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Special Issue "Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Mark Russell

School of Social and Health Sciences, Leeds Trinity University, Horsforth, Leeds LS18 5HD, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Match-day strategies to enhance the performance of team sports athletes, physiological and performance responses to intermittent exercise, the use of nutritional ergogenic aids for performance in team sports athletes
Guest Editor
Dr. Jill Parnell

Department of Health and Physical Education, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, AB T3E 6K6, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Paralympic athletes; exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms; diet quality; dietary supplements; nutrition knowledge

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Athletes and their support personnel are constantly seeking evidence-informed recommendations to enhance athletic performances during competition and to optimize training-induced adaptations. Accordingly, nutritional and supplementation strategies are commonplace when seeking to achieve these aims, with such practices being implemented before, during, or after competition and/or training in a periodized manner. Performance nutrition is becoming increasingly specialized and needs to consider the diversity of athletes and the nature of the competitions. Nutrients, therefore, welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, on the topic of nutrition support for athletic performance, which highlight recent advances in the discipline.

Prof. Mark Russell
Dr. Jill Parnell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Performance nutrition
  • Nutrient intakes for optimal performance
  • Dietary supplements for health and performance
  • Nutrition for specialized athletic populations
  • Ergogenic strategies

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Equimolar Doses of Beetroot Juice and Sodium Nitrate on Time Trial Performance in Handcycling
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071642
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influence of a single dose of either beetroot juice (BR) or sodium nitrate (NIT) on performance in a 10 km handcycling time trial (TT) in able-bodied individuals and paracyclists. In total, 14 able-bodied individuals [mean ± SD; [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influence of a single dose of either beetroot juice (BR) or sodium nitrate (NIT) on performance in a 10 km handcycling time trial (TT) in able-bodied individuals and paracyclists. In total, 14 able-bodied individuals [mean ± SD; age: 28 ± 7 years, height: 183 ± 5 cm, body mass (BM): 82 ± 9 kg, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak): 33.9 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg] and eight paracyclists (age: 40 ± 11 years, height: 176 ± 9cm, BM: 65 ± 9 kg, VO2peak: 38.6 ± 10.5 mL/min/kg) participated in the study. All participants had to perform three TT on different days, receiving either 6 mmol nitrate as BR or NIT or water as a placebo. Time-to-complete the TT, power output (PO), as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured. No significant differences in time-to-complete the TT were found between the three interventions in able-bodied individuals (p = 0.80) or in paracyclists (p = 0.61). Furthermore, VO2 was not significantly changed after the ingestion of BR or NIT in either group (p < 0.05). The PO to VO2 ratio was significantly higher in some kilometers of the TT in able-bodied individuals (p < 0.05). The ingestion of BR or NIT did not increase handcycling performance in able-bodied individuals or in paracyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
No Effect of Tart Cherry Juice or Pomegranate Juice on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Non-Resistance Trained Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071593
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
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Abstract
Tart cherry juice (TC) and pomegranate juice (POM) have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), but their effectiveness has not been compared. This randomized, double-blind, parallel study compared the effects of TC and POM on markers of EIMD. Thirty-six [...] Read more.
Tart cherry juice (TC) and pomegranate juice (POM) have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), but their effectiveness has not been compared. This randomized, double-blind, parallel study compared the effects of TC and POM on markers of EIMD. Thirty-six non-resistance trained men (age 24.0 (Interquartile Range (IQR) 22.0, 33.0) years, body mass index (BMI) 25.6 ± 4.0 kg·m−2) were randomly allocated to consume 2 × 250 mL of: TC, POM, or an energy-matched fruit-flavored placebo drink twice daily for nine days. On day 5, participants undertook eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors of their non-dominant arm. Pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post-exercise, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), creatine kinase (CK), and range of motion (ROM) were measured. The exercise protocol induced significant decreases in MIVC (p < 0.001; max decrease of 26.8%, 24 h post-exercise) and ROM (p = 0.001; max decrease of 6.8%, 72 h post-exercise) and significant increases in CK (p = 0.03; max increase 1385 U·L−1, 96 h post-exercise) and DOMS (p < 0.001; max increase of 26.9 mm, 48 h post-exercise). However, there were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups (main effect of group p > 0.05 or group x time interaction p > 0.05). These data suggest that in non-resistance trained men, neither TC nor POM enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Beef Protein Supplementation Improve Body Composition and Exercise Performance? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061429
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Protein supplementation might improve body composition and exercise performance. Supplements containing whey protein (WP) have received the most attention, but other protein sources such as beef protein (BP) are gaining popularity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that [...] Read more.
Protein supplementation might improve body composition and exercise performance. Supplements containing whey protein (WP) have received the most attention, but other protein sources such as beef protein (BP) are gaining popularity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of exercise training combined with BP, WP or no protein supplementation (NP), on body composition or exercise performance. Secondary endpoints included intervention effects on total protein intake and hematological parameters. Seven studies (n = 270 participants) were included. No differences were found between BP and WP for total protein intake (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.04, p = 0.892), lean body mass (LBM) (SMD = −0.01, p = 0.970) or fat mass (SMD = 0.07, p = 0.760). BP significantly increased total daily protein intake (SMD = 0.68, p < 0.001), LBM (SMD = 0.34, p = 0.049) and lower-limb muscle strength (SMD = 0.40, p = 0.014) compared to NP, but no significant differences were found between both conditions for fat mass (SMD = 0.15, p = 0.256), upper-limb muscle strength (SMD = 0.16, p = 0.536) or total iron intake (SMD = 0.29, p = 0.089). In summary, BP provides similar effects to WP on protein intake and body composition and, compared to NP, might be an effective intervention to increase total daily protein intake, LBM and lower-limb muscle strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Intake, Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability in Female Australian Rules Football Players
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050971
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and risk of Low Energy Availability (LEA) in female Australian rules football players. Victorian Football League Women’s competition (VFLW) players (n = 30) aged 18–35 (weight: 64.5 kg ± 8.0; height: 168.2 cm [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and risk of Low Energy Availability (LEA) in female Australian rules football players. Victorian Football League Women’s competition (VFLW) players (n = 30) aged 18–35 (weight: 64.5 kg ± 8.0; height: 168.2 cm ± 7.6) were recruited from Victoria, Australia. Nutritional intake was quantified on training days using the Automated 24 h Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Australia), and sports nutrition knowledge was measured by the 88-item Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (SNKQ). The risk of LEA was assessed using the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q). Daily mean carbohydrate intake in the current investigation was 3 g⋅kg−1⋅d−1, therefore, below the minimum carbohydrate recommendation for moderate exercise of approximately one hour per day (5–7 g⋅kg−1⋅d−1) and for moderate to intense exercise for 1–3 h per day (6–10 g⋅kg−1⋅d−1) for 96.3% and 100% of players, respectively. Daily mean protein intake was 1.5 g⋅kg−1⋅d−1, therefore, consistent with recommendations (1.2–2.0 g⋅kg−1⋅d−1) for 77.8% of players. Daily mean calcium intake was 924.8 mg⋅d−1, therefore, below recommendations (1000 mg⋅d−1) for 65.5% of players, while mean iron intake was 12.2 mg⋅d−1, also below recommendations (18 mg⋅d−1) for 100% of players. Players answered 54.5% of SNKQ questions correctly, with the lowest scores observed in the section on supplements. Risk of LEA was evident in 30% of players, with no differences in carbohydrate (p = 0.238), protein (p = 0.296), fat (p = 0.490) or energy (p = 0.971) intakes between players at risk of LEA and those not at risk. The results suggest that female Australian rules football players have an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and calcium and low sports nutrition knowledge. Further investigation to assess the risk of LEA using direct measures is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Anaerobic Performance after a Low-Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) Followed by 7 Days of Carbohydrate Loading in Male Basketball Players
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040778
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Despite increasing interest among athletes and scientists on the influence of different dietary interventions on sport performance, the association between a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet and anaerobic capacity has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Despite increasing interest among athletes and scientists on the influence of different dietary interventions on sport performance, the association between a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet and anaerobic capacity has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) followed by seven days of carbohydrate loading (Carbo-L) on anaerobic performance in male basketball players. Fifteen competitive basketball players took part in the experiment. They performed the Wingate test on three occasions: after the conventional diet (CD), following 4 weeks of the LCD, and after the weekly Carbo-L, to evaluate changes in peak power (PP), total work (TW), time to peak power (TTP), blood lactate concentration (LA), blood pH, and bicarbonate (HCO3). Additionally, the concentrations of testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol, and insulin were measured after each dietary intervention. The low-carbohydrate diet procedure significantly decreased total work, resting values of pH, and blood lactate concentration. After the low-carbohydrate diet, testosterone and growth hormone concentrations increased, while the level of insulin decreased. After the Carbo-L, total work, resting values of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate increased significantly compared with the results obtained after the low-carbohydrate diet. Significant differences after the low-carbohydrate diet and Carbo-L procedures, in values of blood lactate concentration, pH, and bicarbonate, between baseline and post exercise values were also observed. Four weeks of the low-carbohydrate diet decreased total work capacity, which returned to baseline values after the carbohydrate loading procedure. Moreover, neither the low-carbohydrate feeding nor carbohydrate loading affected peak power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Effects of Dietary Pattern on the Oral Microbiome of Elite Endurance Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030614
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Although the oral microbiota is known to play a crucial role in human health, there are few studies of diet x oral microbiota interactions, and none in elite athletes who may manipulate their intakes of macronutrients to achieve different metabolic adaptations in pursuit [...] Read more.
Although the oral microbiota is known to play a crucial role in human health, there are few studies of diet x oral microbiota interactions, and none in elite athletes who may manipulate their intakes of macronutrients to achieve different metabolic adaptations in pursuit of optimal endurance performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the shifts in the oral microbiome of elite male endurance race walkers from Europe, Asia, the Americas and Australia, in response to one of three dietary patterns often used by athletes during a period of intensified training: a High Carbohydrate (HCHO; n = 9; with 60% energy intake from carbohydrates; ~8.5 g kg−1 day−1 carbohydrate, ~2.1 g kg−1 day−1 protein, 1.2 g kg−1 day−1 fat) diet, a Periodised Carbohydrate (PCHO; n = 10; same macronutrient composition as HCHO, but the intake of carbohydrates is different across the day and throughout the week to support training sessions with high or low carbohydrate availability) diet or a ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat (LCHF; n = 10; 0.5 g kg−1 day−1 carbohydrate; 78% energy as fat; 2.1 g kg−1 day−1 protein) diet. Saliva samples were collected both before (Baseline; BL) and after the three-week period (Post treatment; PT) and the oral microbiota profiles for each athlete were produced by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinates analysis of the oral microbiota profiles based on the weighted UniFrac distance measure did not reveal any specific clustering with respect to diet or athlete ethnic origin, either at baseline (BL) or following the diet-training period. However, discriminant analyses of the oral microbiota profiles by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) Effect Size (LEfSe) and sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) did reveal changes in the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, and, particularly, when comparing the microbiota profiles following consumption of the carbohydrate-based diets with the LCHF diet. These analyses showed that following consumption of the LCHF diet the relative abundances of Haemophilus, Neisseria and Prevotella spp. were decreased, and the relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. was increased. Such findings suggest that diet, and, in particular, the LCHF diet can induce changes in the oral microbiota of elite endurance walkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Status and Body Composition Across a Collegiate Women’s Lacrosse Season
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020470
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Little data is available regarding the energy and nutritional status of female collegiate team sport athletes. Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse athletes (mean ± SD: 20.4 ± 1.8 years; 68.8 ± 8.9 kg; 168.4 ± 6.6 cm; 27.9 ± 3% body fat) [...] Read more.
Little data is available regarding the energy and nutritional status of female collegiate team sport athletes. Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse athletes (mean ± SD: 20.4 ± 1.8 years; 68.8 ± 8.9 kg; 168.4 ± 6.6 cm; 27.9 ± 3% body fat) recorded dietary intake and wore a physical activity monitor over four consecutive days at five different time points (20 days total) during one academic year. Body composition, bone health, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in conjunction with wearing the monitor during off-season, pre-season, and season-play. Body fat percentage decreased slightly during the course of this study (p = 0.037). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) (p < 0.001) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) (p = 0.001) energy were found to change significantly over the course of the year, with pre-season training resulting in the highest energy expenditures (TDEE: 2789 ± 391 kcal/day; AEE: 1001 ± 267 kcal/day). Caloric (2124 ± 448 kcal/day), carbohydrate (3.6 ± 1.1 g/kg), and protein (1.2 ± 0.3 g/kg) intake did not change over the course of the year (p > 0.05). Athletes self-reported a moderate negative energy balance (366–719 kcal/day) and low energy availability (22.9–30.4 kcal/kg FFM) at each measurement period throughout the study. Reported caloric and macronutrient intake was low given the recorded energy expenditure and macronutrient intake recommendations for athletes. Athletic support staff should provide athletes with appropriate fueling strategies, particularly during pre-season training, to adequately meet energy demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010056
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Short-term energy deficit strategies are practiced by weight class and physique athletes, often involving high protein intakes to maximize satiety and maintain lean mass despite a paucity of research. This study compared the satiating effect of two protein diets on resistance-trained individuals during [...] Read more.
Short-term energy deficit strategies are practiced by weight class and physique athletes, often involving high protein intakes to maximize satiety and maintain lean mass despite a paucity of research. This study compared the satiating effect of two protein diets on resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Following ethical approval, 16 participants (age: 28 ± 2 years; height: 1.72 ± 0.03 m; body-mass: 88.83 ± 5.54 kg; body-fat: 21.85 ± 1.82%) were randomly assigned to 7-days moderate (PROMOD: 1.8 g·kg−1·d−1) or high protein (PROHIGH: 2.9 g·kg−1·d−1) matched calorie-deficit diets in a cross-over design. Daily satiety responses were recorded throughout interventions. Pre-post diet, plasma ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), and satiety ratings were assessed in response to a protein-rich meal. Only perceived satisfaction was significantly greater following PROHIGH (67.29 ± 4.28 v 58.96 ± 4.51 mm, p = 0.04). Perceived cravings increased following PROMOD only (46.25 ± 4.96 to 57.60 ± 4.41 mm, p = 0.01). Absolute ghrelin concentration significantly reduced post-meal following PROMOD (972.8 ± 130.4 to 613.6 ± 114.3 pg·mL−1; p = 0.003), remaining lower than PROHIGH at 2 h (−0.40 ± 0.06 v −0.26 ± 0.06 pg·mL−1 normalized relative change; p = 0.015). Absolute PYY concentration increased to a similar extent post-meal (PROMOD: 84.9 ± 8.9 to 147.1 ± 11.9 pg·mL−1, PROHIGH: 100.6 ± 9.5 to 143.3 ± 12.0 pg·mL−1; p < 0.001), but expressed as relative change difference was significantly greater for PROMOD at 2 h (+0.39 ± 0.20 pg·mL−1 v −0.28 ± 0.12 pg·mL−1; p = 0.001). Perceived hunger, fullness and satisfaction post-meal were comparable between diets (p > 0.05). However, desire to eat remained significantly blunted for PROMOD (p = 0.048). PROHIGH does not confer additional satiating benefits in resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Ghrelin and PYY responses to a test-meal support the contention that satiety was maintained following PROMOD, although athletes experiencing negative symptoms (i.e., cravings) may benefit from protein-rich meals as opposed to over-consumption of protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Citrulline, and Arginine on High-Intensity Interval Performance in Young Swimmers
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121979
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
High-intensity interval training has drawn significant interest for its ability to elicit similar training responses with less training volume compared to traditional moderate-intensity protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of co-ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), arginine, and [...] Read more.
High-intensity interval training has drawn significant interest for its ability to elicit similar training responses with less training volume compared to traditional moderate-intensity protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of co-ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), arginine, and citrulline on 8 × 50 m high-intensity interval swim performance in trained young swimmers. This study used a randomized cross-over design. Eight male (age 15.6 ± 1.3 years) and eight female (age 15.6 ± 0.9 years) swimmers completed both amino acids (AA) and placebo (PL) trials. The participants ingested 0.085 g/kg body weight BCAA, 0.05 g/kg body weight arginine and 0.05 g/kg body weight citrulline before the swim test in the AA trial. The average 50 m time was significantly shorter in the AA trial than that in the PL trial. The AA trial was faster than the PL trial in the first, second, and the seventh laps. The AA trial showed significantly higher plasma BCAA concentrations and lower tryptophan/BCAA ratio. The other biochemical parameters and ratings of perceived exertion were similar between the two trials. The results showed that BCAA, arginine, and citrulline, allowed the participants to swim faster in a high-intensity interval protocol in young swimmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Dietary Supplement Use in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121958
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Wheelchair rugby is a rapidly growing Paralympic sport; however, research remains predominantly in the realms of physiology and biomechanics. Currently, there is little investigation into nutrition and dietary supplement use among wheelchair rugby athletes (WRA). The aim of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
Wheelchair rugby is a rapidly growing Paralympic sport; however, research remains predominantly in the realms of physiology and biomechanics. Currently, there is little investigation into nutrition and dietary supplement use among wheelchair rugby athletes (WRA). The aim of this study was to assess the types of dietary supplements (DS) used, the prevalence of usage, and the reasons for use among WRA. The secondary aim was to report utilized and preferred sources of nutritional information among this population. A valid, reliable Dietary Supplement Questionnaire was used to report supplement use and reasons for use. Male (n = 33) and female (n = 9) WRA were recruited at a national tournament and through emailing coaches of various Canadian teams. Dietary supplement usage was prevalent as 90.9% of males and 77.8% of females reported usage within the past three months with the most regularly used supplements being vitamin D (26.2%), electrolytes (19.5%), and protein powder (19.5%). The most common reason for usage was performance. The top sources of nutrition information were dietitian/nutritionist and the internet. Further investigation into DS use is needed to help create nutritional guidelines that are accessible to WRA and athletes with disabilities in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Honey Supplementation and Exercise: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071586
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Honey is a natural substance formed primarily of carbohydrates (~80%) which also contains a number of other compounds purported to confer health benefits when consumed. Due to its carbohydrate composition (low glycaemic index, mostly fructose and glucose), honey may theoretically exert positive effects [...] Read more.
Honey is a natural substance formed primarily of carbohydrates (~80%) which also contains a number of other compounds purported to confer health benefits when consumed. Due to its carbohydrate composition (low glycaemic index, mostly fructose and glucose), honey may theoretically exert positive effects when consumed before, during or after exercise. This review therefore appraised research examining the effects of honey consumption in combination with exercise in humans. Online database (PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus) searches were performed, yielding 273 results. Following duplicate removal and application of exclusion criteria, nine articles were reviewed. Large methodological differences existed in terms of exercise stimulus, population, and the nutritional interventions examined. All nine studies reported biochemical variables, with four examining the effects of honey on exercise performance, whilst five described perceptual responses. Acute supplementation around a single exercise session appeared to elicit similar performance, perceptual, and immunological responses compared with other carbohydrate sources, although some performance benefit has been observed relative to carbohydrate-free comparators. When consumed over a number of weeks, honey may dampen immunological perturbations arising from exercise and possibly improve markers of bone formation. More well-controlled research is required to better understand the role for honey in a food-first approach to exercise nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Practical Hydration Solutions for Sports
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071550
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Personalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine both the athlete’s fluid needs during sport and his/her opportunity [...] Read more.
Personalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine both the athlete’s fluid needs during sport and his/her opportunity to address them; these are often specific to the environment, the event and the individual athlete. In this paper we address the major considerations for assessing hydration status in athletes and practical solutions to overcome obstacles of a given sport. Based on these solutions, practitioners can better advise athletes to develop practices that optimize hydration for their sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Intakes of Professional and Semi-Professional Team Sport Athletes Do Not Meet Sport Nutrition Recommendations—A Systematic Literature Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051160
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: to develop sport-specific and effective dietary advice, it is important to understand the dietary intakes of team sport athletes. This systematic literature review aims to (1) assess the dietary intakes of professional and semi-professional team sport athletes and (2) to identify priority [...] Read more.
Background: to develop sport-specific and effective dietary advice, it is important to understand the dietary intakes of team sport athletes. This systematic literature review aims to (1) assess the dietary intakes of professional and semi-professional team sport athletes and (2) to identify priority areas for dietetic intervention. Methods: an extensive search of MEDLINE, Sports DISCUS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus databases in April–May 2018 was conducted and identified 646 studies. Included studies recruited team sport, competitive (i.e., professional or semi-professional) athletes over the age of 18 years. An assessment of dietary intake in studies was required and due to the variability of data (i.e., nutrient and food group data) a meta-analysis was not undertaken. Two independent authors extracted data using a standardised process. Results: 21 (n = 511) studies that assessed dietary intake of team sport athletes met the inclusion criteria. Most reported that professional and semi-professional athletes’ dietary intakes met or exceeded recommendations during training and competition for protein and/or fat, but not energy and carbohydrate. Limitations in articles include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of data and existence of underreporting. Conclusions: this review highlights the need for sport-specific dietary recommendations that focus on energy and carbohydrate intake. Further exploration of factors influencing athletes’ dietary intakes including why athletes’ dietary intakes do not meet energy and/or carbohydrate recommendations is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Sleep and Nutrition Interactions: Implications for Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040822
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
This narrative review explores the relationship between sleep and nutrition. Various nutritional interventions have been shown to improve sleep including high carbohydrate, high glycaemic index evening meals, melatonin, tryptophan rich protein, tart cherry juice, kiwifruit and micronutrients. Sleep disturbances and short sleep duration [...] Read more.
This narrative review explores the relationship between sleep and nutrition. Various nutritional interventions have been shown to improve sleep including high carbohydrate, high glycaemic index evening meals, melatonin, tryptophan rich protein, tart cherry juice, kiwifruit and micronutrients. Sleep disturbances and short sleep duration are behavioural risk factors for inflammation, associated with increased risk of illness and disease, which can be modified to promote sleep health. For sleep to have a restorative effect on the body, it must be of adequate duration and quality; particularly for athletes whose physical and mental recovery needs may be greater due to the high physiological and psychological demands placed on them during training and competition. Sleep has been shown to have a restorative effect on the immune system, the endocrine system, facilitate the recovery of the nervous system and metabolic cost of the waking state and has an integral role in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity, all of which can impact both athletic recovery and performance. Functional food-based interventions designed to enhance sleep quality and quantity or promote general health, sleep health, training adaptations and/or recovery warrant further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
Open AccessReview
The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030696
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
Minerals and trace elements (MTEs) are micronutrients involved in hundreds of biological processes. Deficiency in MTEs can negatively affect athletic performance. Approximately 50% of athletes have reported consuming some form of micronutrient supplement; however, there is limited data confirming their efficacy for improving [...] Read more.
Minerals and trace elements (MTEs) are micronutrients involved in hundreds of biological processes. Deficiency in MTEs can negatively affect athletic performance. Approximately 50% of athletes have reported consuming some form of micronutrient supplement; however, there is limited data confirming their efficacy for improving performance. The aim of this study was to systematically review the role of MTEs in exercise and athletic performance. Six electronic databases and grey literature sources (MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL and SportDISCUS; Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov) were searched, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results: 17,433 articles were identified and 130 experiments from 128 studies were included. Retrieved articles included Iron (n = 29), Calcium (n = 11), Magnesium, (n = 22), Phosphate (n = 17), Zinc (n = 9), Sodium (n = 15), Boron (n = 4), Selenium (n = 5), Chromium (n = 12) and multi-mineral articles (n = 5). No relevant articles were identified for Copper, Manganese, Iodine, Nickel, Fluoride or Cobalt. Only Iron and Magnesium included articles of sufficient quality to be assigned as ‘strong’. Currently, there is little evidence to support the use of MTE supplementation to improve physiological markers of athletic performance, with the possible exception of Iron (in particular, biological situations) and Magnesium as these currently have the strongest quality evidence. Regardless, some MTEs may possess the potential to improve athletic performance, but more high quality research is required before support for these MTEs can be given. PROSPERO preregistered (CRD42018090502). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Roberts et al. “Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit” Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 56
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071543
Received: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The authors wish to make a correction to the published version of their paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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