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Changes in Micronutrient Intake and Status, Diet Quality and Glucose Tolerance from Preconception to the Second Trimester of Pregnancy

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands
4
Clinical Chemistry and Haematology Laboratory, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rijnstate Hospital, P.O. Box 9555, 6800 TA Arnhem, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020460
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
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PDF [810 KB, uploaded 22 February 2019]
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Abstract

Data on changes in dietary intake and related blood parameters throughout pregnancy are scarce; moreover, few studies have examined their association with glucose homeostasis. Therefore, we monitored intake of folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin D and iron, their status markers, and diet quality from preconception to the second trimester of pregnancy, and we examined whether these dietary factors were associated with glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. We included 105 women aged 18–40 years with a desire to get pregnancy or who were already <24 weeks pregnant. Women at increased gestational diabetes (GDM) risk were oversampled. Measurements were scheduled at preconception (n = 67), and 12 (n =53) and 24 weeks of pregnancy (n =66), including a fasting venipuncture, 75-grams oral glucose tolerance test, and completion of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Changes in micronutrient intake and status, and associations between dietary factors and glucose homeostasis, were examined using adjusted repeated measures mixed models. Micronutrient intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin D and related status markers significantly changed throughout pregnancy, which was predominantly due to changes in the intake of supplements. Micronutrient intake or status levels were not associated with glucose homeostasis, except for iron intake (FE µg/day) with fasting glucose (β = −0.069 mmol/L, p = 0.013) and HbA1c (β = −0.4843 mmol, p = 0.002). Diet quality was inversely associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.006 mmol/L for each DHD15-index point, p = 0.017). It was shown that micronutrient intakes and their status markers significantly changed during pregnancy. Only iron intake and diet quality were inversely associated with glucose homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet quality; gestational diabetes; micronutrients; pregnancy; status markers; glucose homeostasis; folate; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; vitamin D; iron diet quality; gestational diabetes; micronutrients; pregnancy; status markers; glucose homeostasis; folate; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; vitamin D; iron
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Looman, M.; Geelen, A.; Samlal, R.A.K.; Heijligenberg, R.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Wijnberger, L.D.E.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Feskens, E.J.M. Changes in Micronutrient Intake and Status, Diet Quality and Glucose Tolerance from Preconception to the Second Trimester of Pregnancy. Nutrients 2019, 11, 460.

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