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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprise a complex group of developmental disabilities characterized [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Methionine Restriction Partly Recapitulates the Sympathetically Mediated Enhanced Energy Expenditure Induced by Total Amino Acid Restriction in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030707
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Total amino acid (AA) restriction promotes hyperphagia and energy expenditure. We determined whether (i) methionine restriction mimics the effects of total AA restriction, (ii) methionine supplementation attenuates these responses, and iii) sympathetic signaling mediates such effects. Rats were injected with either vehicle (V) [...] Read more.
Total amino acid (AA) restriction promotes hyperphagia and energy expenditure. We determined whether (i) methionine restriction mimics the effects of total AA restriction, (ii) methionine supplementation attenuates these responses, and iii) sympathetic signaling mediates such effects. Rats were injected with either vehicle (V) or 6-hydroxydopamine (S) to induce chemical sympathectomy, and then randomized to four diets: 16% AA (16AA), 5% AA (5AA), 16% AA-methionine (16AA-Met), and 5% AA+methionine (5AA+Met). Propranolol or ondansetron were injected to examine the role of sympathetic and serotonergic signaling, respectively. 5AA, 5AA+Met, and 16AA-Met increased the food conversion rate for 1–3 weeks in the V and S groups, and increased mean energy expenditure in V group,; the magnitude of these changes was attenuated in the S group. Propranolol decreased the energy expenditure of V16AA, V5AA, and V5AA+Met and of S5AA, S5AA+Met, and S16AA-Met, whereas ondansetron decreased the energy expenditure in only the S groups. Compared to 16AA, the other V groups had reduced body weights from days 7–11 onwards and decreased lean masses throughout the study and the other S groups had decreased body weights and lean masses from day 14 onwards. Total AA restriction enhanced the energy expenditure and reduced the weight and lean mass; these effects were partly recapitulated by methionine restriction and were sympathetically mediated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Computerised Decision-Support Tool for Health Professionals for the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity. Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030706
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
We examined the effectiveness of a computerised decision-support tool (DST), designed for paediatric healthcare professionals, as a means to tackle childhood obesity. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 65 families of 6–12-year old overweight or obese children. Paediatricians, paediatric endocrinologists and a [...] Read more.
We examined the effectiveness of a computerised decision-support tool (DST), designed for paediatric healthcare professionals, as a means to tackle childhood obesity. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 65 families of 6–12-year old overweight or obese children. Paediatricians, paediatric endocrinologists and a dietitian in two children’s hospitals implemented the intervention. The intervention group (IG) received personalised meal plans and lifestyle optimisation recommendations via the DST, while families in the control group (CG) received general recommendations. After three months of intervention, the IG had a significant change in dietary fibre and sucrose intake by 4.1 and −4.6 g/day, respectively. In addition, the IG significantly reduced consumption of sweets (i.e., chocolates and cakes) and salty snacks (i.e., potato chips) by −0.1 and −0.3 portions/day, respectively. Furthermore, the CG had a significant increase of body weight and waist circumference by 1.4 kg and 2.1 cm, respectively, while Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased only in the IG by −0.4 kg/m2. However, the aforementioned findings did not differ significantly between study groups. In conclusion, these findings indicate the dynamics of the DST in supporting paediatric healthcare professionals to improve the effectiveness of care in modifying obesity-related behaviours. Further research is needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: Role of Circulating Branched-Chain Amino Acids
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030705
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is likely to be associated with elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and may precede the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that BCAAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D attributable to NAFLD and [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is likely to be associated with elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and may precede the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that BCAAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D attributable to NAFLD and determined the extent to which plasma BCAAs influence T2D development in NAFLD. We evaluated cross-sectional associations of NAFLD with fasting plasma BCAAs (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and prospectively determined the extent to which the influence of NAFLD on incident T2D is attributable to BCAA elevations. In the current study, 5791 Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort participants without T2D at baseline were included. Elevated fatty liver index (FLI) ≥60, an algorithm based on triglycerides, gamma-glutamyltransferase, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, was used as proxy of NAFLD. Elevated FLI ≥ 60 was present in 1671 (28.9%) participants. Cross-sectionally, BCAAs were positively associated with FLI ≥ 60 (β = 0.208, p < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 7.3 years, 276 participants developed T2D, of which 194 (70.2%) had an FLI ≥ 60 (log-rank test, p < 0.001). Cox regression analyses revealed that both FLI ≥60 (hazard ratio (HR) 3.46, 95% CI 2.45–4.87, p < 0.001) and higher BCAA levels (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03–1.37, p = 0.01) were positively associated with incident T2D. Mediation analysis showed that the association of FLI with incident T2D was in part attributable to elevated BCAAs (proportion mediated 19.6%). In conclusion, both elevated FLI and elevated plasma BCAA levels are associated with risk of incident T2D. The association of NAFLD with T2D development seems partly mediated by elevated BCAAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis)
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Open AccessArticle Induction of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Colorectal Cancer by Human TNF-β (Lymphotoxin) and its Reversal by Resveratrol
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030704
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β), as an inflammatory mediator that has been shown to promote tumorigenesis, induces NF-κB. Natural multi-targeted agent resveratrol in turn shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows cancer cells to turn into a motile state with invasive [...] Read more.
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β), as an inflammatory mediator that has been shown to promote tumorigenesis, induces NF-κB. Natural multi-targeted agent resveratrol in turn shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows cancer cells to turn into a motile state with invasive capacities and is associated with metastasis and development of cancer stem cells (CSC). However, TNF-β-induced EMT and the anti-invasion mechanism of resveratrol on CRC are not yet completely understood. Methods: We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of resveratrol on TNF-β/TNF-βR-induced EMT and migration of CRC cells (HCT116, RKO, SW480) in monolayer or 3D alginate cultures. Results: TNF-β, similar to TNF-α, induced significant cell proliferation, morphological change, from an epithelial to a spindle-like mesenchymal shape with the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia associated with the expression of EMT parameters (elevated vimentin and slug, reduced E-cadherin), increased migration/invasion, and formation of CSC in all CRC cells. Interestingly, these effects were dramatically decreased in the presence of resveratrol or anti-TNF-βR with TNF-β co-treatment, inducing biochemical changes to the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), with a planar cell surface and suppressed formation of CSC cells. This was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that resveratrol suppressed TNF-β-induced NF-κB and NF-κB-regulated gene biomarkers associated with growth, proliferation, and invasion. Finally, TNF-βR interacts directly with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and NF-κB. Conclusion: These results suggest that resveratrol down-regulates TNF-β/TNF-βR-induced EMT, at least in part via specific suppression of NF-κΒ and FAK in CRC cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics of a New Pharmaceutical Form of Vitamin D3 100,000 IU in Soft Capsule
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030703
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in the general population and both subjects and health professionals could benefit from a broader range of vitamin D3 formulations. We conducted a single-dose, open-label, parallel-group, randomized bioequivalence study to compare a single dose of a newly developed [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in the general population and both subjects and health professionals could benefit from a broader range of vitamin D3 formulations. We conducted a single-dose, open-label, parallel-group, randomized bioequivalence study to compare a single dose of a newly developed vitamin D3 100,000 IU in a soft capsule (Group 1) with the reference drug vitamin D3 100,000 IU oral solution in ampoule (Group 2) in healthy volunteers over a four-month period. The primary endpoint was the area under the curve (AUC) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentrations on Day 112. This study was conducted in France from February to June 2014 in 53 young adults with a mean age of 26.9 years. At baseline, low mean serum 25(OH)D levels were observed in both groups (10.6 ng/mL in Group 1 and 9.0 ng/mL in Group 2). On Day 112, the AUC of serum 25(OH)D concentration was 2499.4 ± 463.8 nmol/mL (7.8 ± 0.2 for LogAUC) for Group 1 and 2152.3 ± 479.8 nmol/mL (7.6 ± 0.2 for LogAUC) for Group 2. Bioequivalence of the two treatments was not demonstrated. Superiority of vitamin D3 100,000 IU soft capsule was observed with p = 0.029 for AUC and p = 0.03 for LogAUC using a non-parametric Wilcoxon test. The profile of the serum 25(OH)D concentration showed a significant difference in favor of Group 1 on Days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 90. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations in Group 1 were between 20 and 30 ng/mL during the four-month period and under 20 ng/mL throughout the study in Group 2, except on Day 112. Mean Cmax for Group 1 was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Fourteen days were needed to reach Tmax by more than half the subjects in Group 1 compared to 45 days in Group 2. Both treatments were well tolerated, with no severe or related adverse events reported. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic profile of the new formulation of vitamin D3 100,000 IU soft capsule is superior to that of the oral solution in ampoule. The new formulation increased serum 25(OH)D levels to above 20 ng/mL and maintained levels from 20 ng/mL to 30 ng/mL for four months in late winter and spring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biological Response to Meal Ingestion: Gender Differences
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030702
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
In a previous study, we demonstrated that women enjoyed and tolerated lower meal loads than men. Hence, we hypothesized that with the same meal load, their postprandial response is more pronounced than in men. We performed a randomized parallel trial in 12 women [...] Read more.
In a previous study, we demonstrated that women enjoyed and tolerated lower meal loads than men. Hence, we hypothesized that with the same meal load, their postprandial response is more pronounced than in men. We performed a randomized parallel trial in 12 women and 12 men comparing the postprandial responses to a palatable comfort meal. We measured homeostatic sensations (hunger/satiety, fullness) and hedonic sensations (digestive well-being, mood) on 10 cm scales, vagal tone by heart ratio variability and the metabolomic profile before and after meal ingestion. Gender differences were analyzed by repeated measures ANCOVA. Overall (n = 24), ingestion of the probe meal induced satiation, fullness, digestive well-being and improved mood (main time-effect p ≤ 0.005 for all). Women exhibited a more intense sensory experience, specially more postprandial fullness, than men [main gender-effect F (1, 21) = 7.14; p = 0.014]; hedonic responses in women also tended to be stronger than in men. Women exhibited more pronounced effects on vagal tone [main gender-effect F (1, 21) = 5.5; p = 0.029] and a different lipoprotein response than men. In conclusion, our data indicate that gender influences the responses to meal ingestion, and these differences may explain the predisposition and higher incidence in women of meal-related functional disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Increase in Fat Mass Index Predicts a Deterioration of Running Speed
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030701
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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A low fat mass is associated with a good running performance. This study explores whether modifications in body composition predicted changes in running speed. We included people who underwent several measurements of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis between 1999 and 2016, at [...] Read more.
A low fat mass is associated with a good running performance. This study explores whether modifications in body composition predicted changes in running speed. We included people who underwent several measurements of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis between 1999 and 2016, at the “Course de l’Escalade”, taking place yearly in Geneva. Body composition was reported as a fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI). Running distances (men: 7.2 km; women: 4.8 km) and running times were used to calculate speed in km/h. We performed multivariate linear mixed regression models to determine whether modifications of body mass index, FFMI, FMI or the combination of FFMI and FMI predicted changes in running speed. The study population included 377 women (1419 observations) and 509 men (2161 observations). Changes in running speed were best predicted by the combination of FFMI and FMI. Running speed improved with a reduction of FMI in both sexes (women: ß −0.31; 95% CI −0.35 to −0.27, p < 0.001. men: ß −0.43; 95% CI −0.48 to −0.39, p < 0.001) and a reduction of FFMI in men (ß −0.20; 95% CI −0.26 to −0.15, p < 0.001). Adjusted for body composition, the decline in running performance occurred from 50 years onward, but appeared earlier with a body mass, FFMI or FMI above the median value at baseline. Changes of running speed are determined mostly by changes in FMI. The decline in running performance occurs from 50 years onward but appears earlier in people with a high body mass index, FFMI or FMI at baseline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Fatigue)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of CISD2 and Influence of Curcumin on CISD2 Expression in Aged Animals and Inflammatory Cell Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030700
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Background: Inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to trauma, neurodegeneration, and aging. Impairment of CISD2 expression may trigger the aforementioned pathological conditions in neural cells. We previously reported that curcumin attenuates the downregulation of CISD2 in animal models of spinal cord injury [...] Read more.
Background: Inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to trauma, neurodegeneration, and aging. Impairment of CISD2 expression may trigger the aforementioned pathological conditions in neural cells. We previously reported that curcumin attenuates the downregulation of CISD2 in animal models of spinal cord injury and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated neuronal cells. In this study, we investigate (1) the role of CISD2 and (2) how curcumin regulates CISD2 in the aging process. Materials and methods: The serial expression of CISD2 and the efficacy of curcumin treatment were evaluated in old (104 weeks) mice and long-term cultures of neural cells (35 days in vitro, DIV). LPS-challenged neural cells (with or without siCISD2 transfection) were used to verify the role of curcumin on CISD2 underlying mitochondrial dysfunction. Results: In the brain and spinal cord of mice aged P2, 8, 25, and 104 weeks, we observed a significant decrease in CISD2 expression with age. Curcumin treatment in vivo and in vitro was shown to upregulate CISD2 expression; attenuate inflammatory response in neural cells. Moreover, curcumin treatment elevated CISD2 expression levels and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction in LPS-challenged neural cells. The beneficial effects of curcumin in either non-stressed or LPS-challenged cells that underwent siCISD2 transfection were significantly lower than in respective groups of cells that underwent scrambled siRNA-transfection. Conclusions: We hypothesize that the protective effects of curcumin treatment in reducing cellular inflammation associated trauma, degenerative, and aging processes can be partially attributed to elevated CISD2 expression. We observed a reduction in the protective effects of curcumin against injury-induced inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in cells where CISD2 expression was reduced by siCISD2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Twelve-Week Protocatechuic Acid Administration Improves Insulin-Induced and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Induced Vasorelaxation and Antioxidant Activities in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030699
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a strong antioxidant, has been reported for its cardiovascular-protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PCA administration on vascular endothelial function, mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and antioxidant activities in aging hypertension. Thirty-six-week-old male [...] Read more.
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a strong antioxidant, has been reported for its cardiovascular-protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PCA administration on vascular endothelial function, mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and antioxidant activities in aging hypertension. Thirty-six-week-old male aging spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into vehicle control (SHR) and PCA (SHR+PCA) groups, while age-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKY) served as the normotensive vehicle control group. The oral PCA (200 mg/kg/day) was administered daily for a total of 12 weeks. When the rats reached the age of 48 weeks, the rat aortas were isolated for the evaluation of vascular reactivity and Western blotting. Also, nitric oxide (NO) production and antioxidant activities were examined among the three groups. The results showed that, when compared with the SHR group, the insulin-induced and IGF-1-induced vasorelaxation were significantly improved in the SHR+PCA group. There was no significant difference in the endothelium-denuded vessels among the three groups. After the pre-incubation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, the vasorelaxation was abolished and comparable among the three groups. The protein levels of insulin receptors, IGF-1 receptors, phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt)/Akt, and phospho-endothelial NOS (p-eNOS)/eNOS in aortic tissues were significantly enhanced in the SHR+PCA group when compared with the SHR group. Moreover, significant improvements of nitrate/nitrite concentration and antioxidant activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidants, were also found in the SHR+PCA group. In conclusion, the 12 weeks of PCA administration remarkably improved the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by insulin and IGF-1 in aging hypertension through enhancing the PI3K–NOS–NO pathway. Furthermore, the enhanced antioxidant activities partly contributed to the improved vasorelaxation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Higher Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet is Related to More Subjective Happiness in Adolescents: The Role of Health-Related Quality of Life
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030698
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has previously been related to better quality of life in the general population. Further, children and adolescents have obtained better health outcomes when they have shown high adherence to the MD in recent studies. Nevertheless, the association [...] Read more.
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has previously been related to better quality of life in the general population. Further, children and adolescents have obtained better health outcomes when they have shown high adherence to the MD in recent studies. Nevertheless, the association between the adherence to this type of diet and subjective happiness have not been previously analysed in this population. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between MD adherence, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and subjective happiness in a sample of 527 Spanish adolescents. Results obtained show positive associations of MD adherence with higher levels of subjective happiness and better HRQOL. Moreover, mediation analyses showed a full mediation effect of some components of HRQOL, namely, emotional well-being, mood and emotions, financial resources and social acceptance, in the association between MD adherence and subjective happiness. This study advances our understanding of the association of MD and levels of happiness in the general population, specifically in adolescents, through the positive effects of specific components of HRQOL. Future studies should evaluate other variables that could influence or also mediate this relationship, evaluating specific groups of adolescents, such as clinical samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Are the Motives for Food Choices Different in Orthorexia Nervosa and Healthy Orthorexia?
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030697
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Recent research points to the bidimensional nature of orthorexia, with one dimension related to interest in healthy eating (healthy orthorexia) and another dimension related to a pathological preoccupation with eating healthily (orthorexia nervosa). Research was needed to provide further support for this differentiation. [...] Read more.
Recent research points to the bidimensional nature of orthorexia, with one dimension related to interest in healthy eating (healthy orthorexia) and another dimension related to a pathological preoccupation with eating healthily (orthorexia nervosa). Research was needed to provide further support for this differentiation. We examined the food-choice motives related to both aspects of orthorexia. Participants were 460 students from a Spanish university who completed the Teruel Orthorexia Scale and the Food Choice Questionnaire. By means of structural equation modeling, we analyzed the relationship between orthorexia, food-choice motives, gender, body mass index, and age. The motives predicting food choices in orthorexia nervosa and healthy orthorexia were quite different. In the case of orthorexia nervosa, the main motive was weight control, with sensorial appeal and affect regulation also showing significant associations. For healthy orthorexia, the main motive was health content, with sensorial appeal and price also showing significant associations. This supports the hypothesis that orthorexia nervosa is associated with maladaptive eating behavior motived more by weight control than by health concerns. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030696
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Minerals and trace elements (MTEs) are micronutrients involved in hundreds of biological processes. Deficiency in MTEs can negatively affect athletic performance. Approximately 50% of athletes have reported consuming some form of micronutrient supplement; however, there is limited data confirming their efficacy for improving [...] Read more.
Minerals and trace elements (MTEs) are micronutrients involved in hundreds of biological processes. Deficiency in MTEs can negatively affect athletic performance. Approximately 50% of athletes have reported consuming some form of micronutrient supplement; however, there is limited data confirming their efficacy for improving performance. The aim of this study was to systematically review the role of MTEs in exercise and athletic performance. Six electronic databases and grey literature sources (MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL and SportDISCUS; Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov) were searched, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results: 17,433 articles were identified and 130 experiments from 128 studies were included. Retrieved articles included Iron (n = 29), Calcium (n = 11), Magnesium, (n = 22), Phosphate (n = 17), Zinc (n = 9), Sodium (n = 15), Boron (n = 4), Selenium (n = 5), Chromium (n = 12) and multi-mineral articles (n = 5). No relevant articles were identified for Copper, Manganese, Iodine, Nickel, Fluoride or Cobalt. Only Iron and Magnesium included articles of sufficient quality to be assigned as ‘strong’. Currently, there is little evidence to support the use of MTE supplementation to improve physiological markers of athletic performance, with the possible exception of Iron (in particular, biological situations) and Magnesium as these currently have the strongest quality evidence. Regardless, some MTEs may possess the potential to improve athletic performance, but more high quality research is required before support for these MTEs can be given. PROSPERO preregistered (CRD42018090502). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Amount, Preparation and Type of Formula Consumed and Its Association with Weight Gain in Infants Participating in the WIC Program in Hawaii and Puerto Rico
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030695
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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The aim of this study was to assess the association between amount (below or above recommendations), preparation (liquid vs. powder), and type (regular vs. hydrolysate) of infant formula consumed and weight in infants participating in the Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Program in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the association between amount (below or above recommendations), preparation (liquid vs. powder), and type (regular vs. hydrolysate) of infant formula consumed and weight in infants participating in the Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Program in Hawaii (HI) and Puerto Rico (PR). This was a secondary analysis of 162 caregivers with healthy term 0–2-month-old infants. Socio-demographics, infant food frequency questionnaires, and weight and length were assessed at baseline and after four months. Infant feeding practices were associated with weight-for-length z-scores using multivariable logistic regression. In total, 37.7% were exclusively breastfed and 27.2% were exclusively formula-fed. Among formula users, regular (63.6%) and powder (87.0%) formula were the most common; 43.2% consumed formula above recommendations. Most infants had rapid weight gain (61.1%). Infants fed regular formula had higher odds of overweight after four months (adjusted OR = 8.77, 95% CI: 1.81–42.6) and higher odds of rapid weight gain (adjusted OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.12, 8.61). Those exclusively formula fed had higher odds of slow weight gain (adjusted OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.17–14.2). Formula preparation and amount of formula were not associated with weight. These results could inform the WIC program’s nutrition education messages on infant feeding. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Diet and the Impact on Physical and Cognitive Development)
Open AccessDiscussion Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030694
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
Coffee is a blend of compounds related to gastrointestinal physiology. Given its popularity and the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the impact of this beverage on public health could be considerable. Our aim was to provide an updated synthesis of the relationship between coffee [...] Read more.
Coffee is a blend of compounds related to gastrointestinal physiology. Given its popularity and the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the impact of this beverage on public health could be considerable. Our aim was to provide an updated synthesis of the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 26 prospective studies. Regarding colorectal cancer, no significant relationship was detected. Stratifying for ethnicity, a protective effect emerged in US subjects. Concerning colon cancer, coffee proved to exert a protective effect in men and women combined and in men alone. Stratifying for ethnicity, a significant protective effect was noted in European men only and in Asian women only. Concerning rectal cancer, no association was found. Decaffeinated coffee exhibited a protective effect against colorectal cancer in men and women combined. Studies were appraised for their quality by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort studies. Only one study proved to be of low quality. Ethnicity could explain the heterogeneity of the studies. However, little is known about the relationship between the genetic make-up and the risk of colorectal cancer associated with coffee. Further research is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Obesity Is Associated with Changes in Iron Nutrition Status and Its Homeostatic Regulation in Pregnancy
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030693
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
The influence of obesity on maternal iron homeostasis and nutrition status during pregnancy remains only partially clarified. Our study objectives were (1) to describe how obesity influences broad iron nutrition spectrum biomarkers such as available or circulating iron (serum transferrin receptor (sTfr) and [...] Read more.
The influence of obesity on maternal iron homeostasis and nutrition status during pregnancy remains only partially clarified. Our study objectives were (1) to describe how obesity influences broad iron nutrition spectrum biomarkers such as available or circulating iron (serum transferrin receptor (sTfr) and serum iron), iron reserves (ferritin), and functional iron (hemoglobin); and (2) to depict the regulating role of hepcidin. The above was carried out while considering influential factors such as initial iron nutrition status, iron intake, and the presence of inflammation. Ninety three non-anemic pregnant adult women were included, 40 with obesity (Ob) and 53 with adequate weight (AW); all took ≈30 mg/day of supplementary iron. Information on iron intake and blood samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13, 20, 27, and 35. A series of repeated measure analyses were performed using General Linear Models to discern the effect of obesity on each iron indicator; iron intake, hepcidin, and C-reactive protein were successively introduced as covariates. Available and circulating iron was lower in obese women: sTfr was higher (p = 0.07) and serum iron was lower (p = 0.01); and ferritin and hemoglobin were not different between groups. Hepcidin was higher in the Ob group (p = 0.01) and was a significant predictor variable for all biomarkers. Obesity during pregnancy dysregulates iron homeostasis, resembling “obesity hypoferremia”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Serum Ferritin Concentrations: A Longitudinal Study of Participants of a Preventive Health Program
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030692
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
Various studies have suggested a role of vitamin D in inflammation. However, its effect on ferritin, a biomarker of inflammation, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with serum ferritin (SF) concentrations, and [...] Read more.
Various studies have suggested a role of vitamin D in inflammation. However, its effect on ferritin, a biomarker of inflammation, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with serum ferritin (SF) concentrations, and to examine whether temporal increases in serum 25(OH)D concentrations are paralleled by a reduction in SF concentrations. Data from a community sample of Canadian adults who participated in a preventive health program (n = 6812) were analyzed. During the follow-up, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 80.7 to 115.0 nmol/L whereas SF concentrations decreased from 122.0 to 92.0 µg/L (median follow-up time was 11.67 months). Cross-sectional analyses revealed that compared to participants with 25(OH)D concentrations of <50 nmol/L, those with 25(OH)D concentrations of 75 to <100, 100 to <125, and ≥125 nmol/L had SF concentrations that were 13.00, 23.15, and 27.59 µg/L lower respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to those without temporal improvements in 25(OH)D concentrations between baseline and follow-up, participants who improved their 25(OH)D concentrations with ≥50 nmol/L decreased their SF concentrations with 5.71 µg/L. For participants for whom the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations was less than 50 nmol/L, decreases in SF concentrations were less pronounced and not statistically significant. These observations suggest that despite strong associations between 25(OH)D and SF concentrations, interventions aiming to lower SF concentrations through sun-exposure and vitamin D supplementation should target substantial increases in 25(OH)D concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Avocado Intake, and Longitudinal Weight and Body Mass Index Changes in an Adult Cohort
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030691
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
Avocados contain nutrients and bioactive compounds that may help reduce the risk of becoming overweight/obese. We prospectively examined the effect of habitual avocado intake on changes in weight and body mass index (BMI). In the Adventist Health Study (AHS-2), a longitudinal cohort (~55,407; [...] Read more.
Avocados contain nutrients and bioactive compounds that may help reduce the risk of becoming overweight/obese. We prospectively examined the effect of habitual avocado intake on changes in weight and body mass index (BMI). In the Adventist Health Study (AHS-2), a longitudinal cohort (~55,407; mean age ~56 years; U.S. and Canada), avocado intake (standard serving size 32 g/day) was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Self-reported height and weight were collected at baseline. Self-reported follow-up weight was collected with follow-up questionnaires between four and 11 years after baseline. Using the generalized least squares (GLS) approach, we analyzed repeated measures of weight in relation to avocado intake. Marginal logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of becoming overweight/obese, comparing low (>0 to <32 g/day) and high (≥32 g/day) avocado intake to non-consumers (reference). Avocado consumers who were normal weight at baseline, gained significantly less weight than non-consumers. The odds (OR (95% CI)) of becoming overweight/obese between baseline and follow-up was 0.93 (0.85, 1.01), and 0.85 (0.60, 1.19) for low and high avocado consumers, respectively. Habitual consumption of avocados may reduce adult weight gain, but odds of overweight/obesity are attenuated by differences in initial BMI values. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Physical Activity Levels during a Single Day on Energy Intake, Appetite, and Energy Balance: A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030690
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
We aimed to investigate the effects of a wide range of daily physical activity (PA) levels on energy balance (EB), energy intake (EI), and appetite. Nine young men completed three different PA levels in a metabolic chamber in a random order: (1) no [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the effects of a wide range of daily physical activity (PA) levels on energy balance (EB), energy intake (EI), and appetite. Nine young men completed three different PA levels in a metabolic chamber in a random order: (1) no exercise (Low-PA); (2) 25 min walking seven times (Mid-PA); and (3) 25 min running seven times (High-PA) within a 24 h period. Interval exercise (25 min exercise and 35 min rest) was performed three times in the morning and four times in the afternoon. The exercise intensities were 21.6% and 53.7% V ˙ O2 peak for the Mid-PA and High-PA days, respectively. Participants were served three standardized meals and a buffet for dinner. The 24 h EB was calculated as 24 h energy expenditure (EE) minus 24 h EI. The 24 h EEs for the Low-PA, Mid-PA, and High-PA days were 1907 ± 200, 2232 ± 240, and 3224 ± 426 kcal, respectively, with significant differences observed among the three conditions (p < 0.01 for Low-PA vs. Mid-PA, Low-PA vs. High-PA, and Mid-PA vs. High-PA, respectively). The 24 h EIs for the Low-PA, Mid-PA, and High-PA days were 3232 ± 528, 2991 ± 617, and 3337 ± 684 kcal, and were unaffected by PA levels (p = 0.115). The 24 h EBs were 1324 ± 441 kcal (Low-PA), 759 ± 543 kcal (Mid-PA), and 113 ± 430 kcal (High-PA), with significant differences observed between Low-PA vs. Mid-PA (p = 0.0496), Low-PA vs. High-PA (p ≤ 0.01), and Mid-PA vs. High-PA (p = 0.017) conditions. The EB in the Low-PA group was the highest of the three conditions. Appetite perception did not differ among the study days, however there was an interaction trend (p = 0.078, time × condition). Thus, significantly different daily PA did not affect 24 h EI, however markedly affected 24 h EB, implying that EB is not automatically matched during a single day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity And Diet For Health Optimisation)
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Open AccessArticle One- and Two-Year Effects of the Healthy Primary School of the Future on Children’s Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviours: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030689
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Schools can help to improve children’s health. The ‘Healthy Primary School of the Future’ (HPSF) aims to sustainably integrate health and well-being into the school system. This study examined the effects of HPSF on children’s dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviours after 1 [...] Read more.
Schools can help to improve children’s health. The ‘Healthy Primary School of the Future’ (HPSF) aims to sustainably integrate health and well-being into the school system. This study examined the effects of HPSF on children’s dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviours after 1 and 2 years’ follow-up. The study (n = 1676 children) has a quasi-experimental design with four intervention schools, i.e., two full HPSF (focus: nutrition and PA) and two partial HPSF (focus: PA), and four control schools. Accelerometers and child- and parent-reported questionnaires were used at baseline, after 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) years. Mixed-model analyses showed significant favourable effects for the full HPSF versus control schools for, among others, school water consumption (effect size (ES) = 1.03 (T1), 1.14 (T2)), lunch intake of vegetables (odds ratio (OR) = 3.17 (T1), 4.39 (T2)) and dairy products (OR = 4.43 (T1), 4.52 (T2)), sedentary time (ES = −0.23 (T2)) and light PA (ES = 0.22 (T2)). Almost no significant favourable effects were found for partial HPSF compared to control schools. We conclude that the full HPSF is effective in promoting children’s health behaviours at T1 and T2 compared with control schools. Focusing on both nutrition and PA components seems to be more effective in promoting healthy behaviours than focusing exclusively on PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity And Diet For Health Optimisation)
Open AccessArticle Validation of Energy and Nutrition Intake in Japanese Elderly Individuals Estimated Based on a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire Compared against a 7-day Dietary Record: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030688
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
To determine the association between geriatric disorders and dietary intake, validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for elderly individuals is needed. We compared energy and nutrient intakes derived from dietary records (DR) and FFQ in an elderly population and compared the data [...] Read more.
To determine the association between geriatric disorders and dietary intake, validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for elderly individuals is needed. We compared energy and nutrient intakes derived from dietary records (DR) and FFQ in an elderly population and compared the data against results from middle-aged individuals (30–68 years) from a previous study. Current participants included 65 women and 78 men (65–88 years) who completed FFQ and 7-day DR in a subpopulation of the Kyoto-Kameoka study. Our FFQ was created for middle-aged individuals. To validate the FFQ, we investigated equivalent precision by comparing the correlation coefficients between the present and previous study. Median correlations for energy and nutrient intake between the DR and FFQ in the current and previous studies were 0.24 and 0.30 (p = 0.329) in women and 0.24 and 0.28 (p = 0.399) in men, respectively. The median ratio of FFQ to DR for these intakes were also similar. The accuracy and precision of the FFQ for energy and nutrient intake in elderly individuals did not differ compared with previous findings in a middle-aged population. A validation study evaluating energy and nutrient intake using recovery biomarkers is further needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Older Individuals' Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Validation of the Japanese Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (J-YFAS 2.0)
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030687
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0) is used for assessing food addiction (FA). Our study aimed at validating its Japanese version (J-YFAS 2.0). The subjects included 731 undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the root-mean-square error of approximation, comparative fit index, [...] Read more.
The Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0) is used for assessing food addiction (FA). Our study aimed at validating its Japanese version (J-YFAS 2.0). The subjects included 731 undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the root-mean-square error of approximation, comparative fit index, Tucker–Lewis index, and standardized root-mean-square residual were 0.065, 0.904, 0.880, and 0.048, respectively, for a one-factor structure model. Kuder–Richardson α was 0.78. Prevalence of the J-YFAS 2.0-diagnosed mild, moderate, and severe FA was 1.1%, 1.2%, and 1.0%, respectively. High uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores of the 18-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ R-18) (p < 0.001), a high Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score (p < 0.001), frequent desire to overeat (p = 0.007), and frequent snacking (p = 0.003) were associated with the J-YFAS 2.0-diagnosed FA presence. The scores demonstrated significant correlations with the J-YFAS 2.0-diagnosed FA symptom count (p < 0.01). The highest attained body mass index was associated with the J-YFAS 2.0-diagnosed FA symptom count (p = 0.026). The TFEQ R-18 cognitive restraint score was associated with the J-YFAS 2.0-diagnosed FA presence (p < 0.05) and symptom count (p < 0.001), but not with the J-YFAS 2.0-diagnosed FA severity. Like the YFAS 2.0 in other languages, the J-YFAS 2.0 has a one-factor structure and adequate convergent validity and reliability. Full article
Open AccessReview Potential Use of Mobile Phone Applications for Self-Monitoring and Increasing Daily Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Systematized Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030686
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
A wide range of chronic diseases could be prevented through healthy lifestyle choices, such as consuming five portions of fruits and vegetables daily, although the majority of the adult population does not meet this recommendation. The use of mobile phone applications for health [...] Read more.
A wide range of chronic diseases could be prevented through healthy lifestyle choices, such as consuming five portions of fruits and vegetables daily, although the majority of the adult population does not meet this recommendation. The use of mobile phone applications for health purposes has greatly increased; these applications guide users in real time through various phases of behavioural change. This review aimed to assess the potential of self-monitoring mobile phone health (mHealth) applications to increase fruit and vegetable intake. PubMed and Web of Science were used to conduct this systematized review, and the inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trials evaluating mobile phone applications focused on increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake as a primary or secondary outcome performed from 2008 to 2018. Eight studies were included in the final assessment. The interventions described in six of these studies were effective in increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake. Targeting stratified populations and using long-lasting interventions were identified as key aspects that could influence the effectiveness of these interventions. In conclusion, evidence shows the effectiveness of mHealth application interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Further research is needed to design effective interventions and to determine their efficacy over the long term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determinants of Undernutrition among Young Children Living in Soth Nikum District, Siem Reap, Cambodia
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030685
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: Child undernutrition is of public concern in Cambodia. An understanding of factors influencing child nutritional status is essential to design programs that will reduce undernutrition. Using the UNICEF conceptual framework of causes of malnutrition, our research investigates the relationship between nutritional status [...] Read more.
Background: Child undernutrition is of public concern in Cambodia. An understanding of factors influencing child nutritional status is essential to design programs that will reduce undernutrition. Using the UNICEF conceptual framework of causes of malnutrition, our research investigates the relationship between nutritional status of children aged 6–23 months and its immediate and underlying determinants. Methods: Baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the impact of the promotion of optimal feeding practices combined or not with the provision of local foods among 360 children 6–23 months of age were used. Anthropometry and biochemical measurements were performed at baseline. Data on each determinant of undernutrition were collected through interviews and direct observations. Results: Our results show that the degree of satisfaction of proteins and zinc requirements as well as the access to improved water sources and sanitation were positively associated with length-for-age, while having a better health status and a higher degree of satisfaction of energy, protein, zinc, and iron requirements were associated to an improved weight-for-length. Only child health status was associated to ferritin. Conclusion: Our results reiterate the importance of improving child diet and health status, but also the access to a healthy environment to ensure an optimal nutritional status. Full article
Open AccessReview The Golden Egg: Nutritional Value, Bioactivities, and Emerging Benefits for Human Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030684
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Egg is an encapsulated source of macro and micronutrients that meet all requirements to support embryonic development until hatching. The perfect balance and diversity in its nutrients along with its high digestibility and its affordable price has put the egg in the spotlight [...] Read more.
Egg is an encapsulated source of macro and micronutrients that meet all requirements to support embryonic development until hatching. The perfect balance and diversity in its nutrients along with its high digestibility and its affordable price has put the egg in the spotlight as a basic food for humans. However, egg still has to face many years of nutritionist recommendations aiming at restricting egg consumption to limit cardiovascular diseases incidence. Most experimental, clinical, and epidemiologic studies concluded that there was no evidence of a correlation between dietary cholesterol brought by eggs and an increase in plasma total-cholesterol. Egg remains a food product of high nutritional quality for adults including elderly people and children and is extensively consumed worldwide. In parallel, there is compelling evidence that egg also contains many and still-unexplored bioactive compounds, which may be of high interest in preventing/curing diseases. This review will give an overview of (1) the main nutritional characteristics of chicken egg, (2) emerging data related to egg bioactive compounds, and (3) some factors affecting egg composition including a comparison of nutritional value between eggs from various domestic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Modelling the Association between Core and Discretionary Energy Intake in Adults with and without Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030683
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: Many dietary recommendations for weight control rely on the assumption that greater core food intake will displace intake of energy-dense discretionary foods and beverages. However, there is little evidence to support these assumptions. This study examined the naturalistic relationship between daily core [...] Read more.
Background: Many dietary recommendations for weight control rely on the assumption that greater core food intake will displace intake of energy-dense discretionary foods and beverages. However, there is little evidence to support these assumptions. This study examined the naturalistic relationship between daily core and discretionary energy intake, and with discretionary food and discretionary beverage intake, separately. The impact of weight status on these associations was also examined. Method: One hundred participants completed a four-day (non-consecutive) estimated food diary. Discretionary foods and beverages were identified by reference to the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Non-discretionary items were considered core items. Simultaneous-equation random effects models using disaggregated dietary data controlling for sociodemographic variables were used to determine the association between various dietary components. Result: Core energy intake correlated negatively with discretionary energy intake (cross-equation correlation, ρ = −0.49 (95% CI: −0.57, −0.39)). Its correlation with discretionary foods (−0.47 (−0.56, −0.37)) was stronger than that with discretionary beverages (−0.19 (−0.30, −0.07)) The correlation between core energy intake and discretionary energy intake was significantly stronger in participants who did not have obesity (−0.67 (−0.71, −0.50)) than those with obesity (−0.32 (−0.46, −0.17)) (p = 0.0002). Conclusions: Core and discretionary energy intake share an inverse and potentially bidirectional, relationship that appears to be stronger with discretionary foods than discretionary beverages. These relationships were significantly weaker in participants with obesity which may indicate less precise dietary compensation in these individuals. While strategies that promote greater intake of core foods may assist with weight maintenance in individuals of healthy weight, its impact in individuals with obesity may be limited. These strategies should be accompanied by direct messages to reduce commensurately the intake of discretionary items, with special attention paid to discretionary beverage consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Biopsychosocial Model of Sex Differences in Children’s Eating Behaviors
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030682
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The prevalence of obesity and eating disorders varies by sex, but the extent to which sex influences eating behaviors, especially in childhood, has received less attention. The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the literature on sex differences in eating behavior [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity and eating disorders varies by sex, but the extent to which sex influences eating behaviors, especially in childhood, has received less attention. The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the literature on sex differences in eating behavior in children and present new findings supporting the role of sex in child appetitive traits and neural responses to food cues. In children, the literature shows sex differences in food acceptance, food intake, appetitive traits, eating-related compensation, and eating speed. New analyses demonstrate that sex interacts with child weight status to differentially influence appetitive traits. Further, results from neuroimaging suggest that obesity in female children is positively related to neural reactivity to higher-energy-dense food cues in regions involved with contextual processing and object recognition, while the opposite was found in males. In addition to differences in how the brain processes information about food, other factors that may contribute to sex differences include parental feeding practices, societal emphasis on dieting, and peer influences. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings, as they may have implications for the development of effective intervention programs to improve dietary behaviors and prevent obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taste, Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin A and Pregnancy: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030681
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Vitamin A is a crucial micronutrient for pregnant women and their fetuses. In addition to being essential for morphological and functional development and for ocular integrity, vitamin A exerts systemic effects on several fetal organs and on the fetal skeleton. Vitamin A requirements [...] Read more.
Vitamin A is a crucial micronutrient for pregnant women and their fetuses. In addition to being essential for morphological and functional development and for ocular integrity, vitamin A exerts systemic effects on several fetal organs and on the fetal skeleton. Vitamin A requirements during pregnancy are therefore greater. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. VAD in pregnant women is a public health issue in most developing countries. In contrast, in some developed countries, excessive vitamin A intake during pregnancy can be a concern since, when in excess, this micronutrient may exert teratogenic effects in the first 60 days following conception. Routine prenatal vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality is not recommended; however, in regions where VAD is a public health issue, vitamin A supplementation is recommended to prevent night blindness. Given the importance of this topic and the lack of a complete, up-to-date review on vitamin A and pregnancy, an extensive review of the literature was conducted to identify conflicting or incomplete data on the topic as well as any gaps in existing data. Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Billeaud et al. “Effects on Fatty Acid Metabolism of a New Powdered Human Milk Fortifier Containing Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preterm Infants” Nutrients 2018, 10, 690
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030680
Received: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The authors wish to make a correction to the published version of their paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle How Important are Cereals and Cereal Products in the Average Polish Diet?
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030679
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
The main aim of this study was to identify the food sources of energy and 28 nutrients from cereals and cereal products in the average Polish diet based on data from a nationally representative sample of the Polish population attending in 2016 Household [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was to identify the food sources of energy and 28 nutrients from cereals and cereal products in the average Polish diet based on data from a nationally representative sample of the Polish population attending in 2016 Household Budget Survey (i.e., 36,886 households). The contribution of energy and nutrients from cereals and cereal products were compared with reference values. The detailded analysis included five main groups and nine sub-groups of cereal food category. Our findings indicated that cereals and cereal products contributed 30.4% of total dietary energy supply, providing a significant percentage of six nutrients to the average Polish diet (i.e., 64.1% of manganese, 51% of carbohydrates, 48.5% of dietary fibre, 34.1% of iron, 33.6% of folate, and 31.3% of copper). Supply at the level of 20–30% was observed for protein, thiamin, phosphorus and zinc, and at 10–20% for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), sodium, potassium, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6. For other nutrients i.e., total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), cholesterol, iodine, vitamins: A, D, B12, and C, the share of cereals and cereal products contribution was below 10%. Cereals and cereal products were the major food category in meeting the reference values for the Polish population in case of manganese, carbohydrates (approximately 100%), and sodium (50%). The reference values was reached at the level of 30–40% for dietary fibre, protein, iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus and thiamin, and 20–30% for energy, magnesium, folate, niacin, riboflavin, vitamins B6 and E. For such nutrients as total fat, SFA, and potassium, the fulfillment of the reference values amounted to 10–20%. Our results document the importance of cereals and cereal products in the Polish diet, which should be emphasized from a nutritional and health point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Study for Lipolysis of Soybean Oil, Pomegranate Oil, and Their Blended and Interesterified Oils under a pH-Stat Model and a Simulated Model of Small Intestinal Digestion
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030678
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, two in vitro digestion models were employed to compare the rate of lipolysis in soybean oil (SBO), pomegranate oil (PGO), a physical blend (PHY, 1:1 molar ratio of SBO:PGO, w/w), and their enzymatically interesterified oil (IO). In [...] Read more.
In this study, two in vitro digestion models were employed to compare the rate of lipolysis in soybean oil (SBO), pomegranate oil (PGO), a physical blend (PHY, 1:1 molar ratio of SBO:PGO, w/w), and their enzymatically interesterified oil (IO). In the pH-stat digestion model (emulsified oils with bile salts), PGO emulsion containing 74.7% conjugated form of linolenic acid (CLn) showed a significantly lower release rate of free fatty acid (FFA) than the other oil emulsions (p < 0.05). In FFA release rates and oil droplet sizes between PHY and IO emulsions, no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). In a simulated model of small intestinal digestion, the lipolysis rates of SBO, PGO, PHY, and IO after digestion for 30 min in digestion fluids were 80.4%, 66.5%, 74.8%, and 77.0%, respectively. The rate of lipolysis in PGO was significantly lower than that in SBO (p < 0.05), and the lowest lipolysis rate was observed in the conjugated form of trilinolenoyl glycerol (CLn-CLn-CLn). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids and Human Health)
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