Special Issue "Effects of Diet and Active Compounds on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Elena Grasselli Website E-Mail
DISTAV, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
Interests: NAFLD, thyroid hormones, lipid metabolism, dietary polyphenols
Guest Editor
Prof. Ilaria Demori Website E-Mail
DISTAV, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
Interests: NAFLD, dietary habits, gut microbiota, thyroid hormones

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) shows rising prevalence among individuals from different ages and incomes, especially in Western-lifestyle societies. This asymptomatic condition can progress to more severe pathologies, increasing the morbidity and mortality of individuals.

Many efforts have been made to find strategies to decrease fat accumulation in the liver and, ultimately, in the whole body. In the last decades, a growing body of evidence documented that changes in lifestyle are the most effective, especially as regards nutritional habits.

At least two hallmarks contribute to the success of dietary interventions: First, a reduction in calorie intake; second, an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, which leads to enhanced intake of phytonutrients able to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to provide new insights into the effectiveness of diet regimens and specific dietary compounds to prevent and/or cure NAFLD.

Prof. Elena Grasselli
Prof. Ilaria Demori
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Nutritional habits
  • Polyphenols
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Antisteatotic active compounds
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics
  • Antioxidants
  • Anti-inflammatory activities

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Pterostilbene Reduces Liver Steatosis and Modifies Hepatic Fatty Acid Profile in Obese Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050961 - 26 Apr 2019
Abstract
Excessive fat accumulation within the liver is known as “simple hepatic steatosis”, which is the most benign form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to determine whether pterostilbene improves this hepatic alteration in Zucker (fa [...] Read more.
Excessive fat accumulation within the liver is known as “simple hepatic steatosis”, which is the most benign form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to determine whether pterostilbene improves this hepatic alteration in Zucker (fa/fa) rats. Animals were distributed in two experimental groups (n = 10) and fed a standard laboratory diet. Rats in the pterostilbene group were given a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight/d for six weeks. After sacrifice, serum glucose, transaminase, and insulin concentrations were quantified and the liver triacylglycerol content and fatty acid profile was analyzed. Different pathways of triacylglycerol metabolism in liver were studied, including fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, triglyceride assembly, fatty acid uptake, and glucose uptake. With pterostilbene administration, a reduction in insulin concentrations (consequently in the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) and hepatic triacylglycerol content were observed. No effects were observed in pterostilbene-treated rats in the activity of de novo lipogenesis enzymes. An improvement in the fatty acid profile was observed in pterostilbene-treated rats. In conclusion, pterostilbene is a useful molecule to reduce liver steatosis. Its delipidating effect is due, at least in part, to reduced fatty acid availability and triacylglycerol synthesis, as well as to an increased very low-density lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eucommia ulmoides Leaf Extract Ameliorates Steatosis Induced by High-fat Diet in Rats by Increasing Lysosomal Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020426 - 18 Feb 2019
Abstract
The recent discovery that the impairment of autophagic flux in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be a strong determining factor in steatosis suggests the potential of therapeutic control of autophagic flux with natural agents in restoring NAFLD. We investigated the potential of [...] Read more.
The recent discovery that the impairment of autophagic flux in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be a strong determining factor in steatosis suggests the potential of therapeutic control of autophagic flux with natural agents in restoring NAFLD. We investigated the potential of Eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (EUL) to control dyslipidemia in NAFLD. EUL supplementation (200 mg/kg) promoted recovery from high fat diet (HFD)-induced lipid dysmetabolism. This hepatoprotective efficacy was accompanied by suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, enhancing lysosomal functions, and thereby increasing autophagic flux. We found a strong indication that inhibition of the mTOR-ER stress pathway was related to the enhanced autophagic flux. However, the direct antioxidative effect of EUL on cytoprotection cannot be ruled out as a significant contributing factor in NAFLD. Our findings will aid in further elucidating the mechanism of the anti-steatosis activity of EUL and highlight the therapeutic potential of EUL in the treatment of NAFLD. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Relevance of Toxic AGEs (TAGE) Cytotoxicity to NASH Pathogenesis: A Mini-Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020462 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common feature of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD, and one of its risk factors is hyperglycemia. The chronic ingestion of excessive amounts of high-fructose corn syrup is [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common feature of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD, and one of its risk factors is hyperglycemia. The chronic ingestion of excessive amounts of high-fructose corn syrup is associated with an increased prevalence of fatty liver. Under hyperglycemic conditions, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are generated through a non-enzymatic glycation reaction between the ketone or aldehyde groups of sugars and amino groups of proteins. Glyceraldehyde (GA) is a metabolic intermediate of sugars, and GA-derived AGEs (known as toxic AGEs (TAGE)) have been implicated in the development of NASH. TAGE accumulates more in serum or liver tissue in NASH patients than in healthy controls or patients with simple steatosis. Furthermore, the TAGE precursor, GA, causes cell damage through protein dysfunctions by TAGE modifications and induces necrotic-type hepatocyte death. Intracellular TAGE may leak outside of necrotic-type cells. Extracellular TAGE then induce inflammatory or fibrotic responses related to the pathology of NASH in surrounding cells, including hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. This review focuses on the contribution of TAGE to the pathology of NASH, particularly hepatic cell death related to NASH. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Name: Prof. J.A. Martínez
Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
Topic: a randomized control trial with two different dietary strategies implemented in NAFLD patients in order to assess the impact on metabolical and other endogenous factors after 6-months of nutritional intervention

Name: Prof. Livia Pisciotta
Affiliation: Operative Unit of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Policlinic Hospital San Martino, University of Genoa Italy
Title: Influence of LIPA gene polymorphism on lipid profile in a cohort of dyslipidemic patients and effect of mediterranean diet

Name: Prof. Edoardo G. Giannini
Affiliation: Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Policlinico San Martino-IRCCS per l'Oncologia, Genoa, Italy
Topic: Mediterranean Diet and NAFLD

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