Next Article in Journal
Interesterified Fats Induce Deleterious Effects on Adipose Tissue and Liver in LDLr-KO Mice
Next Article in Special Issue
Gamma-oryzanol Prevents LPS-induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Adult Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Varying the Color, Aroma, Bitter, and Sweet Levels of a Grapefruit-Like Model Beverage on the Sensory Properties and Liking of the Consumer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sorting out the Value of Cruciferous Sprouts as Sources of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health
Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake Reflected by Adipose Tissue Alkylresorcinols and Breast Cancer: A Case-Cohort Study

1
Department of Molecular Sciences, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
3
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
4
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020465
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Food, Nutrition and Human Health)
Whole grain rye (WGR) and whole grain wheat (WGW) have been suggested to protect against the development of breast cancer. In this study, we estimated long-term intake of WGR and WGW, using both a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and alkylresorcinol concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies, in relation to the risk of developing invasive breast cancer in a case-cohort study (n = 414 in the case group, n = 933 in the subcohort group) on the Danish “Diet, Cancer and Health” cohort. The median follow-up time of the subcohort was 5.3 years. Total WGR and WGW intake estimated with FFQ or reflected by total alkylresorcinol concentration in adipose tissue was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. However, after adjustment for total WGR and WGW intake, women in the highest quartile of relative WGR intake, reflected by the alkylresorcinol C17:0/C21:0 ratio, had a higher risk of overall breast cancer and estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer than women in the lowest quartile of relative WGR intake, while the risk of estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer incidence was unaffected. Similar results were obtained with the FFQ data. Based on these data, further investigation of the role of specific grain types in reducing or increasing breast cancer risk, and their overall impact on health, is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; whole grain; rye; wheat; alkylresorcinol; adipose tissue breast cancer; whole grain; rye; wheat; alkylresorcinol; adipose tissue
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, H.; Kyrø, C.; Tjønneland, A.; Boll, K.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Landberg, R. Long-Term Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake Reflected by Adipose Tissue Alkylresorcinols and Breast Cancer: A Case-Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020465

AMA Style

Wu H, Kyrø C, Tjønneland A, Boll K, Olsen A, Overvad K, Landberg R. Long-Term Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake Reflected by Adipose Tissue Alkylresorcinols and Breast Cancer: A Case-Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020465

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Huaxing; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Boll, Katja; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Landberg, Rikard. 2019. "Long-Term Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake Reflected by Adipose Tissue Alkylresorcinols and Breast Cancer: A Case-Cohort Study" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020465

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop