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Gender Differences with Dose–Response Relationship between Serum Selenium Levels and Metabolic Syndrome—A Case-Control Study
Review

Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Weight and Body Composition in Healthy Non-Athlete Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, The Boden Institute of Obesity, The University of Sydney, Charles Perkins Centre, NSW 2006, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020478
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
Background: Ramadan involves one month of fasting from sunrise to sunset. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition. Methods: In May 2018, we searched six databases for publications that measured weight and body composition before and after Ramadan, and that did not attempt to influence physical activity or diet. Results: Data were collected from 70 publications (90 comparison groups, 2947 participants). There was a significant positive correlation between starting body mass index and weight lost during the fasting period. Consistently, there was a significant reduction in fat percentage between pre-Ramadan and post-Ramadan in people with overweight or obesity (−1.46 (95% confidence interval: −2.57 to −0.35) %, p = 0.010), but not in those of normal weight (−0.41 (−1.45 to 0.63) %, p = 0.436). Loss of fat-free mass was also significant between pre-Ramadan and post-Ramadan, but was about 30% less than loss of absolute fat mass. At 2–5 weeks after the end of Ramadan, there was a return towards, or to, pre-Ramadan measurements in weight and body composition. Conclusions: Even with no advice on lifestyle changes, there are consistent—albeit transient—reductions in weight and fat mass with the Ramadan fast, especially in people with overweight or obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ramadan; intermittent fasting; body weight; body composition Ramadan; intermittent fasting; body weight; body composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernando, H.A.; Zibellini, J.; Harris, R.A.; Seimon, R.V.; Sainsbury, A. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Weight and Body Composition in Healthy Non-Athlete Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 478. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020478

AMA Style

Fernando HA, Zibellini J, Harris RA, Seimon RV, Sainsbury A. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Weight and Body Composition in Healthy Non-Athlete Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):478. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernando, Hamish A., Jessica Zibellini, Rebecca A. Harris, Radhika V. Seimon, and Amanda Sainsbury. 2019. "Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Weight and Body Composition in Healthy Non-Athlete Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 478. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020478

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