive breast cancer in a case-cohort study (n = 414 in the case group, n = 933 in the subcohort group) on the Danish “Diet, Cancer and Health” cohort. The median follow-up time of the subcohort was 5.3 years. Total WGR and WGW intake estimated with FFQ or reflected by total alkylresorcinol concentration in adipose tissue was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. However, after adjustment for total WGR and WGW intake, women in the highest quartile of relative WGR intake, reflected by the alkylresorcinol C17:0/C21:0 ratio, had a higher risk of overall breast cancer and estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer than women in the lowest quartile of relative WGR intake, while the risk of estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer incidence was unaffected. Similar results were obtained with the FFQ data. Based on these data, further investigation of the role of specific grain types in reducing or increasing breast cancer risk, and their overall impact on health, is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Food, Nutrition and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Varying the Color, Aroma, Bitter, and Sweet Levels of a Grapefruit-Like Model Beverage on the Sensory Properties and Liking of the Consumer
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020464
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Color, aroma, sweet, and bitter tastes contribute to the sensory perception of grapefruit juice. Consumers differ about liking grapefruit. A reason is the bitter taste that characterize the fruit. The objective was to determine the effect of varying the color (red or yellow), [...] Read more.
Color, aroma, sweet, and bitter tastes contribute to the sensory perception of grapefruit juice. Consumers differ about liking grapefruit. A reason is the bitter taste that characterize the fruit. The objective was to determine the effect of varying the color (red or yellow), aroma (two levels), bitterness (three levels), and sweetness (three levels) of a grapefruit-like model beverage, on consumers’ liking and perception of its sensory properties. The sensory profiles of thirty-six grapefruit-like beverages, created on the basis of a factorial design, has been described. Consumers rated their liking of color, aroma, and flavor of the twelve most diverse beverages. Bitter and sweet levels of the beverages had a significant effect on the flavor and aftertaste attributes. Aroma concentration had a significant effect on the majority of the sensory attributes. Color had a significant effect on perception of some of the aroma attributes, as well as the grapefruit’s flavor intensity. Consumers liked the red beverages more than the yellow ones, and those with low aroma over the high aroma intensity. Consumers preferred the low bitter/high sweet beverages. Pungent and grapefruit aroma were found to be negative drivers for liking of the aroma. Sweet and citrus flavors were found to be positive drivers and sour and bitter flavors were found to be negative drivers of flavor-preferences (or liking) of the tested beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taste, Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessReview The Relevance of Toxic AGEs (TAGE) Cytotoxicity to NASH Pathogenesis: A Mini-Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020462
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common feature of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD, and one of its risk factors is hyperglycemia. The chronic ingestion of excessive amounts of high-fructose corn syrup is [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common feature of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD, and one of its risk factors is hyperglycemia. The chronic ingestion of excessive amounts of high-fructose corn syrup is associated with an increased prevalence of fatty liver. Under hyperglycemic conditions, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are generated through a non-enzymatic glycation reaction between the ketone or aldehyde groups of sugars and amino groups of proteins. Glyceraldehyde (GA) is a metabolic intermediate of sugars, and GA-derived AGEs (known as toxic AGEs (TAGE)) have been implicated in the development of NASH. TAGE accumulates more in serum or liver tissue in NASH patients than in healthy controls or patients with simple steatosis. Furthermore, the TAGE precursor, GA, causes cell damage through protein dysfunctions by TAGE modifications and induces necrotic-type hepatocyte death. Intracellular TAGE may leak outside of necrotic-type cells. Extracellular TAGE then induce inflammatory or fibrotic responses related to the pathology of NASH in surrounding cells, including hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. This review focuses on the contribution of TAGE to the pathology of NASH, particularly hepatic cell death related to NASH. Full article
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Open AccessReview Congenital Lactase Deficiency: Mutations, Functional and Biochemical Implications, and Future Perspectives
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020461
Received: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD) is a severe autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects the functional capacity of the intestinal protein lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). This disorder is diagnosed already during the first few days of the newborn’s life due to the inability to digest [...] Read more.
Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD) is a severe autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects the functional capacity of the intestinal protein lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). This disorder is diagnosed already during the first few days of the newborn’s life due to the inability to digest lactose, the main carbohydrate in mammalian milk. The symptoms are similar to those in other carbohydrate malabsorption disorders, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, and include severe osmotic watery diarrhea. CLD is associated with mutations in the translated region of the LPH gene that elicit loss-of-function of LPH. The mutations occur in a homozygote or compound heterozygote pattern of inheritance and comprise missense mutations as well as mutations that lead to complete or partial truncations of crucial domains in LPH, such as those linked to the folding and transport-competence of LPH and to the catalytic domains. Nevertheless, the identification of the mutations in CLD is not paralleled by detailed genotype/protein phenotype analyses that would help unravel potential pathomechanisms underlying this severe disease. Here, we review the current knowledge of CLD mutations and discuss their potential impact on the structural and biosynthetic features of LPH. We also address the question of whether heterozygote carriers can be symptomatic for CLD and whether genetic testing is needed in view of the severity of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactose Intolerance Update)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Micronutrient Intake and Status, Diet Quality and Glucose Tolerance from Preconception to the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020460
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Data on changes in dietary intake and related blood parameters throughout pregnancy are scarce; moreover, few studies have examined their association with glucose homeostasis. Therefore, we monitored intake of folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin D and iron, their status markers, and diet [...] Read more.
Data on changes in dietary intake and related blood parameters throughout pregnancy are scarce; moreover, few studies have examined their association with glucose homeostasis. Therefore, we monitored intake of folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin D and iron, their status markers, and diet quality from preconception to the second trimester of pregnancy, and we examined whether these dietary factors were associated with glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. We included 105 women aged 18–40 years with a desire to get pregnancy or who were already <24 weeks pregnant. Women at increased gestational diabetes (GDM) risk were oversampled. Measurements were scheduled at preconception (n = 67), and 12 (n =53) and 24 weeks of pregnancy (n =66), including a fasting venipuncture, 75-grams oral glucose tolerance test, and completion of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Changes in micronutrient intake and status, and associations between dietary factors and glucose homeostasis, were examined using adjusted repeated measures mixed models. Micronutrient intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin D and related status markers significantly changed throughout pregnancy, which was predominantly due to changes in the intake of supplements. Micronutrient intake or status levels were not associated with glucose homeostasis, except for iron intake (FE µg/day) with fasting glucose (β = −0.069 mmol/L, p = 0.013) and HbA1c (β = −0.4843 mmol, p = 0.002). Diet quality was inversely associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.006 mmol/L for each DHD15-index point, p = 0.017). It was shown that micronutrient intakes and their status markers significantly changed during pregnancy. Only iron intake and diet quality were inversely associated with glucose homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
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Open AccessEditorial Nutrition and Chronic Conditions
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020459
Received: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
This editorial discusses and analyses the role of dietary interventions in the management of chronic conditions in recognition of the global increase of these diseases, the rise in the ageing population, and the significant cost to health services around the world. Evidence has [...] Read more.
This editorial discusses and analyses the role of dietary interventions in the management of chronic conditions in recognition of the global increase of these diseases, the rise in the ageing population, and the significant cost to health services around the world. Evidence has shown that low-glycaemic index (GI) and low-carbohydrate diets are effective in the management of type 2 diabetes, and the role of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and bioactive compounds in chronic disease management have been the subject of intense research. However, although multidimensional approaches are important in the management of these chronic conditions, nutritional interventions are critical and central to these strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Conventional and Individualized 1-MET Values for Expressing Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rate and Habitual Activity Related Energy Expenditure
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020458
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
The maximum aerobic metabolic rate can be expressed in multiple metabolically equivalent tasks (MET), i.e., METmax. The purpose was to quantify the error when the conventional (3.5 mL∙kg−1∙min−1) compared to an individualized 1-MET-value is used for calculating METmax and [...] Read more.
The maximum aerobic metabolic rate can be expressed in multiple metabolically equivalent tasks (MET), i.e., METmax. The purpose was to quantify the error when the conventional (3.5 mL∙kg−1∙min−1) compared to an individualized 1-MET-value is used for calculating METmax and estimating activity energy expenditure (AEE) in endurance-trained athletes (END) and active healthy controls (CON). The resting metabolic rate (RMR, indirect calorimetry) and aerobic metabolic capacity (spiroergometry) were assessed in 52 END (46% male, 27.9 ± 5.7 years) and 53 CON (45% male, 27.3 ± 4.6 years). METmax was calculated as the ratio of VO2max over VO2 during RMR (METmax_ind), and VO2max over the conventional 1-MET-value (METmax_fix). AEE was estimated by multiplying published MET values with the individual and conventional 1-MET-values. Dependent t-tests were used to compare the different modes for calculating METmax and AEE (α = 0.05). In women and men CON, men END METmax_fix was significantly higher than METmax_ind (p < 0.01), whereas, in women END, no difference was found (p > 0.05). The conventional 1-MET-value significantly underestimated AEE in men and women CON, and men END (p < 0.05), but not in women END (p > 0.05). The conventional 1-MET-value appears inappropriate for determining the aerobic metabolic capacity and AEE in active and endurance-trained persons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Positioning the Value of Dietary Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate Quality, Glycemic Index, and GI Labelling to the Canadian Consumer for Improving Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020457
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
The objectives of this qualitative study was to: (1) understand Canadian consumers’ knowledge and perception of dietary carbohydrates, carbohydrate quality, and the glycemic index (GI); and (2) determine Canadian’s receptiveness to GI labelling to assist with identifying and consuming foods of higher carbohydrate [...] Read more.
The objectives of this qualitative study was to: (1) understand Canadian consumers’ knowledge and perception of dietary carbohydrates, carbohydrate quality, and the glycemic index (GI); and (2) determine Canadian’s receptiveness to GI labelling to assist with identifying and consuming foods of higher carbohydrate quality. Focus groups were recruited in Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal and grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (NBW, normal body weight; PO, previously obese; and OW/OB, overweight/obese) and diagnosis with prediabetes and diabetes (PO (Vancouver) and OW/OB (Montreal and Toronto). Subjects in all groups linked excess consumption of carbohydrate with weight gain. PO and OW/OB groups were conflicted between perceived negative consequences and feelings of pleasure associated with carbohydrate consumption. Subjects were largely unfamiliar with the term ‘carbohydrate quality’, but were often associated with classifying carbohydrates as ‘good’ or ‘bad’. The concept of the GI resonated well across groups after exposure to corresponding educational materials. However, NBW groups largely felt that the GI was irrelevant to their dietary choices as they did not have a history of diabetes. PO and OW/OB groups associated the GI with diabetes management. The concept of a GI labelling program to help facilitate healthier carbohydrate choices was well received across all groups, especially when the low GI was interpreted as giving permission to consume foods they enjoyed eating. Results suggest that the GI could be used as a consumer-facing labelling program in Canada and assist with de-stigmatizing carbohydrate foods by helping to facilitate the consumption of carbohydrate foods that align with healthy dietary patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization and Antiplatelet Potential of Bioactive Extract from Tomato Pomace (Byproduct of Tomato Paste)
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020456
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
We examined the ability of tomato pomace extract (by-product) to affect platelet aggregation in healthy humans (clinical pilot study). In phase 1 the tolerance of participants (n = 15; 5 per dose level) ingesting tomato pomace extract across three dose levels (1, [...] Read more.
We examined the ability of tomato pomace extract (by-product) to affect platelet aggregation in healthy humans (clinical pilot study). In phase 1 the tolerance of participants (n = 15; 5 per dose level) ingesting tomato pomace extract across three dose levels (1, 2.5, and 10 g) was evaluated. Phase 2 was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design human (male, n = 99; 33 per group) pilot intervention trial investigating the acute and repeated dose effects (5 days) of different doses of tomato pomace extract (1 g, 2.5 g or placebo) on platelet aggregation ex vivo. Various flavonoids (coumaric acid, floridzin, floretin, procyanidin B2, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol, and quercitin) and nucleosides (adenosine, inosine, and guanosine) were identified in the tomato pomace extract. The clinical study showed that the daily consumption of 1 g of aqueous extract of tomato pomace for 5 days exerted an inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Magnesium: A Magic Bullet for Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease?
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020455
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Magnesium is essential for many physiological functions in the human body. Its homeostasis involves dietary intake, absorption, uptake and release from bone, swifts between the intra- and extracellular compartment, and renal excretion. Renal excretion is mainly responsible for regulation of magnesium balance. In [...] Read more.
Magnesium is essential for many physiological functions in the human body. Its homeostasis involves dietary intake, absorption, uptake and release from bone, swifts between the intra- and extracellular compartment, and renal excretion. Renal excretion is mainly responsible for regulation of magnesium balance. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), for a long time the general policy has been limiting magnesium intake. However, this may not be appropriate for many patients. The reference ranges for magnesium are not necessarily optimal concentrations, and risks for insufficient magnesium intake exist in patients with CKD. In recent years, many observational studies have shown that higher (in the high range of “normal” or slightly above) magnesium concentrations are associated with better survival in CKD cohorts. This review gives an overview of epidemiological associations between magnesium and overall and cardiovascular survival in patients with CKD. In addition, potential mechanisms explaining the protective role of magnesium in clinical cardiovascular outcomes are described by reviewing evidence from in vitro studies, animal studies, and human intervention studies with non-clinical endpoints. This includes the role of magnesium in cardiac arrhythmia, heart failure, arterial calcification, and endothelial dysfunction. Possible future implications will be addressed, which will need prospective clinical trials with relevant clinical endpoints before these can be adopted in clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adiponectin-leptin Ratio is a Functional Biomarker of Adipose Tissue Inflammation
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020454
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Obesity favors the development of cardiometabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity and the MS are distinguished by an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, in parallel to a drop in the levels of adiponectin. Consequently, the [...] Read more.
Obesity favors the development of cardiometabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity and the MS are distinguished by an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, in parallel to a drop in the levels of adiponectin. Consequently, the Adpn/Lep ratio has been suggested as a maker of dysfunctional adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate in humans (n = 292) the reliability of the Adpn/Lep ratio as a biomarker of adipose tissue dysfunction. We considered that an Adpn/Lep ratio of ≥1.0 can be considered normal, a ratio of ≥0.5 <1.0 suggests moderate-medium increased risk, and a ratio of <0.5 indicates a severe increase in cardiometabolic risk. Using these cut-offs, 5%, 54% and 48% of the lean, normoglycemic and without-MS subjects, respectively, fall within the group with an Adpn/Lep ratio below 0.5; while 89%, 86% and 90% of the obese, with T2D and with MS patients fall within the same group (p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation (r = −0.21, p = 0.005) between the Adpn/Lep ratio and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations, a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction, was found. We concluded that the Adpn/Lep ratio is a good indicator of a dysfunctional adipose tissue that may be a useful estimator of obesity- and MS-associated cardiometabolic risk, allowing the identification of a higher number of subjects at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptin)
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