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Open AccessArticle

Inclusion of Sunflower Oil in the Bovine Diet Improves Milk Nutritional Profile

Animal Science Institute (IZ), Ribeirão Preto, SP CEP: 14030-670, Brazil
Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering (FZEA), University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP CEP: 13635-900, Brazil
Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP CEP: 14049-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 481;
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification for Human Health)
Milk and its derivatives are important foods that contribute to daily nutrient requirements and improve consumers’ health. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing the diet of lactating dairy cows with sunflower oil (SFO), selenium, and vitamin E on the milk’s fatty acid profile and fat oxidative stability as well as the acceptability of the milk by consumers. For this purpose, 32 Jersey dairy cows were allocated to four treatment groups for 60 days, as follows: C (control diet); A (3.5 mg/kg DM (dry matter) organic selenium + 2000 IU vitamin E/cow per day); O (4% SFO DM); OA (equal doses of A and O treatments). The inclusion of SFO decreased the contents of 10:0, 10:1, 11:0, 12:0, 12:1, 14:0, and 9c-14:1 fatty acids as well as odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (13:0, iso 13:0, anteiso 13:0, 15:0, iso 15:0, and 17:0). There was also a tendency for 8:0 and 16:0 fatty acid concentrations to decrease when SFO was included in the cows´ diet. SFO decreased the concentration of 10:0 to 15:0 fatty acids in milk. The sum of the conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), conjugated alpha-linolenic acid intermediates (CLnAs; 18:3 ω6 + 18:3 ω3), and 22:0 fatty acids in milk tended to increase, and there were significant increases in 18:0 and 9c11t-18:2 with SFO. In terms of the effects of SFO on the health-related lipid indices, the atherogenicity index tended to decrease and h/H tended to increase. When cows were supplemented with antioxidants, the concentration of 20:2 fatty acids decreased, the 6 + 7 + 8 + 9t-18:1, 16t-18:1, 20:0, 22:2, and 24:0 fatty acid concentrations increased, and there was a trend for the 22:1 ω9 fatty acid concentration to increase with antioxidants plus oil. There was a tendency for ω6 fatty acids and ω6/ω3 to increase with milk treated with antioxidants plus oil. The oxidative stability of milk was not influenced by the presence of SFO or antioxidants in the diet of dairy cows. Consumers desired the color and mouthfeel of the milk that was treated with SFO. Cows fed with 4% sunflower oil produced milk with an improved fatty acid profile for human nutrition, containing a higher CLA content and an improved ratio of hypocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, without increasing the milk’s susceptibility to oxidation. The milk was also rated as being more acceptable by consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; dairy cattle; nutrition; oxidative stability; sensory analysis antioxidants; dairy cattle; nutrition; oxidative stability; sensory analysis
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Salles, M.S.V.; D’Abreu, L.F.; Júnior, L.C.R.; César, M.C.; Guimarães, J.G.L.; Segura, J.G.; Rodrigues, C.; Zanetti, M.A.; Pfrimer, K.; Netto, A.S. Inclusion of Sunflower Oil in the Bovine Diet Improves Milk Nutritional Profile. Nutrients 2019, 11, 481.

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