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Special Issue "Nutrition and Chronic Conditions"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Omorogieva Ojo

Department of Adult Nursing and Paramedic Science, Faculty of Education and Health, University of Greenwich, London, SE9 2UG, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)20 8331 8626
Fax: +44(0)20 8331 8060
Interests: diabetes, structured education in diabetes for ethnic minorities, evaluation of the glycaemic index of some carbohydrate rich ethnic minority foods in the uk, clinical nutrition, enteral tube feeding in the community, multi-morbidity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effects of nutrition in chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease continue to generate interest among researchers. This stems from the fact that diet is a modifiable risk factor for these diseases, which manifest either as single entities or in co-morbid states in individuals and populations around the world. In particular, the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is on the rise, especially in developed countries, but also in developing economies, partly due to lifestyle changes, including diet. For example, ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. When combined with stroke, they accounted for 15 million deaths in 2015 and are the world’s greatest killers (WHO, 2017). Furthermore, WHO (2016), reported that there were an estimated 422 million adults who were living with diabetes in 2014. This is significantly higher than the 108 million in 1980, representing a rise in worldwide diabetes prevalence from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 among the adult population.

These chronic conditions and their associated complications have significant implications for morbidity and mortality, and huge costs to the health services around the world. The composition of the diet, the proportion and types of macronutrients and micronutrients present in the diet are major contributors to these diseases. In addition, the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions have been well documented although differences remain among researchers with respect to their overall impact. The evaluation of the role of nutrition in chronic conditions draws on its effect on body weight and body composition, glycaemic and insulin excursions, vascular remodelling and gastro-intestinal dysfunction.

Therefore, this Special Issue on “Nutrition and Chronic Conditions” is aimed at assessing the effect of nutrition in the development, care and management of chronic conditions. The primary conditions of interests are diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke and inflammatory bowel disease.

Dr. Omorogieva Ojo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutrition and co-morbidities
  • Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and diabetes
  • Nutrition and diabetes
  • Macronutrients and diabetes
  • Micronutrients and diabetes
  • Nutrition and dementia
  • Macronutrients and dementia
  • Micronutrients and dementia
  • Nutrition and cardiovascular disease
  • Micronutrients and cardiovascular disease
  • Macronutrients and cardiovascular disease
  • Nutrition and stroke
  • Micronutrients and stroke
  • Macronutrients and stroke
  • Nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Micronutrients and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Macronutrients and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Nutrition and chronic conditions (Experience and perception of patients, carers and practitioners)

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Food Perceptions and Dietary Changes for Chronic Condition Management in Rural Peru: Insights for Health Promotion
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111563
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
Peru is undergoing a nutrition transition and, at the country level, it faces a double burden of disease where several different conditions require dietary changes to maintain a healthy life and prevent complications. Through semistructured interviews in rural Peru with people affected by [...] Read more.
Peru is undergoing a nutrition transition and, at the country level, it faces a double burden of disease where several different conditions require dietary changes to maintain a healthy life and prevent complications. Through semistructured interviews in rural Peru with people affected by three infectious and noninfectious chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and neurocysticercosis), their relatives, and focus group discussions with community members, we analyzed their perspectives on the value of food and the challenges of dietary changes due to medical diagnosis. The findings show the various ways in which people from rural northern Peru conceptualize good (buena alimentación) and bad (mala alimentación) food, and that food choices are based on life-long learning, experience, exposure, and availability. In the context of poverty, required changes are not only related to what people recognize as healthy food, such as fruits and vegetables, but also of work, family, trust, taste, as well as affordability and accessibility of foods. In this paper we discuss the complexity of introducing dietary changes in poor rural communities whose perspectives on food are poorly understood and rarely taken into consideration by health professionals when promoting behavior change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Association with Dietary Intake in a Longitudinal Study of Youth with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101552
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Despite cardioprotective effects of a healthy diet in the general population, few studies have investigated this relationship in individuals with type 1 diabetes, who are at elevated risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to examine [...] Read more.
Despite cardioprotective effects of a healthy diet in the general population, few studies have investigated this relationship in individuals with type 1 diabetes, who are at elevated risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to examine the association of CVD biomarkers with overall diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), and its dietary components in youth with type 1 diabetes. Youth with type 1 diabetes (n = 136, 8–16.9 years) were enrolled in an 18-month behavioral nutrition intervention trial. Dietary intake from three-day diet records, CVD biomarkers (total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Linear mixed-effects models estimated associations of dietary intake with CVD biomarkers, adjusting for HbA1c and other covariates. Separate models estimated associations of time-varying change in dietary intake with time-varying change in CVD biomarkers. HEI-2015 was not associated with CVD biomarkers, but whole grain intake was inversely associated with TC, HDL-C and DBP, and a greater increase in whole fruit intake was associated with lower DBP. Added sugar, saturated fat and polyunsaturated fat were positively related to serum TG, HDL-C, and DBP, respectively. Findings suggest that the intake of specific dietary components, including whole grains, whole fruits, added sugar and PUFA, may influence cardiometabolic health in youth with type 1 diabetes, independent of glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Association between Fasting Glucose Concentration, Lipid Profile and 25(OH)D Status in Children Aged 9–11
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101359
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and the prevalence of dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in children. Methods and Summary: 284 children (150 boys and 134 girls) aged 9–11 were included in the [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and the prevalence of dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in children. Methods and Summary: 284 children (150 boys and 134 girls) aged 9–11 were included in the study. Children with deficient 25(OH)D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) levels ≤20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) were characterized by a more frequent occurrence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (Odd ratios (OR) = 1.966, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.055–3.663; p = 0.033) when compared to children with 25(OH)D >20 ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D with concentration lower by 1 ng/mL (2.5 nmol/L) was linked to higher fasting glucose (by 0.25 mg/dL, 0.013 mmol/L; p = 0.017), higher total cholesterol (TC) by almost 1 mg/dL (0.96 mg/dL, 0.25 mmol/L; p = 0.006) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (by 0.57 mg/dL, 0.015 mmol/L; p < 0.001). Conclusion: 25(OH)D deficiency may negatively affect fasting glucose and total cholesterol concentration in children aged 9–11. Vitamin D-deficient children are twice as likely to develop prediabetes as reflected by impaired fasting glucose when compared to those with a 25(OH)D level above 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Dairy Intake and Acne Vulgaris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 78,529 Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081049
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
A meta-analysis can help inform the debate about the epidemiological evidence on dairy intake and development of acne. A systematic literature search of PubMed from inception to 11 December 2017 was performed to estimate the association of dairy intake and acne in children, [...] Read more.
A meta-analysis can help inform the debate about the epidemiological evidence on dairy intake and development of acne. A systematic literature search of PubMed from inception to 11 December 2017 was performed to estimate the association of dairy intake and acne in children, adolescents, and young adults in observational studies. We estimated the pooled random effects odds ratio (OR) (95% CI), heterogeneity (I2-statistics, Q-statistics), and publication bias. We included 14 studies (n = 78,529; 23,046 acne-cases/55,483 controls) aged 7–30 years. ORs for acne were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.15–1.36; p = 6.13 × 10−8) for any dairy, 1.22 (1.08–1.38; p = 1.62 × 10−3) for full-fat dairy, 1.28 (1.13–1.44; p = 8.23 × 10−5) for any milk, 1.22 (1.06–1.41; p = 6.66 × 10−3) for whole milk, 1.32 (1.16–1.52; p = 4.33 × 10−5) for low-fat/skim milk, 1.22 (1.00–1.50; p = 5.21 × 10−2) for cheese, and 1.36 (1.05–1.77; p = 2.21 × 10−2) for yogurt compared to no intake. ORs per frequency of any milk intake were 1.24 (0.95–1.62) by 2–6 glasses per week, 1.41 (1.05–1.90) by 1 glass per day, and 1.43 (1.09–1.88) by ≥2 glasses per day compared to intake less than weekly. Adjusted results were attenuated and compared unadjusted. There was publication bias (p = 4.71 × 10−3), and heterogeneity in the meta-analyses were explained by dairy and study characteristics. In conclusion, any dairy, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, was associated with an increased OR for acne in individuals aged 7–30 years. However, results should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity and bias across studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Lactase Persistence, Milk Intake, and Adult Acne: A Mendelian Randomization Study of 20,416 Danish Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081041
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Whether there is a causal relationship between milk intake and acne is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake is associated with acne in adults using a Mendelian randomization design. LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC [...] Read more.
Whether there is a causal relationship between milk intake and acne is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake is associated with acne in adults using a Mendelian randomization design. LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans. We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), and acne in 20,416 adults (age-range: 20–96) from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS). The adjusted observational odds ratio for acne in any milk intake vs. no milk intake was 0.93(95% confidence interval: 0.48–1.78) in females and 0.49(0.22–1.08) in males aged 20–39 years, and 1.15(95% confidence interval: 0.66–1.99) in females and 1.02(0.61–1.72) in males above 40 years. The unadjusted odds ratio for acne in TT+TC vs. CC was 0.84(0.43–1.62) in the age group 20–39 years, and 0.99(0.52–1.88) above 40 years. We did not find any observational or genetic association between milk intake and acne in our population of adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Food Consumption, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Salt in Urban Areas in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081028
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
High salt intake is a major risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to salt intake in the general population is a key component of salt reduction strategies. The objective of this study was to describe [...] Read more.
High salt intake is a major risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to salt intake in the general population is a key component of salt reduction strategies. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the KAP of adults related to salt in urban areas of five countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The survey included 588 participants aged 25 to 65 years who were selected using convenience samples in the urban areas of Benin, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, and Seychelles. Socio-demographic and food consumption were assessed using a structured closed-ended questionnaire administered by survey officers. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Food consumption varied largely between countries. Processed foods high in salt, such as processed meat, cheese, pizzas, and savory snacks were consumed rather infrequently in all the countries, but salt-rich foods, such as soups or bread and salty condiments, were consumed frequently in all countries. The majority of the participants knew that high salt intake can cause health problems (85%) and thought that it is important to limit salt intake (91%). However, slightly over half (56%) of the respondents regularly tried to limit their salt intake while only 8% of the respondents thought that they consumed too much salt. Salt and salty condiments were added most of the time during cooking (92% and 64%, respectively) but rarely at the table (11%). These findings support the need for education campaigns to reduce salt added during cooking and for strategies to reduce salt content in selected manufactured foods in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle SunGold Kiwifruit Supplementation of Individuals with Prediabetes Alters Gut Microbiota and Improves Vitamin C Status, Anthropometric and Clinical Markers
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070895
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Kiwifruit are a nutrient dense food and an excellent source of vitamin C. Supplementation of the diet with kiwifruit enhances plasma vitamin C status and epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin C status and reduced insulin resistance and improved blood glucose [...] Read more.
Kiwifruit are a nutrient dense food and an excellent source of vitamin C. Supplementation of the diet with kiwifruit enhances plasma vitamin C status and epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin C status and reduced insulin resistance and improved blood glucose control. In vitro experiments suggest that eating kiwifruit might induce changes to microbiota composition and function; however, human studies to confirm these findings are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two SunGold kiwifruit per day over 12 weeks on vitamin C status, clinical and anthropometric measures and faecal microbiota composition in people with prediabetes. This pilot intervention trial compared baseline measurements with those following the intervention. Participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a three-day estimated food diary at baseline and on completion of the trial. Venous blood samples were collected at each study visit (baseline, 6, 12 weeks) for determination of glycaemic indices, plasma vitamin C concentrations, hormones, lipid profiles and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Participants provided a faecal sample at each study visit. DNA was extracted from the faecal samples and a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified and sequenced to determine faecal microbiota composition. When week 12 measures were compared to baseline, results showed a significant increase in plasma vitamin C (14 µmol/L, p < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in both diastolic (4 mmHg, p = 0.029) and systolic (6 mmHg, p = 0.003) blood pressure and a significant reduction in waist circumference (3.1 cm, p = 0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (0.01, p = 0.032). Results also showed a decrease in HbA1c (1 mmol/mol, p = 0.005) and an increase in fasting glucose (0.1 mmol/L, p = 0.046), however, these changes were small and were not clinically significant. Analysis of faecal microbiota composition showed an increase in the relative abundance of as yet uncultivated and therefore uncharacterised members of the bacterial family Coriobacteriaceae. Novel bacteriological investigations of Coriobacteriaceae are required to explain their functional relationship to kiwifruit polysaccharides and polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060661
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Objective: In China, a low-fat diet (LFD) is mainly recommended to help improve blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has been shown to be effective in improving blood glucose levels in America and [...] Read more.
Objective: In China, a low-fat diet (LFD) is mainly recommended to help improve blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has been shown to be effective in improving blood glucose levels in America and England. A few studies, primarily randomized controlled trials, have been reported in China as well. Method: Firstly, we designed two ‘six-point formula’ methods, which met the requirements of LCD and LFD, respectively. Fifty-six T2DM patients were recruited and randomly allocated to the LCD group (n = 28) and the LFD group (n = 28). The LCD group received education about LCD’s six-point formula, while the LFD group received education about LFD’s six-point formula. The follow-up time was three months. The indicators for glycemic control and other metabolic parameters were collected and compared between the two groups. Results: Forty-nine patients completed the study. The proportions of calories from three macronutrients the patients consumed met the requirements of LCD and LFD. Compared to the LFD group, there was a greater decrease in HbA1c level in the LCD group (−0.63% vs. −0.31%, p < 0.05). The dosages of insulin and fasting blood glucoses (FBG) in the third month were lower than those at baseline in both groups. Compared with baseline values, body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol (TC) in the LCD group were significantly reduced in the third month (p < 0.05); however, there were no statistically significant differences in the LFD group. Conclusions: LCD can improve blood glucose more than LFD in Chinese patients with T2DM. It can also regulate blood lipid, reduce BMI, and decrease insulin dose in patients with T2DM. In addition, the six-point formula is feasible, easily operable, and a practical educational diet for Chinese patients with T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelial Functional Risk Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050626
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving 58 subjects supplemented with a daily dose (30 mL) of three oils: (1) a VOO (124 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); (2) an optimized VOO (OVOO) (490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); and (3) a functional olive oil (FOO) high in phenolic compounds (487 ppm) and enriched with triterpenes (389 ppm). Metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers were determined in vivo and ex vivo. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) increased after the OVOO intake. Plasma endothelin-1 levels decreased after the intake of the three olive oils, and in blood cell cultures challenged. Daily intake of VOO enriched in phenolic compounds improved plasma HDLc, although no differences were found at the end of the three interventions, while VOO with at least 124 ppm of phenolic compounds, regardless of the triterpenes content improved the systemic endothelin-1 levels in vivo and ex vivo. No effect of triterpenes was observed after three weeks of interventions. Results need to be confirmed in subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired endothelial function (Clinical Trials number NCT02520739). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Inflammatory Index and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: The Diabetes Mellitus Survey of Mexico City
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040385
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Diet and inflammation are both associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we aimed to assess the relation between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the presence of T2DM in Mexican adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey administered [...] Read more.
Diet and inflammation are both associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we aimed to assess the relation between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the presence of T2DM in Mexican adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey administered in Mexico City (DMS-MC). The study involved 1174 subjects (48.5% men) between 20–69 years of age. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was employed to evaluate dietary intake and to compute DII. The DII is based on scientific evidence about the association between dietary compounds and six established inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of DII in relation to T2DM. Our results suggest that subjects in the highest quintile of the DII had higher odds of T2DM (OR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.39, 6.58; p = 0.005) compared to subjects in the lowest quintile of DII scores. Assessing possible effect modification, an association with T2DM was evident when comparing DII quintile 5 to quintile 1 for participants aged ≥ 55 years (OR = 9.77; 95% CI: 3.78, 25.50; p = 0.001). These results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with significantly higher odds of T2DM among adult Mexicans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Dietary and Lifestyle Modification Therapies on Metabolic Syndrome in Prediabetic Arab Patients: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030383
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects [...] Read more.
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group. Anthropometric and biochemical estimations were measured. Full MetS (primary endpoint) and its components (secondary endpoint) were screened at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Full MetS in the ILMP group decreased by 26% (p < 0.001); in GA + Met group by 22.4% (p = 0.01) and in GA group by 8.2% (p = 0.28). The number of MetS components decreased significantly in the ILMP and GA + Met groups (mean change 0.81, p < 0.001 and 0.35, p = 0.05, respectively). Between-group comparison revealed a clinically significant decrease in MetS components in favor of the ILMP group (−0.58 (−0.88–0.28), p < 0.001). This study highlights the clinical potency of ILMP versus other diabetes prevention options in reducing MetS in Saudi adults with elevated fasting glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Role of Nutrients in Reducing the Risk for Noncommunicable Diseases during Aging
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010085
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
An increasing aging population worldwide accounts for a growing share of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) of the overall social and economic burden. Dietary and nutritional approaches are of paramount importance in the management of NCDs. As a result, nutrition programs are increasingly integrated into [...] Read more.
An increasing aging population worldwide accounts for a growing share of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) of the overall social and economic burden. Dietary and nutritional approaches are of paramount importance in the management of NCDs. As a result, nutrition programs are increasingly integrated into public health policies. At present, programs aimed at reducing the burden of NCDs have focused mostly on the excess of unhealthy nutrient intakes whereas the importance of optimizing adequate essential and semi-essential nutrient intakes and nutrient-rich diets has received less attention. Surveys indicate that nutrient intakes of the aging population are insufficient to optimally support healthy aging. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in older adults are related to increased risk of NCDs including fatigue, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive and neuromuscular function impairments. Reviewed literature demonstrates that improving intake for certain nutrients may be important in reducing progress of NCDs such as musculoskeletal disorders, dementia, loss of vision, and cardiometabolic diseases during aging. Current knowledge concerning improving individual nutrient intakes to reduce progression of chronic disease is still emerging with varying effect sizes and levels of evidence. Most pronounced benefits of nutrients were found in participants who had low nutrient intake or status at baseline or who had increased genetic and metabolic needs for that nutrient. Authorities should implement ways to optimize essential nutrient intake as an integral part of their strategies to address NCDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Potential Prebiotic Properties of Nuts and Edible Seeds and Their Relationship to Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111645
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is a global epidemic chronic condition and is progressing at a rapid rate. This review focuses on the potential prebiotic properties of nuts and edible seeds and the plausible mechanisms that their consumption may help the prevention and the management of overweight [...] Read more.
Obesity is a global epidemic chronic condition and is progressing at a rapid rate. This review focuses on the potential prebiotic properties of nuts and edible seeds and the plausible mechanisms that their consumption may help the prevention and the management of overweight and obesity. The literature review was performed by searching papers about the topic in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. The healthy attributes of nuts and edible seeds, especially dietary fibers and polyphenols contents, indicate that their mechanism of weight gain prevention may occur through interaction with the gut microbiota, by means of prebiotic effects. Among the etiological factors associated with obesity, the gut microbiota seems to play a significant role. Dysbiosis causes an imbalance in energy homeostasis that contributes to obesity. Three mechanisms are proposed in this review to explain the potential role of nut and edible seed consumption on intestinal homeostasis and body weight control: maintenance of the enteric barrier integrity, improvement of anti-inflammatory status and enhancement of butyrate synthesis. Further high-quality clinical trials should explore the interaction between oilseed consumption, microbiota, and body adiposity control, particularly investigating the microbiota metabolites and their relation to the prevention and management of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview What is the Validity of Questionnaires Assessing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children when Compared with Blood Biomarkers? A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101396
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with improved health outcomes in children. As an extensive number of questionnaires are currently used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption, we performed a systematic review of the criterion validity of questionnaires used to estimate fruit [...] Read more.
Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with improved health outcomes in children. As an extensive number of questionnaires are currently used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption, we performed a systematic review of the criterion validity of questionnaires used to estimate fruit and vegetable consumption in children, considering blood biomarkers as the reference method. Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched from database inception to 23 July 2018. The search strategy used the following sets of descriptors: children; fruits and vegetables; dietary questionnaires; blood biomarkers; and validation coefficient. The search terms were adapted for use with other databases in combination with database-specific filters. Potentially eligible articles were selected independently by two reviewers, separately, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The main reason for study exclusion was the sample age range, which included adolescents. The pooled correlation coefficient was 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.24–0.40).This review provided insights into assessment methods of fruit and vegetable consumption in children. Although further studies are required, questionnaires for assessing fruit and vegetable consumption have fair criterion validity in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Interventions as Beneficial Strategies to Delay Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Individuals
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070905
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Current demographic trends indicate that the population is aging. The aging process is inevitably connected with cognitive decline, which manifests itself in worsening working memory, processing speed, and attention. Therefore, apart from pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological approaches which can influence cognitive performance (such as [...] Read more.
Current demographic trends indicate that the population is aging. The aging process is inevitably connected with cognitive decline, which manifests itself in worsening working memory, processing speed, and attention. Therefore, apart from pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological approaches which can influence cognitive performance (such as physical activities or healthy diet), are being investigated. The purpose of this study is to explore the types of nutritional interventions and their benefits in the prevention and delay of cognitive delay in healthy older individuals. The methods used in this study include a literature review of the available studies on the research topic found in Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE. The findings show that nutritional intervention has a positive impact on cognitive function in healthy older people. However, it seems that the interactions between more than one nutrient are most effective. The results reveal that specifically the Mediterranean diet appears to be effective in this respect. Moreover, the findings also indicate that multi-domain interventions including diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring have a far more significant effect on the enhancement of cognitive functions among healthy older individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Dietary Glycaemic Index on Glycaemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030373
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: The increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United Kingdom and worldwide calls for new approaches to its management, and diets with low glycaemic index have been proposed as a useful means for managing glucose response. However, there are conflicting reports and differences [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United Kingdom and worldwide calls for new approaches to its management, and diets with low glycaemic index have been proposed as a useful means for managing glucose response. However, there are conflicting reports and differences in the results of studies in terms of their effectiveness. Furthermore, the impact of low-glycaemic index diets and their long-term use in patients with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of low-glycaemic index diets in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Search methods: Randomised controlled studies were selected from a number of databases (EBSCOHost with links to Health Research databases, PubMed, and grey literature) based on the Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes and Study designs (PICOS) framework. The search terms included synonyms and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and involved the use of Boolean operators (AND/OR) which allowed the combination of words and search terms. Selection criteria: As per the selection criteria, the following types of articles were selected: studies on randomised controlled trials, with year of publication between 2008 and 2018, including patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, studies involving patients with gestational and type 1 diabetes were excluded, as were observational studies. Nine articles which met the inclusion criteria were selected for the systematic review, whereas only six articles which met the criteria were included in the meta-analysis. Data collection and analysis: Studies were evaluated for quality and risk of bias. In addition, heterogeneity, meta-analysis, and sensitivity tests of the extracted data were carried out using Review Manager 5.3 (Review Manager, 2014). Results: The findings of the systematic review showed that the low-glycaemic index (low-GI) diet resulted in a significant improvement (<0.05) in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in two studies: low-GI diet Δ = −0.5% (95% CI, −0.61% to −0.39%) vs. high-cereal fibre diet Δ = −0.18% (95% CI, −0.29% to −0.07%); and low-GI legume diet Δ = −0.5% (95%, −0.6% to −0.4%) vs. high-wheat fibre diet Δ = −0.3% (95% Cl, −0.4 to −0.2%). There was a slight improvement in one study (low glycaemic response = 6.5% (6.3–7.1) vs. control = 6.6% (6.3–7.0) and no significant difference (p > 0.05) in four studies compared with the control diet. Four studies showed improvements in fasting blood glucose in low-GI diets compared to higher-GI diets or control: low-GI diet = 150.8 ± 8.7 vs. higher-GI diet = 157.8 ± 10.4 mg/dL, mean ± SD p = 0.43; low-GI diet = 127.7 vs. high-cereal fibre diet = 136.8 mg/dL, p = 0.02; low-GI diet = 6.5 (5.6–8.4) vs. standard diabetic diet = 6.7 (6.1–7.5) mmol/L, median and interquartile range p > 0.05; and low-GI diet = 7.3 ± 0.3 vs. conventional carbohydrate exchange diet = 7.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L, mean ± SEM (Standard Error of Mean) p < 0.05. The results of the meta-analysis and sensitivity tests demonstrated significant differences (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the low-GI diet and the higher-GI diet or control diet in relation to glycated haemoglobin. Differences between the low-GI diet and higher-GI diet or control were significant (p < 0.05) with respect to the fasting blood glucose following meta-analysis. Conclusion: The low-GI diet is more effective in controlling glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose compared with a higher-GI diet or control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions) Printed Edition available
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