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Sustainability, Volume 14, Issue 15 (August-1 2022) – 828 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Urbanization, in the absence of equity and inclusion, creates conditions that present a high dependence on “hard infrastructure” and an erosion of “ecological infrastructure”, which would otherwise support resilience in rural communities. These conditions are evident in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) in south Texas among the communities living in colonias. This study identifies and analyzes policy, as well as economic, cultural, and social tools that can be leveraged to foster resilience in the region. The findings show that the RGV is a place where policy efforts, institutional designs, and cultural wealth can be leveraged to improve community resilience, but current implementation does not go beyond supporting business-as-usual outcomes. View this paper
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40 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Sustainable Manufacturing Solutions: Tools for Enabling Circular Economy
by Athar Ajaz Khan and János Abonyi
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9796; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159796 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3749
Abstract
At the current worrisome rate of global consumption, the linear economy model of producing goods, using them, and then disposing of them with no thought of the environmental, social, or economic consequences, is unsustainable and points to a deeply flawed manufacturing framework. Circular [...] Read more.
At the current worrisome rate of global consumption, the linear economy model of producing goods, using them, and then disposing of them with no thought of the environmental, social, or economic consequences, is unsustainable and points to a deeply flawed manufacturing framework. Circular economy (CE) is presented as an alternative framework to address the management of emissions, scarcity of resources, and economic sustainability such that the resources are kept ‘in the loop’. In the context of manufacturing supply chains (SCs), the 6R’s of rethink, refuse, reduce, reuse, repair, and recycle have been proposed in line with the achievement of targeted net-zero emissions. In order to bring that about, the required changes in the framework for assessing the state of manufacturing SCs with regard to sustainability are indispensable. Verifiable and empirical model-based approaches such as modeling and simulation (M&S) techniques find pronounced use in realizing the ideal of CE. The simulation models find extensive use across various aspects of SCs, including analysis of the impacts, and support for optimal re-design and operation. Using the PRISMA framework to sift through published research, as gathered from SCOPUS, this review is based on 202 research papers spanning from 2015 to the present. This review provides an overview of the simulation tools being put to use in the context of sustainability in the manufacturing SCs, such that various aspects and contours of the collected research articles spanning from 2015 to the present, are highlighted. This article focuses on the three major simulation techniques in the literature, namely, Discrete Event Simulation (DES), Agent-Based Simulation (ABS), and System Dynamics (SD). With regards to their application in manufacturing SCs, each modeling technique has its pros and its cons which are evinced in case of data requirement, model magnification, model resolution, and environment interaction, among others. These limitations are remedied through use of hybrids wherein two or more than two modeling techniques are applied for the desired results. The article also indicates various open-source software solutions that are being employed in research and the industry. This article, in essence, has three objectives. First to present to the prospective researchers, the current state of research, the concerns that have been presented in the field of sustainability modeling, and how they have been resolved. Secondly, it serves as a comprehensive bibliography of peer-reviewed research published from 2015–2022 and, finally, indicating the limitations of the techniques with regards to sustainability assessment. The article also indicates the necessity of a new M&S framework and its prerequisites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy for Sustainable Development)
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14 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Determinants and Value Relevance of Voluntary Assurance of Sustainability Reports in a Mandatory Reporting Context: Evidence from Europe
by Heidi Vander Bauwhede and Philippe Van Cauwenberge
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159795 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3421
Abstract
This paper investigates the determinants of sustainability report (SR) assurance and whether this assurance is value relevant within the context of the European Union (EU), where, under the Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD), sustainability reporting is mandatory for large public interest entities (PIE) as [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the determinants of sustainability report (SR) assurance and whether this assurance is value relevant within the context of the European Union (EU), where, under the Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD), sustainability reporting is mandatory for large public interest entities (PIE) as of fiscal year 2017. Using a sample of 1832 firm-year observations from 660 European listed companies over the period 2017–2020, the results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that firm size, environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance and industry affiliation are important drivers of the demand for SR assurance. The value relevance regressions suggest that SR assurance is positively associated with the stock market value. The study contributes to the existing knowledge on SR assurance by documenting its determinants and value relevance in a context where sustainability reporting is mandatory and that is predominantly stakeholder-oriented. The results may be of interest to companies that consider to adopt SR assurance in such a context and to the European Commission (EC), which has included a mandatory SR assurance requirement in the proposed Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD), the successor to the NFRD. Full article
26 pages, 4132 KiB  
Article
Combination Weighting Integrated with TOPSIS for Landscape Performance Evaluation: A Case Study of Microlandscape from Rural Areas in Southeast China
by Lan Shen, Yikang Zhang, Minfeng Yao and Siren Lan
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9794; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159794 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the landscape performance of rural microlandscapes in highly urbanized areas and propose optimization strategies based on the evaluation results. As a sustainable promotion mode, microlandscapes can effectively improve the damage caused by the development of rugged urbanization to [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the landscape performance of rural microlandscapes in highly urbanized areas and propose optimization strategies based on the evaluation results. As a sustainable promotion mode, microlandscapes can effectively improve the damage caused by the development of rugged urbanization to the living environment. To improve the rural living environment, some achievements have been made in the construction of microlandscapes in the highly urbanized rural areas of southeast coastal areas, represented by Fujian Province, but there are still problems such as low utilization rate and difficult maintenance. As a qualitative and quantitative weighting method, the combination weighting method is widely used in the construction of evaluation models of safety engineering, environmental management, and other disciplines. This study constructed a landscape performance evaluation system based on the American landscape performance series and combined it with performance evaluation methods in other related fields to establish a landscape performance evaluation system suitable for rural microlandscapes in highly urbanized areas. Taking social benefits as an example, five main factors affecting social benefits are highlighted: comfort and health; safety and accessibility; sociability and service; aesthetics and education; and culture and inheritance. Each factor contains different sub-criteria to identify specific problems. Field observation, questionnaire survey, and interview records of 25 microlandscape projects in Yinglin Town, Jinjiang City were conducted. The combination weight calculation based on the AHP-entropy weight method and the comprehensive benefit ranking calculation based on the TOPSIS method is carried out. It was found that stress relief and the number of visitors were the main factors affecting the social benefits of microlandscape performance, and the top-ranked projects also had such characteristics. The seasonal phase and color richness had the least effect on social benefits. Therefore, the microlandscape should improve the healing effect of the project on users as much as possible in the design stage, so that users can better relax through the microlandscape. In addition, strategies such as space selection and path optimization should be adopted to improve the utilization rate of the microlandscape as much as possible, and the fairness of the use of vulnerable groups should be fully considered. Full article
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30 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Internalizing Sustainability into Research Practices of Higher Education Institutions: Case of a Research University in Taiwan
by Mehtab Alam and Fu-Ren Lin
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9793; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159793 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The research and innovation activities at higher education institutions (HEIs) are considered essential in driving forward sustainability in order to facilitate future decision-making. However, a systematic approach regarding sustainability research through administrative efforts is still lacking in HEIs worldwide. Therefore, this manuscript aimed [...] Read more.
The research and innovation activities at higher education institutions (HEIs) are considered essential in driving forward sustainability in order to facilitate future decision-making. However, a systematic approach regarding sustainability research through administrative efforts is still lacking in HEIs worldwide. Therefore, this manuscript aimed to explore contradictions embedded in the activity systems that hamper the internalization of sustainability research in HEIs. The current study conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty members at a leading research university in Taiwan. The lens of activity theory was used to explore and analyze tensions rooted in the activity systems involved in research and innovation. We found that resources to undertake sustainability-related research have not been allocated in a desirable manner. Moreover, the stakeholders are lacking agency, motivation, and perceived urgency to play their roles in supporting sustainability-related research through their practices. The propositions concluded from this study would help the involved actors to reconfigure their activity systems to make a contribution toward sustainability. This study also serves as a fundamental step towards conducting future empirical studies in contextual theory building directed at co-creating value through sustainability-related research and innovation practices. Full article
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15 pages, 2784 KiB  
Article
Flood Susceptibility Assessment in Arid Areas: A Case Study of Qatar
by Mohammad Zaher Serdar, Salah Basem Ajjur and Sami G. Al-Ghamdi
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9792; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159792 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Over the past decade, the adverse impacts of climate change and excessive urbanization have contributed to several unfamiliar and costly floods in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), especially in Qatar. With limited historical rainfall records and unprecedented precipitation intensities impacting the efficiency of [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, the adverse impacts of climate change and excessive urbanization have contributed to several unfamiliar and costly floods in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), especially in Qatar. With limited historical rainfall records and unprecedented precipitation intensities impacting the efficiency of hydrological models, the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) presents a suitable alternative approach to assess and identify flood-susceptible areas. In this study, we applied MCDA to several factors that contribute to flood susceptibility, namely: elevation, slope, groundwater depth, distance to a drainage system, and land use. These criteria were assigned different weights based on their contribution and previous literature and later underwent a sensitivity analysis. The study’s results correlate well with recent flooding events, proving the method’s efficiency in identifying hotspots. This study is expected to provide a rapid tool to support the decision-making process for future urban expansion, sustainable development, and resilience planning in Qatar. Full article
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18 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Sequential Pattern Mining Approach for Personalized Fraudulent Transaction Detection in Online Banking
by Junghee Kim, Haemin Jung and Wooju Kim
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9791; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159791 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2518
Abstract
Financial institutions face challenges of fraud due to an increased number of online transactions and sophisticated fraud techniques. Although fraud detection systems have been implemented to detect fraudulent transactions in online banking, many systems just use conventional rule-based approaches. Rule-based detection systems have [...] Read more.
Financial institutions face challenges of fraud due to an increased number of online transactions and sophisticated fraud techniques. Although fraud detection systems have been implemented to detect fraudulent transactions in online banking, many systems just use conventional rule-based approaches. Rule-based detection systems have a difficulty in updating and managing their rules and conditions manually. Additionally, generated from the few fraud cases, the rules are general rather than specific to each user. In this paper, we propose a personalized alarm model to detect frauds in online banking transactions using sequence pattern mining on each user’s normal transaction log. We assumed that a personalized fraud detection model is more effective in responding to the rapid increase in online banking users and diversified fraud patterns. Moreover, we focused on the fact that fraudulent transactions are very different from each user’s usual transactions. Our proposed model divides each user’s log into transactions, extracts a set of sequence patterns, and uses it to determine whether a new incoming transaction is fraudulent. The incoming transaction is divided into multiple windows, and if the normal patterns are not found in the consecutive windows, an alarm is sounded. We applied the model to a real-world dataset and showed that our model outperforms the rule-based model and the Markov chain model. Although more experiments on additional datasets are needed, our personalized alarm model can be applied to real-world systems. Full article
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18 pages, 4488 KiB  
Article
Integrated Optimization of Order Allocation and Last-Mile Multi-Temperature Joint Distribution for Fresh Agriproduct Community Retail
by Yajun Zhan and Yiping Jiang
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9790; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159790 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Community retail is an important research issue in the field of fresh agriproduct e-commerce. This paper focuses on the problem of last-mile multi-temperature joint distribution (MTJD), which combines time coupling, order allocation, and vehicle scheduling. Firstly, according to the temperature of a refrigerated [...] Read more.
Community retail is an important research issue in the field of fresh agriproduct e-commerce. This paper focuses on the problem of last-mile multi-temperature joint distribution (MTJD), which combines time coupling, order allocation, and vehicle scheduling. Firstly, according to the temperature of a refrigerated truck in multi-temperature zones, a split-order packing decision is proposed to integrate the different types of fresh agriproduct. Then, the order allocation strategy is incorporated into a comprehensive picking and distribution schedule, while taking into account the time-coupling of picking, distribution, and delivery time limit. To improve consumer satisfaction and reduce order fulfillment costs, an optimization model combining multi-item order allocation and vehicle scheduling is established, to determine the optimal order allocation scheme and distribution route. Finally, taking fresh agriproduct community retail in the Gulou District of Nanjing as an example, the effectiveness and feasibility of the model are illustrated. The numerical results of medium- to large-scale examples show that, compared with the variable neighborhood search algorithm (VNS) and genetic algorithm (GA), the mixed genetic algorithm (MGA) can save 29% of CPU time and 65% of iterations. This study considers the integrated optimization of multiple links, to provide scientific decision support for fresh agriproduct e-commerce enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Innovation in Logistics and Supply Chain Management)
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22 pages, 3129 KiB  
Article
The Illustrative Understanding on the Informal Sector and Its Influence in Firm Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Evidence from Cameroon
by Nguepi Tsafack Elvis, Hua Cheng and Buregeya Ingabire Providence
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9789; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159789 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
As globalization continues, textiles and clothing firms have many opportunities around the world. Using survey data, we evaluate the determinativeness of the informal sector and its impact on firm productivity by applying the Hicks–Moorsteen index and Data Employment Analysis (DEA) methods. Specifically, this [...] Read more.
As globalization continues, textiles and clothing firms have many opportunities around the world. Using survey data, we evaluate the determinativeness of the informal sector and its impact on firm productivity by applying the Hicks–Moorsteen index and Data Employment Analysis (DEA) methods. Specifically, this study estimates factors driving total factor productivity (TFP) and its constituents for Cameroon’s companies from 2005 to 2014. As a result, the input levels of informal textile companies are the significant drivers of TFP with a mean in productivity of 47.06% for textile and 56.69% for clothing (I). Regarding formal textile companies, technical efficiency and technological progress fluctuate throughout the period of study (II). Firm size, technology adoption and primary resources (raw material) are important stages of a firm’s decision to innovate (III). Therefore, employing this approach could be reliable in analyzing firm productivity in other SSA countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic and Social Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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22 pages, 2351 KiB  
Article
Strengthening a Regional Green Infrastructure through Improved Multifunctionality and Connectedness: Policy Suggestions from Sardinia, Italy
by Federica Isola, Sabrina Lai, Federica Leone and Corrado Zoppi
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9788; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159788 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
A wide body of research in recent years has studied either green infrastructures as providers of multiple ecosystem services, especially at the urban level, or ecological corridors and the issue of connectivity between landscape patches in the face of growing fragmentation. However, not [...] Read more.
A wide body of research in recent years has studied either green infrastructures as providers of multiple ecosystem services, especially at the urban level, or ecological corridors and the issue of connectivity between landscape patches in the face of growing fragmentation. However, not many studies have analyzed how the two concepts can be combined to ground evidence-based policy and planning recommendations. In this study, a methodological approach for such a combination is proposed: after mapping a regional green infrastructure building upon the assessment of multiple ecosystem services and a network of ecological corridors through the resistance to movement of species, the two spatial layouts are combined so as to analyze correlations between the potential provision of ecosystem services and the resistance to movement. The methodology is applied in the case of the island of Sardinia, whose self-containment makes it possible to discard potential effects from surrounding areas, hence facilitating the implementation of the model. The outcomes of the regression model point out three ecosystem services as the most important factors that should be targeted by appropriate spatial policies if connectivity is to be increased: regulation of micro and local climate, forestry productivity, and cultural identity and heritage values. Full article
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24 pages, 17472 KiB  
Article
Optimization Method of Temperature Measuring Point Layout for Steel-Concrete Composite Bridge Based on TLS-IPDP
by Jun Zhang, Da Wang, Shengtao Xiang, Yang Liu, Benkun Tan and Donghuang Yan
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9787; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159787 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1342
Abstract
An optimization method of temperature measurement point layout for steel-concrete composite bridges based on the total least squares improved piecewise Douglas–Peucker (TLS-IPDP) algorithm was proposed to solve the problem that the traditional temperature measurement data cannot reflect the actual temperature gradient (TG) due [...] Read more.
An optimization method of temperature measurement point layout for steel-concrete composite bridges based on the total least squares improved piecewise Douglas–Peucker (TLS-IPDP) algorithm was proposed to solve the problem that the traditional temperature measurement data cannot reflect the actual temperature gradient (TG) due to the position of measurement points on different paths is not reasonable. The characteristic curves of TG for the most unfavorable period and annual period are extracted from the finite element model. The rationality of the proposed method is illustrated by two typical steel-concrete composite beams with steel plates and steel boxes. By improving the classical Douglas–Peucker (DP) algorithm, the TLS-IPDP algorithm proposed in this paper has a better approximation effect on the original data. Compared with the traditional temperature measuring point arrangement method, the TLS-IPDP algorithm optimized arrangement in this paper realized the measuring point arrangement with different variable spacing under different paths; the temperature gradient curve obtained was closer to the real temperature distribution, and had higher accuracy in the region with a large gradient. In addition, the proposed method has the function of manually specifying the location of feature points and reserving the required number. The optimized arrangement of measuring points can meet the requirements of measuring points number and measurement accuracy. The method presented in this paper can provide a useful reference for temperature data acquisition and sensor layout for health monitoring of steel-composite bridges. Full article
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18 pages, 1719 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Financing and Financial Risk Management of Financial Institutions—Case Study on Chinese Banks
by Hao Liu and Weilun Huang
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9786; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159786 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4097
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between sustainable financing and financial risk management of Chinese financial institutions, using data from Chinese banks. Financial risk management is a comprehensive measure of operating performance, asset quality and capital adequacy ratio. The structural vector auto-regression model determines [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between sustainable financing and financial risk management of Chinese financial institutions, using data from Chinese banks. Financial risk management is a comprehensive measure of operating performance, asset quality and capital adequacy ratio. The structural vector auto-regression model determines the relationship between two variables. The positive shock of sustainable financing business negatively impacts the financial risk management of banks. In contrast, positive shock of banks’ financial risk management positively affects sustainable financing. Further subdivision of the sample revealed that sustainable financing does not always negatively impact the financial risk management of large state-owned banks. However, the positive shock of financial risk management reduces urban banks’ green credit proportions. The results are consistent whenever compared between the empirical outcome of the entire sample and the sample consisting of national joint stock bank accounts. This comparison helps eliminate the possibility of a biased outcome as a major portion of the sample is from a national joint-stock bank account. Apart from data limitations, the results of the sub-sample test are influenced due to the difference in deposit and loan interest rates, as well as different ownership structures of banks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Finance and Value Creation)
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23 pages, 2511 KiB  
Article
MSSA-DEED: A Multi-Objective Salp Swarm Algorithm for Solving Dynamic Economic Emission Dispatch Problems
by Mohamed H. Hassan, Salah Kamel, José Luís Domínguez-García and Mohamed F. El-Naggar
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9785; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159785 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Due to the rising cost of fuel, increased demand for energy, and the stresses of environmental issues, dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED), which is the most precise mode for actual dispatching conditions, has been a significant study topic in current years. In this [...] Read more.
Due to the rising cost of fuel, increased demand for energy, and the stresses of environmental issues, dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED), which is the most precise mode for actual dispatching conditions, has been a significant study topic in current years. In this article, the higher dimensional, deeply correlated, non-convex, and non-linear multi-objective DEED problem is designated, involving both the fuel costs and emissions objectives simultaneously. In addition, the valve point effect, transmission loss, as well as the ramping rate, are considered. The Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) is a well-established meta-heuristic that was inspired by the foraging behavior of salps in deep oceans and has proved to be beneficial in estimating the global optima for many optimization problems. The objective of this article is to evaluate the performance of the multi-objective Salp Swarm Algorithm (MSSA) for obtaining the optimal dispatching schemes. Furthermore, the fuzzy decision-making (FDM) approach is employed to achieve the best compromise solution (BCS). In order to confirm the efficacy of the MSSA, the IEEE 30-bus six-unit power system, standard 39-bus ten-unit New England power system, and IEEE 118-bus fourteen-unit power system were considered as three studied cases. The obtained results proved the strength and supremacy of the MSSA compared with two well-known algorithms, the multi-objective grasshopper optimization algorithm (MOGOA) and the multi-objective ant lion optimizer (MALO), and other reported methods. The BCS of the proposed MSSA for the six-unit power system was USD 25,727.57 and 5.94564 Ib, while the BCS was 2.520778 × USD 106 and 3.05994 × 105 lb for the ten-unit power system, and was 1.29200 × USD106 and 98.1415 Ib for the 14 generating units. Comparisons with the other well-known methods revealed the superiority of the proposed MSSA and confirmed its potential for solving other power systems’ multi-objective optimization problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence Applications in Power and Energy Systems)
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22 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Does ISO 14001 and Green Servitization Provide a Push Factor for Sustainable Performance? A Study of Manufacturing Firms
by Idris Oyewale Oyelakin and Satirenjit Kaur Johl
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9784; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159784 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
This study contributes to the development of a green servitization framework to achieve manufacturing firms’ sustainable performance using ISO 14001 as a driving factor in their operational management system. Manufacturing firms are becoming concerned due to the associated problem of physical flow of [...] Read more.
This study contributes to the development of a green servitization framework to achieve manufacturing firms’ sustainable performance using ISO 14001 as a driving factor in their operational management system. Manufacturing firms are becoming concerned due to the associated problem of physical flow of materials and energy through the ecosystem, which can hinder resource sustainability for future generations as a result of the enormous waste and emission of carbon produced by their operations. This is possible due to a lack of implementation of ISO 14001 in the production process, leading to a waste of resources and negative environmental effects on people and the planet, which requires an urgent green solution. Therefore, the present study investigated the adoption and implementation of ISO 14001 as a catalyst of a green initiative towards achieving sustainable performance. After a review of studies in operational and environmental management, a quantitative methodology was adopted in three research design phases that included identifying dimensions for survey measurement instruments, survey validation, a pilot study, as well as data analysis to investigate the mediating effect of ISO 14001 on the relationship between green servitization and sustainable performance. The results show a significant and positive mediation effect of ISO 14001 on the interaction between green servitization and sustainable performance. In conclusion, these findings will enhance the operation and performance of the environmental management system required for the manufacturing firm and improve the practice of green service toward sustainable performance. Full article
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11 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Communication; Perceived Motivation and Nature of the Commitment
by Banu Dincer and Caner Dincer
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159783 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the overlap between sustainable communication and business, as well as its impact on the consumer’s perception and the nature of the motivation. We attempted to create a synthesis of prior research based on a literature [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to examine the overlap between sustainable communication and business, as well as its impact on the consumer’s perception and the nature of the motivation. We attempted to create a synthesis of prior research based on a literature review to understand how consumers comprehend corporate sustainability communications. The selection of the articles and related works is based on the presence of the keywords in the Science Direct database. The results provided us with 15 results for the research papers with “sustainable communication” in the title and 46 results with the keyword “sustainable communication” in the title, abstract or author-specified keywords since the year 2000. We synthesized these works and major works in the field according to our model, based on the attribution theory frame. We have emphasized the effect of sustainable communication fit with the company on the consumer’s perception of internal motivation by mobilizing the attribution and congruence theories, while highlighting the importance of the company’s perceived effort and the moderating role of other situational variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
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30 pages, 7025 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale Automated Additive Construction: Overview, Robotic Solutions, Sustainability, and Future Prospect
by Mohammad Reza Khosravani and Azadeh Haghighi
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159782 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3689
Abstract
Additive manufacturing has drawn significant attention in both academia and industry due to its capabilities and promising potential in various sectors. However, the adoption of this technology in large-scale construction is still limited due to the numerous existing challenges. In this work, a [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing has drawn significant attention in both academia and industry due to its capabilities and promising potential in various sectors. However, the adoption of this technology in large-scale construction is still limited due to the numerous existing challenges. In this work, a comprehensive review of large-scale automated additive construction, its challenges, and emerging advances with a focus on robotic solutions and environmental sustainability is presented. The potential interrelations of the two topics are also discussed. A new classification scheme of available and emerging robotic solutions in automated additive construction is presented. Moreover, the vision of environmental sustainability is explored through three lenses: process, material, and printed large-scale structures/buildings. Finally, the current challenges and potential future directions are highlighted. The provided state of the art and challenges can be used as a guideline for future research on large-scale automated additive construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Additive Manufacturing and 3D-Printed Parts)
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23 pages, 17556 KiB  
Article
Impact of Transformer Topology on Short-Circuit Analysis in Distribution Systems with Inverter-Based Distributed Generations
by Namhun Cho, Myungseok Yoon and Sungyun Choi
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9781; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159781 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Distributed energy resources (DERs), recently introduced into distribution systems, are mainly inverter-based distributed generations (IBDGs), which have different short-circuit behaviors from conventional synchronous-based distributed generations (SBDGs). Hence, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the short-circuit behaviors of distribution systems with IBDGs, based [...] Read more.
Distributed energy resources (DERs), recently introduced into distribution systems, are mainly inverter-based distributed generations (IBDGs), which have different short-circuit behaviors from conventional synchronous-based distributed generations (SBDGs). Hence, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the short-circuit behaviors of distribution systems with IBDGs, based on sequence networks and superposition, from the perspectives of interconnected transformers, and observes the flow of zero-sequence fault currents with different transformer topologies. Moreover, two- and three-winding transformers with various bank connection types and groundings are investigated. It was concluded that the transformer topology and its grounding influence the fault current contribution in zero-sequence networks, and the high penetration of IBDGs alters the fault current magnitude and phase angles. Full article
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24 pages, 6108 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Performance Analysis for High-Rise Building Using ArchiCAD: Initiatives towards Energy-Efficient Building
by Siti Birkha Mohd Ali, Amirhossein Mehdipoor, Noora Samsina Johari, Md. Hasanuzzaman and Nasrudin Abd Rahim
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9780; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159780 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
An energy-efficient building is not built in a day. It requires effective processes, approaches, and tools, as well as high commitment from all the involved parties. A similar requirement is needed for effective retrofitting practice. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is one of the [...] Read more.
An energy-efficient building is not built in a day. It requires effective processes, approaches, and tools, as well as high commitment from all the involved parties. A similar requirement is needed for effective retrofitting practice. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is one of the sensible processes in ensuring either the new building development or retrofitting initiatives arrive at its ultimate objectives, i.e., reduction in energy consumption, energy cost, and removal of harmful emissions. Many studies had proved that a window is one of the building elements that could contribute to establishing an energy-efficient building. Therefore, a 25-floor Wisma R&D, University of Malaya building was modeled using ArchiCAD to analyse the influences of window glazing, opaque materials, and shading elements on overall building energy performances. The accuracy of the model and simulation outcome was initially compared with the energy audit result conducted from March to May 2017. Consequently, this study revealed that the effective combinations of the window parameters had assisted in improving the infiltration rate and heat transfer coefficient which allowed a lower cooling load within 3% to 6%, respectively. After most, minimum savings of 18,133.9 kWh, RM 6618.88, and 1265.16 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) were gained through a reduction of cooling load in Wisma R&D based on the window system improvement. This article aims to promote the capability of ArchiCAD as a practical tool for effective retrofitting decision-making. Ultimately, this study revealed the importance of a multivariate framework in building energy conservation and provide an insight into the improvement of the Malaysia Standard MS1525:2019, mainly for high-rise buildings in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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15 pages, 1839 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Development Goals: A Regional Overview Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
by Idiano D’Adamo and Massimo Gastaldi
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9779; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159779 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have the ambitious goal of protecting the planet, eradicating poverty and providing peace and prosperity for all citizens. The challenge is certainly very ambitious and it is necessary to monitor progress toward these SDGs over time. This work [...] Read more.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have the ambitious goal of protecting the planet, eradicating poverty and providing peace and prosperity for all citizens. The challenge is certainly very ambitious and it is necessary to monitor progress toward these SDGs over time. This work is based on the multi-criteria decision analysis and aims to build a framework that can be replicated. A necessary condition for this aim is that the data are available and that they are as recent as possible. This work is based on 28 targets with data mainly from 2019 to 2020 and related to Italian regions. The results show that Trentino Alto Adige and Valle d’Aosta have the best performance and, in general, the northern territory has several realities that perform positively toward the SDGs. Important results are also present at the level of central Italy (in particular Marche and Toscana), while at the southern level the situation is not flourishing, with the sole exception of Abruzzo. The policy implications thus drive the need for targeted green investments for southern regions, projects that nationally promote the “green, bio and circular Made in Italy” brand that can enhance territorial distinctiveness, and the necessary collaboration among regions to be poles of excellence based on available resources and skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects and Challenges of Bioeconomy Sustainability Assessment)
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20 pages, 1326 KiB  
Article
Designing the Tourist Journey for the Advancement of Sustainable Tourist Practices
by Garyfallos Fragidis, Kyriakos Riskos and Iordanis Kotzaivazoglou
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9778; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159778 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2550
Abstract
Sustainable tourism has become a key priority in the strategic plans for tourism development in order to attain sociocultural development and environmental preservation. This paper examines opportunities for the advancement of sustainable tourism by encouraging tourists to consider sustainability and to include sustainable [...] Read more.
Sustainable tourism has become a key priority in the strategic plans for tourism development in order to attain sociocultural development and environmental preservation. This paper examines opportunities for the advancement of sustainable tourism by encouraging tourists to consider sustainability and to include sustainable options in their tourist practices. The paper adopts a practice-based approach for the understanding of tourist behavior as a series of practices tourists perform for the development of valuable experiences, usually with the support of services offered by tourist organizations and service providers. Sustainability is an option for tourists that needs to be offered, promoted, and supported when they decide on their practices and the way they will perform them. Hence, sustainability is an option that needs to be designed so that tourists are enabled and motivated to adopt sustainable tourist practices. The paper proposes the sustainable tourist journey as an approach for the analysis and design of sustainable tourist practices that is based on the holistic scope of the consumer journey. The paper contributes to the advancement of sustainable tourism by introducing and improving the understanding of sustainability concerns in tourist practices. The paper discusses also how digital technologies can support the design of sustainable tourist practices. Full article
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20 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Prediction of the Coupling and Coordinated Development of Green Finance–Environmental Protection in China
by Shanshan Li, Gaoweijia Wang, Li Yang, Jichao Geng and Junqi Zhu
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159777 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Green finance is an important tool to help China accelerate the process of environmental protection, but the level of coupling and coordinated development between it and environmental protection has not yet been explored. This study measures the coupling and coordinated level of the [...] Read more.
Green finance is an important tool to help China accelerate the process of environmental protection, but the level of coupling and coordinated development between it and environmental protection has not yet been explored. This study measures the coupling and coordinated level of the green finance–environmental protection system (GE system) in 30 Chinese provinces from 2011 to 2020 and uses the improved GM (1,1) model based on background value optimization to predict the future development trend of the coupling and coordinated level of the green finance–environmental protection system. The results show that: (1) the national average coupling and coordinated level of the green finance–environmental protection system has been in mild disharmony from 2011 to 2020 all the time, and only Guangdong Province and Zhejiang Province among them have reached the coordination level. (2) The coupling and coordinated level of the green finance–environmental protection system based on regional differences has a large gap, ranking in order: Eastern region > Central region > Western region > Northeast region, where the first-ranked Eastern region leads the rise, while the last-ranked Northeast region even shows a decreasing trend year by year. (3) The national average coupling and coordinated level will reach the coordination level in 2077, which fails to get ahead of the “2060 carbon neutrality” goal. Additionally, from the regional division, the Eastern region will be the first to reach the coordination level (2040), the Central region will reach the coordination level in 2043, the Western region is difficult to reach the coordination level, and the Northeast region shows the deterioration of coupling and coordinated degree, and the regional differences are still obvious. This study aims to reduce regional disparities, improve the coupling and coordinated development level of the green finance–environmental protection system nationwide, and implement the process of green development in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change)
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18 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Factors of Digital Transformation in the Maritime Transport Sector
by Marija Jović, Edvard Tijan, Doroteja Vidmar and Andreja Pucihar
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9776; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159776 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3852
Abstract
This paper aims to present the model of factors which influence the digital transformation in maritime transport sector. The preliminary model is based on a literature review and interviews conducted to identify the relevant factors influencing the digital transformation of stakeholders operating in [...] Read more.
This paper aims to present the model of factors which influence the digital transformation in maritime transport sector. The preliminary model is based on a literature review and interviews conducted to identify the relevant factors influencing the digital transformation of stakeholders operating in the maritime transport sector. In order to test the model, the survey was conducted on the sample of Croatian administrative (port authorities, ministry, harbormaster’s offices, etc.) and commercial stakeholders (freight forwarders, agents, terminal operators, etc.) operating in maritime transport sector. The collected data was analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. The research has shown that organizational, technological, and environmental (TOE) factors affect the digitalization of the organizations in the maritime transport sector. As a result of digitalization, changes in business models are visible: organizations in maritime transport sector generate additional revenue from new sources, provide new services, and introduce new sales channels. Full article
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22 pages, 968 KiB  
Article
EIA Effectiveness in Sensitive Alpine Areas: A Comparison of Winter Tourism Infrastructure Development in Germany and Austria
by Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9775; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159775 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
The paper analyses the effectiveness of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in sensitive alpine environments by studying processes and selected case studies in Austria and Germany. The framework used to evaluate the respective effectiveness is based on four dimensions of effectiveness: procedural, substantive, [...] Read more.
The paper analyses the effectiveness of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in sensitive alpine environments by studying processes and selected case studies in Austria and Germany. The framework used to evaluate the respective effectiveness is based on four dimensions of effectiveness: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative. The study is based on semi-structured interviews, workshops with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, as well as the analysis of legal documents. The findings reveal significant differences between the two countries leading to lower transactive and lower normative effectiveness in Austria. The framework demonstrates its high suitability for analysing EIA effectiveness and for developing recommendations. The outcomes also underline the significant influence of the project type. Full article
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22 pages, 9616 KiB  
Article
Research on the Development Law of Pre-Mining Microseisms and Risk Assessment of Floor Water Inrush: A Case Study of the Wutongzhuang Coal Mine in China
by Lei Huang, Yanchun Xu, Shiqi Liu, Qiukai Gai, Wei Miao, Yubao Li and Lisong Zhao
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159774 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Coal-mining areas are widely distributed in Northern China, but are under threat from confined water in the mining operation, resulting in a series of floor water- inrush hazards. Therefore, it is significant to effectively evaluate the floor water inrush to ensure safe and [...] Read more.
Coal-mining areas are widely distributed in Northern China, but are under threat from confined water in the mining operation, resulting in a series of floor water- inrush hazards. Therefore, it is significant to effectively evaluate the floor water inrush to ensure safe and efficient coal mining. The 182602 working face of the Wutongzhuang coal mine served as the background for our research. The concept of “pre-mining microseisms” was proposed, and based on this, microseismic monitoring equipment was arranged on site. The correlation between microseismic events and the water abundance of an aquifer was analyzed, and a floor water inrush evaluation method was constructed based on the three elements of an aquifer and pre-mining microseisms. The main results are as follows: first, the microseismic events were excited by artificial disturbances before the mining of the working face including slurry diffusion and neighboring mining, which had the characteristics of sporadicity, clustering, and periodicity. Second, the regional distribution of water abundance was determined by taking the water inflow, water pressure, and grouting volume as the outward performance characteristics of water abundance in the Shanvuqing aquifer. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between the pre-mining microseisms and the three elements of the aquifer (water inflow, water pressure, and grouting volume) was larger than 0.7. On this basis, an evaluation method associated with the water inrush risk along the strike of the working face was established based on pre-mining microseisms, dividing the working face into dangerous zones, suspected dangerous zones, and safe zones. Furthermore, pre-mining microseisms, water abundance, and structures were introduced as risk-evaluation indices, and the complete weight was calculated using an analytic hierarchy process and entropy-weight technique, before a vulnerability index model of floor water inrush was built. Finally, targeted treatment procedures were efficiently implemented to ensure the safe mining of working face 182602 due to the successful prediction of potential water risk zones. The research results provide scientific and technological support for pre-mining microseisms combined with water abundance as a technical method to prevent floor water inrush. Full article
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21 pages, 8784 KiB  
Essay
Experimental Study of the Effect of Axial Load on Stress Wave Characteristics of Rock Bolts Using a Non-Destructive Testing Method
by Chuanming Li, Xin Xia, Ruimin Feng, Xiang Gao, Xiao Chen, Gang Lei, Jiankui Bai, Bochao Nie, Zhengrong Zhang and Baoyou Zhang
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9773; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159773 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Traditional rock bolt inspection methods are destructive and limited. Non-destructive testing (NDT) based on the stress wave method can realize a fast and convenient quality detection of rock bolts. To verify the effectiveness of the stress wave-based anchor NDT method, a multi-functional experimental [...] Read more.
Traditional rock bolt inspection methods are destructive and limited. Non-destructive testing (NDT) based on the stress wave method can realize a fast and convenient quality detection of rock bolts. To verify the effectiveness of the stress wave-based anchor NDT method, a multi-functional experimental bench was customized on the basis of a bench-pull tension testing machine. Stress waves can be generated by applying axial loads on rock bolts and then collected using a non-destructive tester. The VMD decomposition method and Hilbert–Huang signal processing method were used to filter and analyze the stress wave signal. The influence of the axial loads of different magnitudes on the stress wave was then investigated. The results showed that the stress wave characteristics of the rock bolt changed with the increase in the axial load. It was found, correspondingly, that the stress wave amplitude decreased gradually and there was a trend of rapid decrease at the beginning and then a slower decline. The change in the time domain amplitude of the stress wave after noise reduction can be used to determine the magnitude of the load on the rock bolt during the elastic deformation stage. Further studies showed that the axial load on rock bolts inversely calculated by the stress-wave time-domain amplitude method is accurate and reliable, which can be validated by comparing the data measured by the rock bolt dynamometer. The research results shed light on the development of the NDT technology on rock bolt inspection, and make this testing method more convenient, efficient, and accurate. Full article
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25 pages, 3819 KiB  
Article
Inclined Layer Method-Based Theoretical Calculation of Active Earth Pressure of a Finite-Width Soil for a Rotating-Base Retaining Wall
by Zeyue Wang, Xinxi Liu, Weiwei Wang, Ziyu Tao and Song Li
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9772; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159772 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the active earth pressure on a retaining wall with a narrow cohesive fill under the rotation about the base mode. Under these conditions, Rankine’s and Coulomb’s earth pressure theories are not strictly effective. To improve the traditional earth [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the active earth pressure on a retaining wall with a narrow cohesive fill under the rotation about the base mode. Under these conditions, Rankine’s and Coulomb’s earth pressure theories are not strictly effective. To improve the traditional earth pressure calculation methods (Rankine and Coulomb methods) and deduce the active earth pressure under the rotation about the base mode, here, we propose a new calculation method that incorporates the effects of wall displacement, soil arching and soil cohesion using inclined thin-layer elements. The calculation results are in good agreement with the model test data. Based on the parameter analysis, a critical aspect ratio of B/H = cotβ is determined along with a detailed elucidation of the various influencing factors (such as aspect ratio, cohesion and friction angle). The paper presents several solutions to improve the stability and lower the costs of retaining walls. Full article
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19 pages, 847 KiB  
Article
Engineering Characteristics Prioritization in Quality Function Deployment Using an Improved ORESTE Method with Double Hierarchy Hesitant Linguistic Information
by Hua Shi, Ling-Xiang Mao, Ke Li, Xiang-Hu Wang and Hu-Chen Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159771 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer-driven product development technique widely utilized to translating customer requirements into engineering characteristics for maximum customer satisfaction. Nonetheless, when used in real situations, the traditional QFD method has been criticized to have many deficiencies, e.g., in expressing [...] Read more.
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer-driven product development technique widely utilized to translating customer requirements into engineering characteristics for maximum customer satisfaction. Nonetheless, when used in real situations, the traditional QFD method has been criticized to have many deficiencies, e.g., in expressing experts’ uncertain assessments and prioritizing engineering characteristics. In this study, we propose a new engineering characteristics prioritization approach based on double hierarchy hesitant linguistic term sets (DHHLTSs) and the ORESTE (organísation, rangement et Synthèse de données relarionnelles, in French) method to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional QFD. Specifically, the main contributions of this study to the literature are that the DHHLTSs are utilized to describe the hesitant relationship assessments between customer requirements and engineering characteristics provided by experts, and the ORESTE method is modified and used to determine the importance ranking orders of engineering characteristics. Finally, a case study and a comparison analysis are presented to illustrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed QFD approach. The advantages of the new approach being proposed are higher flexibility in handling experts’ intricate and hesitant relationship evaluation information and effective in providing a reasonable prioritization of engineering characteristics in the practical QFD analysis. Full article
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18 pages, 5258 KiB  
Article
Trend Analysis Using Long-Term Monitoring Data of Water Quality at Churyeongcheon and Yocheon Basins
by Don-Woo Ha, Kang-Young Jung, Jonghun Baek, Gi-Soon Lee, Youngjea Lee, Dong Seok Shin and Eun Hye Na
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9770; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159770 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the interrelationships between organic matter and water quality indices in the total maximum daily load basins, namely, Churyeongcheon and Yocheon of the Seomjin River system, and identified trends. Churyeong A and Yocheon B, the basins being analyzed, have [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the interrelationships between organic matter and water quality indices in the total maximum daily load basins, namely, Churyeongcheon and Yocheon of the Seomjin River system, and identified trends. Churyeong A and Yocheon B, the basins being analyzed, have high proportions of nonpoint pollution sources and pollutant loads from terrestrial sources. During the study period, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased in both basins, whereas chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) increased in Churyeong A and decreased in Yocheon B. The increase in organic matter in Churyeong A correlated with the flow rate, whereas organic matter in Yocheon B showed little correlation with flow rate. Variations in organic matter (BOD, COD, and TOC) in Churyeong A exhibited seasonality under the influence of increased flow rate. Organic matter in Yocheon B was affected by increased flow rate, wherein with time, BOD decreased and COD and TOC increased. This study provides basic data that can be used as a reference to facilitate continuous water management and appropriate strategy implementation by analyzing the influencing factors and trends of organic matter using long-term measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Watershed Management for Adaptation to Climate Change)
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18 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
A New Measurement of Global Equity in a Sustainability Perspective: Examining Differences from Space and Time Dimensions
by Lin Cai, Yating Xu, Kaiqi Zhang, Caiya Zhang and Zhengzhe Xiang
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9769; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159769 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
With the increasing development gap, how to measure global equity in the perspective of sustainability has become an essential issue nowadays. To examine the intra-generational equity from the space dimension and the inter-generational equity from the time dimension, a new measurement of global [...] Read more.
With the increasing development gap, how to measure global equity in the perspective of sustainability has become an essential issue nowadays. To examine the intra-generational equity from the space dimension and the inter-generational equity from the time dimension, a new measurement of global equity in a sustainability is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a comprehensive assessment index of regional development and an index of regional equity are constructed based on panel data using an entropy weight method (EVW) and a coefficient of variation method (CVM). Secondly, the intra-generational equity within different continents and echelons and the inter-generational equity in seven fields over the last 30 years are analyzed. Lastly, the global equity index for the next 10 years is predicted based on a panel data autoregressive model. The results of the study will be a reference for global equity strategies. Full article
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14 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
Building Community Resilience to Violent Extremism through Community-Based Youth Organizations: A Case of Post-Conflict North Waziristan, Pakistan
by Muhammad Makki and Syed Ali Akash
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9768; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159768 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
This paper presents the case of endogenously generated community resilience to violent extremism by discussing the formation and functioning of community-based youth organizations (CBYOs) in post-conflict North Waziristan. In doing so, the paper deciphers a micro-sociological phenomenon underlining the community (re)organization through their [...] Read more.
This paper presents the case of endogenously generated community resilience to violent extremism by discussing the formation and functioning of community-based youth organizations (CBYOs) in post-conflict North Waziristan. In doing so, the paper deciphers a micro-sociological phenomenon underlining the community (re)organization through their new mode of interaction and connectedness, sustaining a resilient social change in the post-conflict setting. The research employed a qualitative research design using the ‘mini-ethnographic’ case study method. For the purpose, twelve CBYOs and members of the local youth were interviewed, allowing for a subjective assessment of the emergence and sustenance of (community) resilience to violent extremism. Offering unique sociological perspectives on a post-conflict context, the study uncovers the community resilience generated through the formation of CBYOs by educated youth in North Waziristan. The social activities and engagement by youth, through education and awareness campaigns, are instilling a social change (by replacing the old ideas and customs with new ones) that aims at creating a peaceful society. Full article
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14 pages, 6105 KiB  
Article
Predicting Frost Depth of Soils in South Korea Using Machine Learning Techniques
by Hyun-Jun Choi, Sewon Kim, YoungSeok Kim and Jongmuk Won
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9767; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159767 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
Predicting the frost depth of soils in pavement design is critical to the sustainability of the pavement because of its mechanical vulnerability to frozen-thawed soil. The reliable prediction of frost depth can be challenging due to the high uncertainty of frost depth and [...] Read more.
Predicting the frost depth of soils in pavement design is critical to the sustainability of the pavement because of its mechanical vulnerability to frozen-thawed soil. The reliable prediction of frost depth can be challenging due to the high uncertainty of frost depth and the unavailability of geotechnical properties needed to use the available empirical- and analytical-based equations in literature. Therefore, this study proposed a new framework to predict the frost depth of soil below the pavement using eight machine learning (ML) algorithms (five single ML algorithms and three ensemble learning algorithms) without geotechnical properties. Among eight ML models, the hyperparameter-tuned gradient boosting model showed the best performance with the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.919. Furthermore, it was also shown that the developed ML model can be utilized in the prediction of several levels of frost depth and assessing the sensitivity of pavement-related predictors for predicting the frost depth of soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnical Engineering towards Sustainability)
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