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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effect of a Growing up Milk Lite vs. Cow’s Milk on Diet Quality and Dietary Intakes in Early Childhood: The Growing up Milk Lite (GUMLi) Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010203 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
Summary scores provide an alternative approach to measuring dietary quality. The Growing Up Milk-Lite (GUMLi) Trial was a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of children randomised to receive a reduced protein GUM (GUMLi) or unfortified cow’s milk (CM). In a secondary analysis of
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Summary scores provide an alternative approach to measuring dietary quality. The Growing Up Milk-Lite (GUMLi) Trial was a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of children randomised to receive a reduced protein GUM (GUMLi) or unfortified cow’s milk (CM). In a secondary analysis of the GUMLi Trial, we used the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) to determine the nutritional adequacy of the diets of participating children living in Auckland. The PANDiet was adapted to the New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values and data from four 24 h Recalls (24HR) collected at months 7, 8, 10, and 11 post-randomisation were used. Differences between randomised groups (GUMLi vs. CM) of the PANDiet and its components were made. Eighty-three Auckland participants were included in the study (GUMLi n = 41 vs. CM n = 42). Total PANDiet scores were significantly higher in the GUMLi group (p < 0.001), indicating better overall nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Dietary intakes of children in both groups met the recommendations for fat, total carbohydrates and most micronutrients; however, protein intakes exceeded recommendations. Consumption of GUMLi was associated with higher nutritional adequacy, with an increased likelihood of meeting nutrient requirements; however, the impact of the family diet and GUMLi on dietary diversity requires further evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle Postprandial Effects of Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) Consumption on Glucose Metabolism, Gastrointestinal Hormone Response, and Perceived Appetite in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010202 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of blueberries, as well as the phenolic compounds they contain, may alter metabolic processes related to type 2 diabetes. The study investigated the effects of adding 140 g of blueberries to a higher-carbohydrate breakfast meal on postprandial glucose metabolism, gastrointestinal hormone
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The consumption of blueberries, as well as the phenolic compounds they contain, may alter metabolic processes related to type 2 diabetes. The study investigated the effects of adding 140 g of blueberries to a higher-carbohydrate breakfast meal on postprandial glucose metabolism, gastrointestinal hormone response, and perceived appetite. As part of a randomized crossover design study, 17 healthy adults consumed a standardized higher-carbohydrate breakfast along with 2 treatments: (1) 140 g (1 cup) of whole blueberries and (2) a placebo gel (matched for calories, sugars, and fiber of the whole blueberries). Each subject participated in two 2-h meal tests on separate visits ≥8 days apart. Venous blood samples and perceived appetite ratings using visual analog scales were obtained prior to and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after consuming the breakfast meals. Results show that glucose metabolism, several gastrointestinal hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY) concentrations and perceived appetite did not change significantly with blueberry consumption. However, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) concentrations were statistically significantly higher (p = 0.0367), and the concentrations were higher during 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption of the blueberry breakfast meal than the placebo breakfast meal. Additional research is needed to determine whether blueberries and other flavonoid-rich foods reduce type 2 diabetes risk by modifying gastrointestinal hormones and perceived appetite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoid Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Industrial Food Fortification in Mongolia and Harbin
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010201 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
This study assessed awareness and attitudes regarding industrial food fortification among adults in urban and rural Mongolia, and the city of Harbin, China. Between 2014 and 2017, surveys were collected from healthy men and women aged ≥18 years (182 Harbin residents and 129
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This study assessed awareness and attitudes regarding industrial food fortification among adults in urban and rural Mongolia, and the city of Harbin, China. Between 2014 and 2017, surveys were collected from healthy men and women aged ≥18 years (182 Harbin residents and 129 urban and rural Mongolians participating in a nationwide nutrition survey in Mongolia). Survey reproducibility was assessed among 69 Mongolian participants to whom it was administered twice (summer and winter). Findings revealed that only 19% of rural and 30% of urban Mongolians, and 48% of Harbin residents were aware that industrial fortification is practiced in their countries. For most food groups evaluated, at least half of Mongolians and less than half of Harbin residents thought fortification was government-mandated (only the addition of iodine with salt is actually mandated in both countries). Fifty-five percent of rural and urban Mongolians favored mandatory fortification of foods, 14% disapproved of it, and 31% were uncertain (compared with 25%, 38%, and 37% respectively in Harbin). Upon learning that the primary purpose of adding vitamin D to milk is to prevent rickets, 75% of Mongolians but only 18% of Harbin residents favored mandatory fortification, while 42% of Harbin residents favored voluntary fortification (compared with <10% of Mongolians). In conclusion, in Mongolia and Harbin, awareness and understanding of food fortification is low, as is receptivity toward mandatory fortification. Health promotion and social marketing should be designed to create an enabling environment for increasing supply and demand of fortified foods, in support of upcoming program implementation in Mongolia and potential future legislation in northeern China. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Recipe Function in Popular Dietary Smartphone Applications, with Emphasize on Features Relevant for Nutrition Assessment in Large-Scale Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010200 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Nutrient estimations from mixed dishes require detailed information collection and should account for nutrient loss during cooking. This study aims to make an inventory of recipe creating features in popular food diary apps from a research perspective and to evaluate their nutrient calculation.
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Nutrient estimations from mixed dishes require detailed information collection and should account for nutrient loss during cooking. This study aims to make an inventory of recipe creating features in popular food diary apps from a research perspective and to evaluate their nutrient calculation. A total of 12 out of 57 screened popular dietary assessment apps included a recipe function and were scored based on a pre-defined criteria list. Energy and nutrient content of three recipes calculated by the apps were compared with a reference procedure, which takes nutrient retention due to cooking into account. The quality of the recipe function varies across selected apps with a mean score of 3.0 (out of 5). More relevant differences (larger than 5% of the Daily Reference Intake) between apps and the reference were observed in micronutrients (49%) than in energy and macronutrients (20%). The primary source of these differences lies in the variation in food composition databases underlying each app. Applying retention factors decreased the micronutrient contents from 0% for calcium in all recipes to more than 45% for vitamins B6, B12, and folate in one recipe. Overall, recipe features and their ability to capture true nutrient intake are limited in current apps. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Dietary Intake Reporting Accuracy of the Bridge2U Mobile Application Food Log Compared to Control Meal and Dietary Recall Methods
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010199 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Mobile technology introduces opportunity for new methods of dietary assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare the reporting accuracy of a mobile food log application and 24 h recall method to a controlled meal among a convenience sample of adults (18
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Mobile technology introduces opportunity for new methods of dietary assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare the reporting accuracy of a mobile food log application and 24 h recall method to a controlled meal among a convenience sample of adults (18 years of age or older). Participants were recruited from a community/university convenience sample. Participants consumed a pre-portioned control meal, completed mobile food log entry (mfood log), and participated in a dietary recall administered by a registered dietitian (24R). Height, weight, and application use survey data were collected. Sign test, Pearson’s correlation, and descriptive analyses were conducted to examine differences in total and macronutrient energy intake and describe survey responses. Bland Altman plots were examined for agreement between energy intake from control and 24R and mfood log. The 14 included in the analyses were 78.6% female, 85.7% overweight/obese, and 64.3% African American. Mean total energy, protein, and fat intakes reported via the mfood log were significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared to the control, by 268.31kcals, 20.37 g, and 19.51 g, respectively. Only 24R mean fat intake was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than the control, by 6.43 g. Significant associations (r = 0.57–0.60, p < 0.05) were observed between control and mfood log mean energy, carbohydrate, and protein intakes, as well as between control and 24R mean energy (r = 0.64, p = 0.01) and carbohydrate (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) intakes. Bland Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement, which were not statistically significant but may have practical limitations for individual dietary assessment. Responses indicated the ease of and likelihood of daily mfood log use. This study demonstrates that the Bridge2U mfood log is valid for the assessment of group level data, but data may vary too widely for individual assessment. Further investigation is warranted for nutrition intervention research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hibiscus sabdariffa Meal Improves Iron Status of Childbearing Age Women and Prevents Stunting in Their Toddlers in Northern Ghana
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010198 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Globally, iron deficiency (ID) is the most common form of nutritional deficiency, particularly in young children and childbearing age women. ID can lead to stunting and impaired cognitive development in children, as well as adverse maternal health and birth outcomes. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Globally, iron deficiency (ID) is the most common form of nutritional deficiency, particularly in young children and childbearing age women. ID can lead to stunting and impaired cognitive development in children, as well as adverse maternal health and birth outcomes. In this study, the efficacy of an alternative food-to-food fortification utilizing indigenous iron-rich food sources was investigated in a quasi-experimental study. Childbearing age women (15–49 years, intervention-Kassena Nankana West district: n = 60; control-Builsa North district: n = 60) and their toddlers (6–24 months) consumed Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf meals (HSM, 1.71 mg Fe/100 g meal) three times a week for 12 weeks during the dry/lean season in Northern Ghana. We found that feeding the HSM (1.9 kg/day) improved iron status of women of childbearing age with time (p = 0.011), and protected stunting among toddlers during the dry/lean season (p = 0.024), which is the period with the worst food and nutrition insecurity. Compared with the control group, the number of stunted toddlers declined in the intervention group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wheat Albumin Increases the Ratio of Fat to Carbohydrate Oxidation during the Night in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010197 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Not only are energy expenditure (EE) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) parameters of the energy nutrient utilization and energy balance, they are also related to the development of obesity. In this study, post-meal night-time energy metabolism was investigated following the oral ingestion of
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Not only are energy expenditure (EE) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) parameters of the energy nutrient utilization and energy balance, they are also related to the development of obesity. In this study, post-meal night-time energy metabolism was investigated following the oral ingestion of wheat albumin (WA) with a late evening meal. A randomly assigned, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial for a single oral ingestion in healthy participants was completed. The participants ingested the placebo (PL) or WA (1.5 g) containing tablets 3 minutes before the late evening meal at 22:00 hour, and energy metabolism was measured using a whole-room indirect calorie meter until wake-up. The participants were in bed from 00:00 hour until 06:30 hour. Twenty healthy participants completed the trial and were included in the analyses. Night-time RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were significantly lower following the WA treatment as compared with the PL treatment. Although the total EE was not significantly different between treatments, postprandial fat oxidation was significantly higher following the WA treatment as compared with the PL treatment. In conclusion, WA has the potential to shift the energy balance to a higher ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation during the night. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Protein, Kidney Function and Mortality: Review of the Evidence from Epidemiological Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010196 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
The World Health Organization recommends a minimum requirement of 0.8 g/day protein/kg ideal weight. Low protein diets are used against kidney failure progression. Efficacy and safety of these diets are uncertain. This paper reviews epidemiological studies about associations of protein intake with kidney
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The World Health Organization recommends a minimum requirement of 0.8 g/day protein/kg ideal weight. Low protein diets are used against kidney failure progression. Efficacy and safety of these diets are uncertain. This paper reviews epidemiological studies about associations of protein intake with kidney function decline and mortality. Three studies investigated these associations; two reported data on mortality. Protein intake averaged >60 g/day and 1.2 g/day/kg ideal weight. An association of baseline protein intake with long-term kidney function decline was absent in the general population and/or persons with normal kidney function but was significantly positive in persons with below-normal kidney function. Independent of kidney function and other confounders, a J-curve relationship was found between baseline protein intake and mortality due to ≈35% mortality excess for non-cardiovascular disease in the lowest quintile of protein intake, a quintile where protein intake averaged <0.8 g/day/kg ideal weight. Altogether, epidemiological evidence suggests that, in patients with reduced kidney function, protein intakes of ≈0.8 g/d/kg ideal weight could limit kidney function decline without adding non-renal risks. Long-term lower protein intake could increase mortality. In most patients, an intake of ≈0.8 g/day/kg would represent a substantial reduction of habitual intake considering that average intake is largely higher. Full article
Open AccessArticle Body Fat Percentage, Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and the Ageing Bone: Their Singular and Combined Roles Linked to Physical Activity and Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010195 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
This study took a multi-analytical approach including group differences, correlations and unit-weighed directional z-score comparisons to identify the key mediators of bone health. A total of 190 participants (18–80 years) were categorized by body fat%, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index
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This study took a multi-analytical approach including group differences, correlations and unit-weighed directional z-score comparisons to identify the key mediators of bone health. A total of 190 participants (18–80 years) were categorized by body fat%, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI) to examine the effect of differing obesity criteria on bone characteristics. A subset of 50 healthy-eating middle-to-older aged adults (44–80 years) was randomly selected to examine any added impact of lifestyle and inflammatory profiles. Diet was assessed using a 3-day food diary, bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar, thoracic, (upper and lower) appendicular and pelvic areas. Physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire, and endocrine profiling was assessed using multiplex luminometry. Obesity, classed via BMI, positively affected 20 out of 22 BMC- and BMD-related outcome measures, whereas FMI was associated with 14 outcome measures and adiposity only modulated nine out of 22 BMC- and BMD-related outcome measures. Whilst bivariate correlations only linked vitamin A and relative protein intake with BMD, the Z-score composite summary presented a significantly different overall dietary quality between healthy and osteopenic individuals. In addition, bivariate correlations from the subset revealed daily energy intake, sport-based physical activity and BMI positive mediators of seven out of 10 BMD sites with age and body fat% shown to be negative mediators of bone characteristics. In conclusion, whilst BMI is a good indicator of bone characteristics, high body fat% should also be the focus of osteoporosis risk with ageing. Interestingly, high BMI in conjunction with moderate to vigorous activity supplemented with an optimal diet (quality and quantity) are identified as positive modulators of bone heath. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Spirulina Liquid Extract Protects against Fibrosis Related to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Increases Ursodeoxycholic Acid
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010194
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by an excess of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver. Spirulina was reported to possess hypolipemic and antioxidative effects and might counteract NASH development. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a western diet (WD) during 25 weeks with or
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by an excess of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver. Spirulina was reported to possess hypolipemic and antioxidative effects and might counteract NASH development. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a western diet (WD) during 25 weeks with or without spirulina liquid extract (SLE) at 2 different doses (WDS1 and WDS2 groups) in drinking water. Liver histology, inflammation, and oxidative stress were assessed as well as glucose tolerance status, lipid metabolism, and gallbladder bile acid profile. WDS2 gained significantly less weight than WD. Liver weight-to-body weight ratio and plasma alanine aminotransferase were significantly lower in WDS2 mice. A reduced liver fibrosis and NFκBp65 protein expression were measured in the supplemented group as a lower accumulation of superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric reactive substances. WDS2 mice showed also a preserved glucose tolerance, a strong decrease of plasma cholesterol, and a significant increase of gallbladder ursodeoxycholic acid and β-muricholic acid. Our findings demonstrate a protective effect of SLE against WD induced NASH that is related to less inflammation and oxidative stress, a preserved glucose tolerance, and less hepatotoxic bile acid profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carotenoid Content in Breastmilk in the 3rd and 6th Month of Lactation and Its Associations with Maternal Dietary Intake and Anthropometric Characteristics
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010193
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Carotenoids are diet-dependent milk components that are important for the visual and cognitive development of an infant. This study determined β-carotene, lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin in breastmilk and its associations with dietary intake from healthy Polish mothers in the first six months
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Carotenoids are diet-dependent milk components that are important for the visual and cognitive development of an infant. This study determined β-carotene, lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin in breastmilk and its associations with dietary intake from healthy Polish mothers in the first six months of lactation. Concentrations of carotenoids in breastmilk were measured by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) (first, third, sixth month of lactation) and dietary intake was assessed based on a three-day dietary record (third and sixth month of lactation). The average age of participants (n = 53) was 31.4 ± 3.8 years. The breastmilk concentrations of carotenoids were not changed over the progress of lactation. Lycopene was a carotenoid with the highest content in breastmilk (first month 112.2 (95% CI 106.1–118.3)—sixth month 110.1 (103.9–116.3) nmol/L) and maternal diet (third month 7897.3 (5465.2–10329.5) and sixth month 7255.8 (5037.5–9474.1) µg/day). There was a positive correlation between carotenoids in breastmilk and dietary intake (lycopene r = 0.374, r = 0.338; lutein + zeaxanthin r = 0.711, r = 0.726, 3rd and 6th month, respectively) and an inverse correlation with maternal BMI in the third month of lactation (β-carotene: r = −0.248, lycopene: r = −0.286, lutein + zeaxanthin: r = −0.355). Adjusted multivariate regression models confirmed an association between lutein + zeaxanthin intake and its concentration in breastmilk (third month: β = 0.730 (0.516–0.943); 6th: β = 0.644 (0.448–0.840)). Due to the positive associations between dietary intake and breastmilk concentrations, breastfeeding mothers should have a diet that is abundant in carotenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk and Lactation)
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Open AccessArticle Biofortified Maize Can Improve Quality Protein Intakes among Young Children in Southern Ethiopia
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010192
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Quality protein maize (QPM) varieties are biofortified, or nutritionally improved, to have higher lysine and tryptophan levels to increase quality protein intakes particularly among young children. This study assesses adequacy of children’s protein intakes in Ethiopia, where QPM is being promoted, accounting for
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Quality protein maize (QPM) varieties are biofortified, or nutritionally improved, to have higher lysine and tryptophan levels to increase quality protein intakes particularly among young children. This study assesses adequacy of children’s protein intakes in Ethiopia, where QPM is being promoted, accounting for protein quality and seasonal dietary changes, and estimates potential increases in intakes if QPM replaced conventional maize in diets. Diets of randomly sampled children aged 12–36 months in rural southern Ethiopia (n = 218) were assessed after harvest during relative food security and 3–4 months later during relative food insecurity using 24-h weighed food records. Diets were analyzed for protein adequacy, accounting for protein quality using the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method, and potential improvements from QPM substitution were estimated. Stunting was prevalent (38%) at the first assessment. Across seasons, 95–96% of children consumed maize, which provided 59–61% of energy and 51–55% of total protein in 24 h. Dietary intakes decreased in the food insecure season, though children were older. Among children no longer breastfeeding, QPM was estimated to reduce inadequacy of utilizable protein intakes from 17% to 13% in the food secure season and from 34% to 19% in the food insecure season. However, breastfed children had only 4–6% inadequate intakes of utilizable protein, limiting QPM’s potential impact. Due to small farm sizes, maize stores from home production lasted a median of three months. Young Ethiopian children are at risk of inadequate quality protein intakes, particularly after breastfeeding has ceased and during food insecurity. QPM could reduce this risk; however, reliance on access through home production may result in only short-term benefits given the limited quantities of maize produced and stored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary Feeding in Infants)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Lipolytic Activity of Whole-Saliva and Site-Specific Secretions from the Oral Cavity of Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010191
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
It is currently unclear how the process of fat digestion occurs in the mouth of humans. This pilot study therefore aimed to quantify the levels of lipolytic activity at different sites of the mouth and in whole saliva. Samples of whole saliva and
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It is currently unclear how the process of fat digestion occurs in the mouth of humans. This pilot study therefore aimed to quantify the levels of lipolytic activity at different sites of the mouth and in whole saliva. Samples of whole saliva and from 4 discrete sites in the oral cavity were collected from 42 healthy adult participants. All samples were analyzed for lipolytic activity using two different substrates (olive oil and the synthetic 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6’-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR)). Bland–Altman analyses suggested that the two assays gave divergent results, with 91% and 23% of site-specific and 40% and 26% of whole-saliva samples testing positive for lipolytic activity, respectively. Non-parametric multiple comparisons tests highlighted that median (IQR) of lipolytic activity (tested using the olive oil assay) of the samples from the parotid 20.7 (11.7–31.0) and sublingual 18.4 (10.6–47.2) sites were significantly higher than that of whole saliva 0.0 (0.0–35.7). In conclusion, lipolysis appears to occur in the oral cavity of a proportion of individuals. These findings give a preliminary indication that lipolytic agent activity in the oral cavity may be substrate-specific but do not discount that the enzyme is from sources other than oral secretions (e.g., microbes, gastric reflux). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Physiology)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Hepcidin, Iron Status, and Inflammation in Pregnant Women in the United Kingdom
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010190
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are common during pregnancy. Our aim was to identify whether antenatal vitamin D3 supplementation affects iron status (via hepcidin suppression) and/or inflammation. Using a subset of the UK multicenter Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS)—a double-blinded, randomized,
[...] Read more.
Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are common during pregnancy. Our aim was to identify whether antenatal vitamin D3 supplementation affects iron status (via hepcidin suppression) and/or inflammation. Using a subset of the UK multicenter Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS)—a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713; EudraCT2007-001716-23)—we performed a secondary laboratory analysis. Women with blood samples from early and late pregnancy (vitamin D3 (1000 IU/day from ~14 weeks gestation n = 93; placebo n = 102) who gave birth in the springtime (March–May) were selected as we anticipated seeing the greatest treatment group difference in change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration. Outcomes were hepcidin, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein concentration in late pregnancy (25OHD concentration was measured previously). By late pregnancy, 25OHD concentration increased by 17 nmol/L in the vitamin D3 group and decreased by 11 nmol/L in the placebo group; hepcidin, ferritin, and inflammatory markers decreased but no treatment group differences were seen. In late pregnancy, positive relationships between 25OHD and hepcidin and 25OHD and ferritin in the placebo group were observed but not in the treatment group (group × 25OHD interaction, p < 0.02). Vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on hepcidin, ferritin, or inflammatory status suggesting no adjunctive value of vitamin D3 in reducing rates of antenatal iron deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prevention of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Suckling Rats by a Specific Fermented Milk Concentrate with Prebiotic Mixture
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010189
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Several microbial modulatory concepts, such as certain probiotics and prebiotics, confer protection against gastrointestinal infections, among which is acute diarrhea caused by the rotavirus (RV). Other microbiota modulators, such as postbiotics, produced during fermentation, might also have the potential to counteract RV infection.
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Several microbial modulatory concepts, such as certain probiotics and prebiotics, confer protection against gastrointestinal infections, among which is acute diarrhea caused by the rotavirus (RV). Other microbiota modulators, such as postbiotics, produced during fermentation, might also have the potential to counteract RV infection. In light of this, a fermented milk, made by using Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50) and Streptococcus thermophilus 065 (St065) with a prebiotic mixture—short chain galactooligosaccharides/long chain fructooligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS 9:1)—with potential to impact the intestinal microbiota composition was tested. An RV infected rat model was used to evaluate the amelioration of the infectious process and the improvement of the immune response induced by the fermented milk with prebiotic mixture. The dietary intervention caused a reduction in the clinical symptoms of diarrhea, such as severity and incidence. Furthermore, a modulation of the immune response was observed, which might enhance the reduction of the associated diarrhea. In addition, the fermented milk with prebiotic mixture was able to bind the virus and reduce its clearance. In conclusion, the postbiotic components in the fermented milk in combination with the prebiotics used here showed protective properties against RV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Hormones, and Liver Markers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010188
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic-fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Vitamin D supplementation may exert positive effects on liver biochemistry in patients with NAFLD; however, its effects on PCOS are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study explored the effect
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic-fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Vitamin D supplementation may exert positive effects on liver biochemistry in patients with NAFLD; however, its effects on PCOS are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study explored the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, glucose levels, insulin levels, the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hormones (free androgen index (FAI), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and liver markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hyaluronic acid (HA), N-terminal pro-peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), tissue inhibitor of metallo-proteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score). Forty women with PCOS were recruited and randomized to vitamin D (3200 IU) or placebo daily for 3 months. All outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 months follow-up (FU). Greater increases in vitamin D levels were shown in the supplementation group (vitamin D, baseline: 25.6 ± 11.4 nmol/L, FU: 90.4 ± 19.5 nmol/L vs. placebo, baseline: 30.9 ± 11.1 nmol/L, FU: 47.6 ± 20.5 nmol/L, p < 0.001). Between groups comparisons (% baseline change) revealed significant differences in ALT (p = 0.042) and a weak effect indicating a greater reduction in the HOMA-IR in the vitamin D group (p = 0.051). No further between group differences were seen in other cardiovascular risk factor, liver markers, or hormones. This study supports beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on liver markers and modest improvements in insulin sensitivity in vitamin D deficient women with PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroid Hormones and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Glucose Response during the Night Is Suppressed by Wheat Albumin in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010187
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Postprandial blood glucose excursions are important for achieving optimal glycemic control. In normal-weight individuals, glucose tolerance is diminished in the evening compared to glucose tolerance in the morning. Wheat albumin (WA) has the potential to suppress the postprandial glucose response with a relatively
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Postprandial blood glucose excursions are important for achieving optimal glycemic control. In normal-weight individuals, glucose tolerance is diminished in the evening compared to glucose tolerance in the morning. Wheat albumin (WA) has the potential to suppress the postprandial glucose response with a relatively small dose, compared to the dose required when using dietary fiber. In the present study, the effect of WA on glycemic control during the night was investigated after a late evening meal. A randomly assigned crossover trial involving a single oral ingestion in healthy male participants was performed in a double-blind placebo-controlled manner. The participants ingested the placebo (PL) tablets or the WA (1.5 g)-containing tablets 3 min before an evening meal at 22:00 hour, and blood samples were drawn during the night until 07:00 hour using an intravenous cannula. The participants slept from 00:30 hour to 06:30 hour. Glucose response, as a primary outcome during the night, was suppressed significantly by the WA treatment compared to the PL treatment, but the insulin response was not. Plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentration during the night was lowered significantly by the WA treatment compared to the PL treatment. In conclusion, WA may be a useful food constituent for glycemic control during the night. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Ellagitannins Extracted by Pomegranate Fruit on Disulfide Isomerase PDIA3 Activity
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010186
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Pomegranate fruit is a functional food of high interest for human health due to its wide range of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties are implicated in the prevention of inflammation and cancer. Ellagitannins, such as punicalagin and ellagic acid, play a role as anti-atherogenic
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Pomegranate fruit is a functional food of high interest for human health due to its wide range of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties are implicated in the prevention of inflammation and cancer. Ellagitannins, such as punicalagin and ellagic acid, play a role as anti-atherogenic and neuroprotective molecules in the complex fighting against the degenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the composition in punicalagins and ellagic acid of differently obtained extracts from whole fruit, peels and juices, prepared by squeezing or by centrifugation, of pomegranate belonging to different cultivars. Moreover, a wider phenolic fingerprint was also determined. The bioactivity of the extracts was tested on the redox activity of PDIA3 disulfide isomerase, an enzyme involved in the regulation of several cellular functions and associated with different diseases such as cancer, prion disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The results demonstrate that the different ratios between punicalagin and ellagic acid modulate the enzyme activity and other ellagitannins could interfere with this activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessLetter Letter to the Editor Re: Borschel M., et al. Comparison of Growth of Healthy Term Infants Fed Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein- and Amino Acid-Based Infant Formulas. Nutrients 2018, 10, 289
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010185
Received: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
We read with interest the recently published narrative review of seven growth studies in healthy infants fed extensively hydrolyzed protein-based formulas (eHF) and amino acid-based formulas (AAF) [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Understanding Barriers and Enablers to State Action on Salt: Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions of the VicHealth Salt Reduction Partnership
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010184
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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The Victorian Salt Reduction Partnership (VicSalt Partnership) was launched in 2015, bringing together health and research organisations to develop an action plan for salt reduction interventions at a state level. A comprehensive evaluation was designed to assess the impact of the resulting four-year
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The Victorian Salt Reduction Partnership (VicSalt Partnership) was launched in 2015, bringing together health and research organisations to develop an action plan for salt reduction interventions at a state level. A comprehensive evaluation was designed to assess the impact of the resulting four-year intervention strategy. As part of the process evaluation, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with stakeholders in March–May 2017, to understand perceived barriers and enablers to effective strategy implementation. Data were coded in relation to the key topic areas of the interviews with an inductive method used to analyse themes within topics. Seventeen stakeholders were contacted, 14 completed an interview; five from state government or statutory agencies, four from non-government funded organisations, four from research organisations and one from the food industry. Twelve were members of the VicSalt Partnership and two were informal collaborators. Most stakeholders viewed the VicSalt Partnership as a positive example of working collaboratively, and said this was essential for raising awareness of the importance of salt reduction with consumers, the food industry, and the government. Challenges relating to engaging the food industry and federal government through a state-led initiative were identified. New approaches to overcome this, such as forming clear “asks” to government and committing industry to “pledges” on reformulation were suggested. Stakeholder interviews and qualitative analysis have provided a range of important insights into barriers and enablers, many of which have already been used to strengthen intervention implementation. The evaluation of the VicSalt Partnership is ongoing and the program is expected to provide a wealth of lessons for state-led interventions to reduce salt intake in Australia and globally. Full article
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Open AccessReview Prevalence of Anemia in Children from Latin America and the Caribbean and Effectiveness of Nutritional Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta–Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010183
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Anemia affects 1.62 billion people worldwide. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) comprise several developing countries where children are a population at risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia in this population. Electronic databases, reference lists, and
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Anemia affects 1.62 billion people worldwide. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) comprise several developing countries where children are a population at risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia in this population. Electronic databases, reference lists, and websites of health ministries were searched until December 2018. Stratified analyses were performed using RevMan5.3 to estimate the overall prevalence of anemia in preschool and school-age children. The effectiveness of nutritional interventions was also evaluated. We included 61 studies from the 917 reviewed, which included 128,311 preschool- and 38,028 school-age children from 21 LAC countries. The number of anemic children was 32.93% and 17.49%, respectively, demonstrating a significant difference according to age (p < 0.01). No difference was observed by gender and only school-age children from low/very low socioeconomic status (SES) (25.75%) were more prone to anemia than those from middle SES (7.90%). It was not a concern in the Southern Cone but constituted a serious public health problem in the Latin Caribbean. Nutritional interventions reduced the prevalence from 45% to 25% (p < 0.01). Anemia is still a public health problem for children in LAC countries. National surveys should include school-age children. Further nutritional interventions are required to control anemia. Full article
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Open AccessReview Umami as an ‘Alimentary’ Taste. A New Perspective on Taste Classification
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010182
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Applied taste research is increasingly focusing on the relationship with diet and health, and understanding the role the sense of taste plays in encouraging or discouraging consumption. The concept of basic tastes dates as far back 3000 years, where perception dominated classification with
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Applied taste research is increasingly focusing on the relationship with diet and health, and understanding the role the sense of taste plays in encouraging or discouraging consumption. The concept of basic tastes dates as far back 3000 years, where perception dominated classification with sweet, sour, salty, and bitter consistently featuring on basic taste lists throughout history. Advances in molecular biology and the recent discovery of taste receptors and ligands has increased the basic taste list to include umami and fat taste. There is potential for a plethora of other new basic tastes pending the discovery of taste receptors and ligands. Due to the possibility for an ever-growing list of basic tastes it is pertinent to critically evaluate whether new tastes, including umami, are suitably positioned with the four classic basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). The review critically examines the evidence that umami, and by inference other new tastes, fulfils the criteria for a basic taste, and proposes a subclass named ‘alimentary’ for tastes not meeting basic criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taste, Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Pilot Dietary Intervention on Pain Outcomes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Pain Service
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010181
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a six-week 2 × 2 design on pain scores, quality of life, and dietary intake in patients attending an Australian tertiary pain clinic. The two intervention components were (1) personalized dietary consultations
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a six-week 2 × 2 design on pain scores, quality of life, and dietary intake in patients attending an Australian tertiary pain clinic. The two intervention components were (1) personalized dietary consultations or waitlist control, and (2) active or placebo dietary supplement (fruit juice). Sixty participants were randomized into one of four groups at baseline (68% female, mean age 49 ± 15 years) with 42 completing the study (70% retention). All groups had statistically significant improvements in three of five pain outcomes. The personalized dietary consultation groups had clinically important improvements in three of five pain outcomes compared to the waitlist control groups. All groups had a statistically significant improvement in six of eight quality-of-life categories post intervention. All groups increased percentage energy from nutrient-dense foods (+5.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.001) with a significant group-by-time effect for percentage energy from total fat (p = 0.024), with the personalized dietary consultations plus placebo fruit juice reporting the largest reduction (−5.7 ± 2.3%). This study indicates that dietitian-delivered dietary intervention can improve pain scores, quality of life, and dietary intake of people experiencing chronic pain. Future research should evaluate efficacy in a full-powered randomized control trial. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Validity of an Abbreviated, Clinically Feasible Test for Postprandial Lipemia in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010180
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Background: A large post-meal triglyceride (TG) response is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but postprandial lipemia assessments are not clinically practical in their current form. Therefore, we assessed the validity of an abbreviated, clinically feasible protocol in measuring postprandial lipemia. Method:
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Background: A large post-meal triglyceride (TG) response is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but postprandial lipemia assessments are not clinically practical in their current form. Therefore, we assessed the validity of an abbreviated, clinically feasible protocol in measuring postprandial lipemia. Method: Eighteen healthy adults (8 male and 10 female) completed 3 high-fat meal trials in random order: (1) a Standard in Lab (SL) protocol wherein blood draws (to determine TG) were made from a catheter at baseline and hourly for 6 h; (2) an Abbreviated in Lab (AL) protocol in which participants remained in the laboratory but blood draws were only made at baseline and 4 h post-meal; and (3) an Abbreviated with Freedom (AF) protocol in which participants vacated the laboratory between the meal and the 4-h blood draw. Results: TG increase from baseline was very similar (p = 0.93) across the 3 trials (SL: 68.5 ± 62.7 mg/dL; AL: 71.1 ± 58.0 mg/dL; AF: 66.7 ± 46.4 mg/dL), as were 4-h TG levels (SL: 144.6 ± 84.2 mg/dL; AL: 171.4 ± 88.2 mg/dL; AF: 157.7 ± 76.7 mg/dL; p = 0.49). Similarly, total and incremental area under the curve (AUC) were not significantly different across the trials (p = 0.12 and 0.91, respectively). Conclusion: The TG results of the clinically feasible, abbreviated protocol were similar to those of the more exhaustive standard protocol. The AF protocol could be a valid and feasible clinical tool for measurement of postprandial lipemia and assessment of cardiovascular risk, although studies in larger and more diverse cohorts are needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Lifestyle Intervention on Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide in Obese Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010179
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Accumulating evidence linking trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has prompted interest in developing therapeutic strategies to reduce its production. We compared two lifestyle intervention approaches: hypocaloric versus eucaloric diet, combined with exercise, on TMAO levels in relation to CVD risk
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Accumulating evidence linking trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has prompted interest in developing therapeutic strategies to reduce its production. We compared two lifestyle intervention approaches: hypocaloric versus eucaloric diet, combined with exercise, on TMAO levels in relation to CVD risk factors. Sixteen obese adults (66.1 ± 4.4 years, BMI (body mass index): 35.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 106 ± 16 mg/dL, 2-h PPG (postprandial glucose): 168 ± 37 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of exercise (5 days/week, 80–85% HRmax (maximal heart rate)) plus either a hypocaloric (HYPO) (−500 kcal) or a eucaloric (EU) diet. Outcomes included plasma TMAO, glucose metabolism (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps for glucose disposal rates (GDR)), exercise capacity (VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption), abdominal adiposity (computed tomography scans), cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results showed that body composition (body weight, subcutaneous adiposity), insulin sensitivity, VO2max, and cholesterol all improved (p < 0.05). HYPO decreased the percentage change in TMAO compared to an increase after EU (HYPO: −31 ± 0.4% vs. EU: 32 ± 0.6%, p = 0.04). Absolute TMAO levels were not impacted (HYPO: p = 0.09 or EU: p = 0.53 group). The change in TMAO after intervention was inversely correlated with baseline visceral adipose tissue (r = −0.63, p = 0.009) and GDR (r = 0.58, p = 0.002). A hypocaloric diet and exercise approach appears to be effective in reducing TMAO. Larger trials are needed to support this observation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dry Bean Preferences and Attitudes among Midwest Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010178
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intakes in the United States (US) lag behind dietary recommendations despite their positive nutrition profile, health benefits for reducing chronic disease risk, and inclusion in nutrition assistance programs. Low-income groups, including Hispanics, have an increased risk of cardiovascular
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Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intakes in the United States (US) lag behind dietary recommendations despite their positive nutrition profile, health benefits for reducing chronic disease risk, and inclusion in nutrition assistance programs. Low-income groups, including Hispanics, have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. Hispanic dietary quality and bean consumption may decline with increasing acculturation. Intakes at recommended levels could improve health in all vulnerable low-income populations. The study objectives were to describe dry and canned bean preferences, consumption frequency, and attitudes among low-income Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women, and to assess if these characteristics differed by ethnicity and acculturation level among the Latinas. A convenience sample of 158 women, aged 18–65 years, completed a written survey in English or Spanish at two healthcare clinics, one Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children office, and five County Extension nutrition education and outreach programs in Iowa. Less acculturated Latinas consumed beans more often, preferred dry to canned, bought in bulk, valued color and shape in dry bean selection, and held less positive attitudes toward canned beans in contrast to bicultural/more acculturated and non-Hispanic white women. Ethnicity and acculturation level have a role in varying purchase patterns and attitudes regarding dry and canned beans. Culturally-held differences should be considered in nutrition programs and leveraged to increase consumption and improve health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2014
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the
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Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010176
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Ascorbic acid is essential for normal brain development and homeostasis. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on adult brain aging has not been determined. Long-term treatment with high levels of D-galactose (D-gal) induces brain aging by accumulated oxidative stress. In the present study,
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Ascorbic acid is essential for normal brain development and homeostasis. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on adult brain aging has not been determined. Long-term treatment with high levels of D-galactose (D-gal) induces brain aging by accumulated oxidative stress. In the present study, mice were subcutaneously administered with D-gal (150 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks; from the seventh week, ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally co-administered for four weeks. Although D-gal administration alone reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, co-treatment of ascorbic acid with D-gal effectively prevented D-gal-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis through improved cellular proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neuronal maturation. Long-term D-gal treatment also reduced expression levels of synaptic plasticity-related markers, i.e., synaptophysin and phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, while ascorbic acid prevented the reduction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, ascorbic acid ameliorated D-gal-induced downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, sirtuin1, caveolin-1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and upregulation of interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the hippocampus. Ascorbic acid-mediated hippocampal restoration from D-gal-induced impairment was associated with an enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory function. Therefore, ascorbic acid ameliorates D-gal-induced impairments through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and it could be an effective dietary supplement against adult brain aging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Breakfast Choice Is Associated with Nutrient, Food Group and Discretionary Intakes in Australian Adults at Both Breakfast and the Rest of the Day
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010175
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Breakfast choice is correlated with daily nutrient intakes, but this association may not be solely explained by the breakfast meal. We profiled breakfast consumer groups among Australian adults and compared the role that breakfast versus the rest of the day had on daily
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Breakfast choice is correlated with daily nutrient intakes, but this association may not be solely explained by the breakfast meal. We profiled breakfast consumer groups among Australian adults and compared the role that breakfast versus the rest of the day had on daily intakes of the Five Food Groups, discretionary foods, and nutrients. Breakfast groups were breakfast cereal consumers, non-cereal breakfast consumers, and breakfast skippers. One-day dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed (n = 9341, ≥19 years), as well as socio-demographic and anthropometric measures. Twelve per cent of adults were breakfast skippers, 41% were breakfast cereal consumers, and 47% were non-cereal breakfast consumers. Females were more likely to have a non-cereal breakfast than males, and the non-cereal breakfast was predominantly bread-based. Breakfast skipping decreased with age (p < 0.001), while breakfast cereal consumption increased with age (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers were more likely to be male, had a lower socio-economic status, and lower physical activity levels (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers had the highest mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (p < 0.001), the lowest intake of wholegrain foods, fruits and vegetables, and the highest intake of discretionary foods (p < 0.001). Breakfast cereal consumers had the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference (p < 0.001) and had healthier diets at both breakfast and throughout the rest of the day. They were the most likely to meet the daily recommended serves for grain foods, fruit, dairy, and vegetables, had the highest wholegrain food intake, and the lowest discretionary intake (p < 0.001). Additionally, breakfast cereal consumers had the most favourable daily nutrient intakes, including the lowest added sugars intakes. Differences in daily diet between breakfast groups were attributed to differences in food choices both at breakfast and throughout the rest of the day. Full article
Open AccessArticle Marketing Strategy, Serving Size, and Nutrition Information of Popular Children’s Food Packages in Taiwan
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010174
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
A content analysis was used to investigate the marketing strategies, serving size, and nutrition quality in Taiwan popular children’s snacks and drinks. A total of 361 snacks and 246 drinks were collected. It was found that 38.6% of snacks and 25.3% of drinks
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A content analysis was used to investigate the marketing strategies, serving size, and nutrition quality in Taiwan popular children’s snacks and drinks. A total of 361 snacks and 246 drinks were collected. It was found that 38.6% of snacks and 25.3% of drinks were child-targeted (CT) foods, and 78.1% and 85.4% of the snacks and drinks had health and nutrition marketing (HNM). Serving size was significantly positively correlated to calories among different food categories in this study. Only the CT breads, ready-to-eat cereals, and fruit/vegetable juice had smaller serving sizes than did the corresponding non-CT products. These CT products had significantly fewer calories than did the corresponding non-CT products. Approximately 30% of snacks and 18% of drinks had both CT and HNM. Moreover, 82.7% of CT snacks and 100.0% of CT drinks with HNM were high in sugar. About 95% of foods with no added sugar claim were high sugar. CT foods are not necessarily healthier than non-CT foods, even the CT food with HNM. Health professionals should help parents assess the nutrition quality of the popular children’s foods. Further research was needed to investigate the effect of these marketing strategies and serving size on children’s food consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Portion Size in Relation to Diet and Health)
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