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Diversity, Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 64 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A femur found in 1925 by the French naturalist Emile Licent shows that giant ostriches inhabited what is now Northern China some 1.8 million years ago. The specimen comes from the Lower Pleistocene Nihewan Formation of the Nihewan Basin (Hebei, China). It refers to the extinct genus Pachystruthio, hitherto known from Lower Pleistocene localities in Hungary, Crimea, and Georgia, thus much extending the distribution of Pachystruthio eastward. A mass estimate of 300 kg indicates that this Chinese ostrich was twice the weight of the living ostrich Struthio camelus. Pachystruthio was contemporaneous with the early hominins of the Nihewan Basin. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) Foraging Habitat and Prey Availability in New England: Implications for Conservation of a Declining Boreal Bird Species
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020099 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is an imperiled migratory songbird that breeds in and near the boreal wetlands of North America. Our objective was to investigate factors associated with Rusty Blackbird wetland use, including aquatic invertebrate prey and landscape features, to [...] Read more.
The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is an imperiled migratory songbird that breeds in and near the boreal wetlands of North America. Our objective was to investigate factors associated with Rusty Blackbird wetland use, including aquatic invertebrate prey and landscape features, to better understand the birds’ habitat use. Using single-season occupancy modeling, we assessed breeding Rusty Blackbird use of both active and inactive beaver-influenced wetlands in New Hampshire and Maine, USA. We conducted timed, unlimited-radius point counts of Rusty Blackbirds at 60 sites from May to July 2014. Following each point count, we sampled aquatic invertebrates and surveyed habitat characteristics including percent mud cover, puddle presence/absence, and current beaver activity. We calculated wetland size using aerial imagery and calculated percent conifer cover within a 500 m buffer of each site using the National Land Cover Database 2011. Percent mud cover and invertebrate abundance best predicted Rusty Blackbird use of wetlands. Rusty Blackbirds were more likely to be found in sites with lower percent mud cover and higher aquatic invertebrate abundance. Sites with Rusty Blackbird detections had significantly higher abundances of known or likely prey items in the orders Amphipoda, Coleoptera, Diptera, Odonata, and Trichoptera. The probability of Rusty Blackbird detection was 0.589 ± 0.06 SE. This study provides new information that will inform habitat conservation for this imperiled species in a beaver-influenced landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boreal Bird Ecology, Management and Conservation)
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Open AccessReview
Annelids in Extreme Aquatic Environments: Diversity, Adaptations and Evolution
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020098 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
We review the variety of morphological, physiological and behavioral modifications that annelids have acquired to cope with environments either unsuitable for, or on the limits of, survival for most animals. We focus on polychaetes (excluding sipunculans and echiurans) and clitellates (oligochaetes and leeches) [...] Read more.
We review the variety of morphological, physiological and behavioral modifications that annelids have acquired to cope with environments either unsuitable for, or on the limits of, survival for most animals. We focus on polychaetes (excluding sipunculans and echiurans) and clitellates (oligochaetes and leeches) and source information mostly from the primary literature. We identified many modifications common to both polychaetes and clitellates, and others that are specific to one or the other group. For example, certain land-adapted polychaetes show reduction in nuchal organs, epidermal ciliation and receptor cells, and other coastal polychaetes use adhesive glands and glue-reinforced tubes to maintain position in surf zones, while oligochaetes, with their simple body plans, appear to be ‘pre-adapted’ to life underground. Modifications common to both groups include the ability to construct protective cocoons, make cryoprotective substances such as antifreeze and heat shock proteins, develop gills, transform their bodies into a home for symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria, metabolize contaminants, and display avoidance behaviors. Convergent evolution in both directions has enabled annelids to transition from salt water to freshwater, sea to land via beaches, freshwater to soil, and surface water to subterranean water. A superficially simple worm-like body and a mostly benthic/burrowing lifestyle has facilitated radiation into every conceivable environment, making annelids among the most common and diverse animal groups on the planet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Biodiversity of Annelids)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Traits of a Rainforest Vascular Epiphyte Community: Trait Covariation and Indications for Host Specificity
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020097 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Trait matching between interacting species may foster diversity. Thus, high epiphyte diversity in tropical forests may be partly due to the high diversity of trees and some degree of host specificity. However, possible trait matching between epiphyte and host is basically unexplored. Since [...] Read more.
Trait matching between interacting species may foster diversity. Thus, high epiphyte diversity in tropical forests may be partly due to the high diversity of trees and some degree of host specificity. However, possible trait matching between epiphyte and host is basically unexplored. Since the epiphytic habitat poses particular challenges to plants, their trait correlations should differ from terrestrial plants, but to what extent is unclear as epiphytes are underrepresented or missing in the large trait databases. We quantified 28 traits of 99 species of vascular epiphytes in a lowland forest in Panama that were related to plant size, leaf, stem, and root morphology; photosynthetic mode; and nutrient concentrations. We analyzed trait covariation, community weighted means, and functional diversity for assemblages on stems and in crowns of four tree species. We found intriguing differences between epiphytes and terrestrial plants regarding trait covariation in trait relations between plant maximal height, stem specific density, specific root length, and root tissue den-sity, i.e., stem and root economic spectra. Regarding host specificity, we found strong evidence for environmental filtering of epiphyte traits, but only in tree crowns. On stems, community weighted means differed in only one case, whereas > 2/3 of all traits differed in tree crowns. Although we were only partly able to interpret these differences in the light of tree trait differences, these findings mark an important step towards a functional understanding of epiphyte host specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle
The Diverse Assemblage of Fungal Endophytes from Orchids in Madagascar Linked to Abiotic Factors and Seasonality
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020096 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The inselbergs of the Central Highlands of Madagascar are one of many ‘micro-hotspots’ of biodiversity on the island, particularly for Orchidaceae. In this region are several genera that have a large number of endemic species that are in serious decline or edging towards [...] Read more.
The inselbergs of the Central Highlands of Madagascar are one of many ‘micro-hotspots’ of biodiversity on the island, particularly for Orchidaceae. In this region are several genera that have a large number of endemic species that are in serious decline or edging towards extinction. Studies relating to diversity of orchids and their fungal partners (both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root associates) deserve more attention, as climate change and human induced decline in resilience of species in the wild is at an all-time high. Identification of mycorrhizal fungi (MF) via conventional seed baited-protocorms has limitations for large scale studies and its application for time-bound conservation projects. The paper describes the value of understanding fungal diversity in the roots of orchids at different stages of maturity. The first part of the study was a preliminary investigation mainly to identify culturable Rhizoctonia endophytes, and the second part looked at all life forms of available taxa together with associated soil characteristics. We isolated and identified 19 putative MF from 18 of the 50 taxa spread over an area of 250 sq. km, covering three life forms, growth phases of the orchid taxa, and habitat types. In the rest of the taxa, we were unable to detect any putative MF, but had varying numbers of non-mycorrhizal endophytes. We also found that diversity of putative MF was higher in plants from soils with the lowest P levels recorded. Putative mycorrhizal OTUs were predominantly from the Tulasnella lineage, followed by Ceratobasidium and Serendipita. Within a small subset of samples, a difference in colonised endophytes depending on the collection season was observed. In vitro germination studies using 10 OTUs of mycorrhizal fungi in 14 orchid species showed mostly generalist associations. When orchid seed and fungal sources were studied irrespective of habitat, life form, and distance from each other (orchid seed and fungal source), compatibility for symbiotic seed germination was observed in most cases. Issues with the identification of compatible MF and symbiotic system of seed germination are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology and Diversity of Orchids)
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Open AccessEditorial
Ecology of Predation and Scavenging and the Interface: A Special Issue
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020095 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Predation and scavenging are pervasive ecological interactions in both terrestrial and aquatic environments [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Predation and Scavenging and the Interface)
Open AccessArticle
Predicting the Future Distribution of Ara rubrogenys, an Endemic Endangered Bird Species of the Andes, Taking into Account Trophic Interactions
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020094 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Species distribution models (SDMs) are commonly used with climate only to predict animal distribution changes. This approach however neglects the evolution of other components of the niche, like food resource availability. SDMs are also commonly used with plants. This also suffers limitations, notably [...] Read more.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are commonly used with climate only to predict animal distribution changes. This approach however neglects the evolution of other components of the niche, like food resource availability. SDMs are also commonly used with plants. This also suffers limitations, notably an inability to capture the fertilizing effect of the rising CO2 concentration strengthening resilience to water stress. Alternatively, process-based dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) respond to CO2 concentration. To test the impact of the plant modelling method to model plant resources of animals, we studied the distribution of a Bolivian macaw, assuming that, under future climate, DVMs produce more conservative results than SDMs. We modelled the bird with an SDM driven by climate. For the plant, we used SDMs or a DVM. Under future climates, the macaw SDM showed increased probabilities of presence over the area of distribution and connected range extensions. For plants, SDMs did not forecast overall response. By contrast, the DVM produced increases of productivity, occupancy and diversity, also towards higher altitudes. The results offered positive perspectives for the macaw, more optimistic with the DVM than with the SDMs, than initially assumed. Nevertheless, major common threats remain, challenging the short-term survival of the macaw. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alternative Development Strategies of Clinostomum chabaudi (Digenea) Metacercariae in Frog Hosts (Hyperolius spp.)
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020093 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Clinostomum metacercariae are common endoparasites of fish and frogs. In this study, we examine taxonomic identity and developmental strategy of Clinostomum metacercariae infesting reed frogs Hyperolius kivuensis and H. viridiflavus in Rwanda. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of infestation on demographic and morphological [...] Read more.
Clinostomum metacercariae are common endoparasites of fish and frogs. In this study, we examine taxonomic identity and developmental strategy of Clinostomum metacercariae infesting reed frogs Hyperolius kivuensis and H. viridiflavus in Rwanda. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of infestation on demographic and morphological life-history traits of the hosts. Morphological and molecular features, particularly genital morphology and COX1 sequences, provided evidence that the metacercariae belong to C. chabaudi Vercammen-Grandjean, 1960. Depending on the host’s defensive behavior and the availability of resources, metacercariae develop either as sedentary “yellow grubs” encysted in the lymphatic sacs or mouth of the host or as initially encysted, but later free-ranging individuals invading the host´s body cavity. Nutrition on lymphatic fluid within the cyst leads to yellow-colored gut content, feeding on blood or host tissue, to brownish green gut content in free-ranging individuals. Almost all metacercariae opted for the first developmental strategy in H. kivuensis, whereas the second strategy dominated in metacercariae infesting H. viridiflavus. Hyperolius kivuensis suffered significant morphological modifications, when infested with encysted metacercariae. Both developmental modes permitted a coexistence with the host of less than one year. We hypothesize that the presence of alternative development modes is an adaptation of C. chabaudi to cope with resource limitation within host-produced cysts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fawn Counts and Adult Female Site Use Are Mismatched Indicators of Habitat Quality in an Endangered Deer
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020092 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Many ungulates are spotted as neonates. This trait is unique to individuals, making their identification feasible from remote cameras. Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are an endangered subspecies of white-tailed deer endemic to the lower Florida Keys, U.S.A. Habitat loss and [...] Read more.
Many ungulates are spotted as neonates. This trait is unique to individuals, making their identification feasible from remote cameras. Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are an endangered subspecies of white-tailed deer endemic to the lower Florida Keys, U.S.A. Habitat loss and hunting were historical drivers of population decline but recent studies report positive associations of key deer with urbanization. Using opposing camera traps at 56 sites throughout the National Key Deer Refuge on Big Pine Key, we used spot patterns to uniquely identify and estimate fawn abundance with N-mixture models. We further compared those inferences to models informed by adult doe counts to see how well tracking adult females alone corresponded with fawn habitat associations. Our results indicated that fawn abundance was negatively associated with increasing elevation and human trails, contrary to models based on adult female observations alone. The lowest elevations where fawns were most abundant were associated with dense wetland plant communities, which were likely selected for thermal cover and warrant further investigation given that those areas are most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Our methods showcase the utility of identifying neonates from camera trap photos and draw attention to possible misaligned inferences when tracking adult females in isolation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Brazilian Cavefish: Ecology and Conservation of Four Threatened Catfish of Genus Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from Central Brazil
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020091 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
We investigated population parameters using the capture-mark-recapture method (Ituglanis passensis and I. bambui) and visual censuses (I. epikasrticus and I. ramiroi). The four species are regionally threatened (Brazilian Red List) and occur in caves of Terra Ronca State Park, [...] Read more.
We investigated population parameters using the capture-mark-recapture method (Ituglanis passensis and I. bambui) and visual censuses (I. epikasrticus and I. ramiroi). The four species are regionally threatened (Brazilian Red List) and occur in caves of Terra Ronca State Park, São Domingos region, Central Brazil. We conducted seven fieldtrips across three years of dry seasons. For the capture-mark-recapture method, a 400 m long stream inside Passa Três cave, where I. passensis occurs and a 300 m long reach of an upper tributary where I. bambui occurs inside Angélica cave were divided into 20 and 17 study sections, respectively. Catfishes were hand-netted, measured (standard length), weighed, marked by subcutaneous injection of biocompatible pigments, and released. The four species show medium-to-low mean population densities (0.03 ind/m2 0.7 ind/m2). Capture-mark-recapture data pointed to a relatively small population size for I. passensis, restricted to a 1600 m long stream inside Passa Três cave (N = 719) and for I. bambui (N = 246; 300 m of epikarstic drainage). Ituglanis passensis and I. bambui move along relatively small areas with a restricted home range. We observed recruitment patterns and a trend of decrease in condition factor during the dry seasons for I. bambui but not for I. passensis, suggesting that epikarstic waters are probably more limiting concerning food input. Ituglanis passensis and I. bambui showed low growth and consequently high longevity, corroborated by captivity data (20 years). We suggest urgent actions and long-term monitoring projects to effectively protect this unique and endemic ichthyofauna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cave Communities: From the Surface Border to the Deep Darkness)
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Open AccessArticle
Reappraisal on the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Enigmatic Flightless Bird (Brontornis burmeisteri) Moreno and Mercerat, 1891
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020090 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The fossil record of birds in South America is still very patchy. One of the most remarkable birds found in Miocene deposits from Patagonia is Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno and Mercerat, 1891. This giant flightless bird is known by multiple incomplete specimens that represent [...] Read more.
The fossil record of birds in South America is still very patchy. One of the most remarkable birds found in Miocene deposits from Patagonia is Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno and Mercerat, 1891. This giant flightless bird is known by multiple incomplete specimens that represent a few portions of the skeleton, mainly hindlimb bones. Since the XIX century, Brontornis was considered as belonging to or closely related to phorusrhacoid birds. In contrast to previous work, by the end of 2000 decade it was proposed that Brontornis belongs to Galloanserae. This proposal was recently contested based on a large dataset including both phorusrhacoids and galloanserine birds, that concluded Brontornis was nested among cariamiform birds, and probably belonged to phorusrhacoids. The aim of the present contribution is to re-evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of Brontornis. Based on modified previous datasets, it is concluded that Brontornis does belong to Galloanserae, and that it represents a member of a largely unknown radiation of giant graviportal birds from South America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Palaeobiology of Flightless Birds)
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Open AccessArticle
Light-Emitting Diodes (LED): A Promising Street Light System to Reduce the Attraction to Light of Insects
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020089 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Currently, there is a demand for more energy-efficient lighting sources, however, light emitted by different lighting systems differs in primary properties such as intensity, propagation direction, and wavelength spectrum, among others, and these properties may affect insect light attraction. Despite the energetic benefits [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a demand for more energy-efficient lighting sources, however, light emitted by different lighting systems differs in primary properties such as intensity, propagation direction, and wavelength spectrum, among others, and these properties may affect insect light attraction. Despite the energetic benefits of light-emitting diodes (LED) as street light systems, their ecological impacts on insects have not yet been tested on a wide range of taxa. Using an experimental approach, we showed that LED street lights lead to a reduction in the total number of insects captured with light traps in a wide range of families. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera orders were the most sensitive groups to ecological light pollution in the study area. We suggest that LED was the least attractive light system for most of the affected groups both because of its very little emitted short-wavelength light and because of its lower light intensity. We expect that the more and more widespread use of LED lights as a measure to reduce economic costs of outdoor lighting should lead to a lower attraction to street lights in most of the affected insect taxa and to diminish the negative impacts of artificial light attraction on the ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biogeography of Iberian Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020088 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Ants are highly diverse in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), both in species richness (299 cited species) and in number of endemic species (72). The Iberian ant fauna is one of the richest in the broader Mediterranean region, it is similar to the Balkan [...] Read more.
Ants are highly diverse in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), both in species richness (299 cited species) and in number of endemic species (72). The Iberian ant fauna is one of the richest in the broader Mediterranean region, it is similar to the Balkan Peninsula but lower than Greece or Israel, when species richness is controlled by the surface area. In this first general study on the biogeography of Iberian ants, we propose seven chorological categories for grouping thems. Moreover, we also propose eight biogeographic refugium areas, based on the criteria of “refugia-within-refugium” in the IP. We analysed species richness, occurrence and endemism in all these refugium areas, which we found to be significantly different as far as ant similarity was concerned. Finally, we collected published evidence of biological traits, molecular phylogenies, fossil deposits and geological processes to be able to infer the most probable centre of origin and dispersal routes followed for the most noteworthy ants in the IP. As a result, we have divided the Iberian myrmecofauna into four biogeographical groups: relict, Asian-IP disjunct, Baetic-Rifan and Alpine. To sum up, our results support biogeography as being a significant factor for determining the current structure of ant communities, especially in the very complex and heterogenous IP. Moreover, the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns we describe in this study highlight the utility of Iberian ants for understanding the complex evolutionary history and biogeography of the Iberian Peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity, Biogeography and Community Ecology of Ants)
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Open AccessReview
On the Systematics and Biodiversity of the Opheliidae and Scalibregmatidae
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020087 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
In this paper we review the systematics, diversity, and ecology of two related annelid families: Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867 and Scalibregmatidae Malmgren, 1867. Opheliids are deposit-feeders and that are mainly found as burrowers in sandy sediments. Morphologically, opheliids are characterized by the smooth cuticle, [...] Read more.
In this paper we review the systematics, diversity, and ecology of two related annelid families: Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867 and Scalibregmatidae Malmgren, 1867. Opheliids are deposit-feeders and that are mainly found as burrowers in sandy sediments. Morphologically, opheliids are characterized by the smooth cuticle, as well as the presence of a conspicuous ventral groove, reduced parapodia, and a tubular-shaped structure often projecting from the posterior end. Scalibregmatids are also deposit-feeders, but compared to opheliids, they have a characteristic arenicoliform body, a T-shaped anterior end and a glandular, reticulated epidermis. For each family, we summarize the available information about the evolutionary relationships, taxonomic history, geographical distribution, ecological preferences and diversity of life strategies along with the techniques most commonly used for their study. By highlighting the main gaps in knowledge on each of these topics, this review ultimately aims at stimulating further research into members of these two families in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Biodiversity of Annelids)
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Open AccessArticle
Inventory and Assemblage Classification of the Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Unionidae) of the Strawberry River, Arkansas, USA, with Implications for Conservation Planning
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020086 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Spatial hierarchical approaches to classify freshwater systems can add to our understanding of biogeographical patterns and can be used for biodiversity conservation planning. The Strawberry River is located primarily in the Ozark Highlands Central Plateau of north central Arkansas, USA, with a small [...] Read more.
Spatial hierarchical approaches to classify freshwater systems can add to our understanding of biogeographical patterns and can be used for biodiversity conservation planning. The Strawberry River is located primarily in the Ozark Highlands Central Plateau of north central Arkansas, USA, with a small downstream portion in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and has been designated an Extraordinary Resource Water, an Ecologically Sensitive Water Body, and a Natural Scenic Waterway. The goals of this study were to document Strawberry River, Arkansas freshwater mussels to aid in conservation planning. Our first objective was to inventory freshwater mussel species in the Strawberry River. Our second objective was to use this stream-wide dataset to classify the freshwater mussel assemblages. We used unpublished survey data of 59 sites distributed from the headwaters to the mouth to inventory species occurrence and abundance, classified mussel assemblages using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMS), and conducted indicator species analysis on resulting assemblages. We observed 39 taxa across the 59 survey sites including two S1, five S2, 16 S3, 11 S4, four S5, and one state non-ranked conservation rank species. Furthermore, our assemblage NMS revealed two distinct freshwater mussel assemblages roughly organized by an upstream (Sites 1–31) to downstream (Sites 32–59) gradient. There were five upstream indicator species and 13 downstream indicator species. This study provides a case study on using existing datasets with NMS and indicator species analyses to classify mussel assemblages and adds to our understanding of freshwater mussel fauna classification at smaller spatial scales. Both NMS and indicator species outcomes can aid in conservation planning for freshwater mussels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Mollusk Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Land Use Effects on Airborne Bacterial Communities Are Evident in Both Near-Surface and Higher-Altitude Air
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020085 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Land use influences the composition of near-surface airborne bacterial communities, and bacteria can be transported through the atmosphere at global scales. The atmosphere mixes vertically, but rigorously assessing whether the effects of land use on atmospheric communities extends to higher altitudes requires examining [...] Read more.
Land use influences the composition of near-surface airborne bacterial communities, and bacteria can be transported through the atmosphere at global scales. The atmosphere mixes vertically, but rigorously assessing whether the effects of land use on atmospheric communities extends to higher altitudes requires examining communities from multiple altitudes collected at a stable location and timeframe. In this study, we collected near-surface (<2 m) and higher-altitude (150 m) air samples from three sites in an agricultural/developed location and a forested/undeveloped location. We used bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to compare communities and predict functionality by altitude. Higher-altitude and near-surface communities did not differ in composition within each location. Communities collected above the undeveloped location were equally variable at both altitudes; higher-altitude samples from the developed location predominantly contained Firmicutes and were less variable than near-surface samples. We also compared airborne taxa to those present in soil and snow. Communities from higher-altitude samples above the developed location contained fewer overlapping taxa with soil and snow sources, and overlapping Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) among the three sources differed by location. Our results suggest that land use affects the composition of both near-surface and higher-altitude airborne bacterial communities and, therefore, may influence broad bacterial dispersal patterns. This small-scale pilot study provides a framework for simultaneously examining local and regional airborne microbial communities that can be applied to larger studies or studies using different types of samplers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Bacterial and Fungal Composition and Diversity Responses to Seasonal Deer Grazing in a Subalpine Meadow
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020084 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Soil microbial composition and diversity are widely recognized for their role in ecological functioning. This study examined the differences of soil microbial communities between two seasonally grazed grasslands. The study area was in the Gansu red deer farm located on the Qilian Mountain [...] Read more.
Soil microbial composition and diversity are widely recognized for their role in ecological functioning. This study examined the differences of soil microbial communities between two seasonally grazed grasslands. The study area was in the Gansu red deer farm located on the Qilian Mountain range in the Gansu province of northwestern China. This farm adopted a seasonal rotation grazing system whereby grasslands at higher altitudes are grazed in summer (SG), whilst grasslands at lower altitudes are grazed in winter (WG). The soil bacterial and fungal communities were examined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. We found that soil water content (SWC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), and total nitrogen (TN) were significantly higher, whereas the C/N ratio was significantly lower in SG than WG pastures. The α-diversity of bacteria was greater than that of fungi in both pastures, while both bacterial and fungal α-diversity were not significantly different between the pastures. The bacterial β-diversity was significantly different between the pastures, but fungal β-diversity was not. The bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and fungal phylum Ascomycota were dominant in both pastures. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria in soil was significantly higher in WG pastures, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in soil was significantly higher in SG pastures. Significant correlations between bacterial and fungal phyla and soil properties were observed, but this varied between the two grasslands. This study showed that distinct microbial community structures developed in two pastures within the same geographic location that were grazed in different seasons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Habitat on Presence of Striped Skunks in Midwestern North America
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020083 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are urban-adapted, generalist mesocarnivores widely distributed throughout North America. Although striped skunks have been studied extensively at small scales, knowledge of habitat influences on striped skunks at large scales is lacking. We developed a species distribution model [...] Read more.
Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are urban-adapted, generalist mesocarnivores widely distributed throughout North America. Although striped skunks have been studied extensively at small scales, knowledge of habitat influences on striped skunks at large scales is lacking. We developed a species distribution model (SDM) to examine potential striped skunk presence in a 16,058 km2 portion of southern Illinois, USA. We built models using SDM Toolbox and MaxEnt, and incorporated known presence locations, 1 km2 land cover data, and an index of human modification of the landscape. Land cover and human modification explained 98% and 2% of variation in our model, respectively. The highest presence of striped skunks existed in areas with forest cover and developed open space with moderate human modification. The striped skunk presence was lowest in areas with cultivated crops and woody wetlands with either low or high human modification. Forest cover provides natural food and shelter resources for striped skunks, but resources are likely augmented by human activity in developed open space. Cultivated crops only provide seasonal resources, and inundation limits denning in wooded wetlands. Our model indicated striped skunks are a synanthropic species that regularly inhabits both natural and anthropogenic habitats over a large scale. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microzooplankton Communities in a Changing Ocean: A Risk Assessment
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020082 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Microzooplankton communities are fundamental components of marine food webs and have the potential to impact the functioning of carbon pumps. The identification of common responses of microzooplankton to global change has been challenging due to their plasticity and complex community-level interactions. However, accumulating [...] Read more.
Microzooplankton communities are fundamental components of marine food webs and have the potential to impact the functioning of carbon pumps. The identification of common responses of microzooplankton to global change has been challenging due to their plasticity and complex community-level interactions. However, accumulating research is providing new insights on the vulnerability of this group to different climate and other human-related hazards. Here, the current and future risk levels of microzooplankton associated with global change are assessed by identifying prevailing hazards, exposure, sensitivity, natural adaptability, and observed impacts based on available evidence. Most documented hazards for the survival and yield of microzooplankton are ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and coastal eutrophication. Overall, heterotrophic protists are expected to respond and adapt rapidly to global trends. Fast growing, mixotrophy, wide internal stoichiometry, and their capacity to track optimal environmental conditions by changing species’ range distribution are among the most important traits that shape their high adaptability to global change. Community-level responses to warming, however, are predicted to be amplified in polar and subpolar regions. At the individual level, the highest risk is associated with the sensitivity to deoxygenation since microzooplankton, especially ciliates, are known to reduce metabolic rates under hypoxic episodes; however, vulnerable species can be readily replaced by specialized taxa from a similar functional type. Microzooplankton seem to act as functional buffers of environmental threats, thus conferring stability, in terms of community connectedness to marine food webs and ecosystems against external disturbances. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sequencing of Organellar Genomes of Nowellia curvifolia (Cephaloziaceae Jungermanniales) Revealed the Smallest Plastome with Complete Gene Set and High Intraspecific Variation Suggesting Cryptic Speciation
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020081 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
The leafy liverwort Nowellia curvifolia is a widespread Holarctic species belonging to the family Cephaloziaceae. It is made up of a newly sequenced, assembled and annotated organellar genomes of two European specimens, which revealed the structure typical for liverworts, but also provided new [...] Read more.
The leafy liverwort Nowellia curvifolia is a widespread Holarctic species belonging to the family Cephaloziaceae. It is made up of a newly sequenced, assembled and annotated organellar genomes of two European specimens, which revealed the structure typical for liverworts, but also provided new insights into its microevolution. The plastome of N. curvifolia is the second smallest among photosynthetic liverworts, with the shortest known inverted repeats. Moreover, it is the smallest liverwort genome with a complete gene set, since two smaller genomes of Aneura mirabilis and Cololejeunea lanciloba are missing six and four protein-coding genes respectively. The reduction of plastome size in leafy liverworts seems to be mainly impacted by deletion within specific region between psbA and psbD genes. The comparative intraspecific analysis revealed single SNPs difference among European individuals and a low number of 35 mutations differentiating European and North American specimens. However, the genetic resources of Asian specimen enabled to identify 1335 SNPs in plastic protein-coding genes suggesting an advanced cryptic speciation within N. curvifolia or the presence of undescribed morphospecies in Asia. Newly sequenced mitogenomes from European specimens revealed identical gene content and structure to previously published and low intercontinental differentiation limited to one substitution and three indels. The RNA-seq based RNA editing analysis revealed 17 and 127 edited sites in plastome and mitogenome respectively including one non-canonical editing event in plastid chiL gene. The U to C editing is common in non-seed plants, but in liverwort plastome is reported for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy, Diversity and Evolution of Bryophytes)
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Open AccessEditorial
Biodiversity of Mites
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020080 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Nature is a highly complex, intricate system constructed of a network of interdependencies between individual species, their communities and their habitats [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Mites)
Open AccessInteresting Images
If You Plant It, They Will Come: Rapid Recruitment of Habitat-Dependent Marine Invertebrates to Transplanted Fragments of an Endangered Soft Coral Species
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020079 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
In recent decades, the transplantation of corals has been a primary focus of restoration strategies in areas where coral populations have declined [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Orchid Extinction over the Last 150 Years in the Czech Republic
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020078 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
Understanding temporal changes in the distribution and abundance of various species is one of the key goals of conservation biology. During recent decades, the abundance and distribution of many species of plants and animals have declined dramatically, mainly because of habitat loss and [...] Read more.
Understanding temporal changes in the distribution and abundance of various species is one of the key goals of conservation biology. During recent decades, the abundance and distribution of many species of plants and animals have declined dramatically, mainly because of habitat loss and fragmentation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the rate of extinction of orchids at various sites in different 20-year time intervals over the last 150 years, determined according to changes in society. Using the dataset of the orchid records of the Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic, we determined the disappearance rate of orchids from sites using a grid of 1 × 1 km. We found that the vast majority of orchids disappeared from many of their historical localities in all time intervals analyzed. The number of sites suitable for Czech orchids declined by 8–92%, depending on the species. The most threatened orchid species in the Czech Republic are Spiranthes spiralis, Anacamptis palustris, Epipogium aphyllum and Goodyera repens. This all seems to be closely related with changes in agricultural practices in the open as well as in forest habitats. Preserving suitable orchid habitats seems to be the key for keeping Czech orchid flora alive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology and Diversity of Orchids)
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Open AccessArticle
Interstitial Annelida
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020077 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
Members of the following marine annelid families are found almost exclusively in the interstitial environment and are highly adapted to move between sand grains, relying mostly on ciliary locomotion: Apharyngtidae n. fam., Dinophilidae, Diurodrilidae, Nerillidae, Lobatocerebridae, Parergodrilidae, Polygordiidae, Protodrilidae, Protodriloididae, Psammodrilidae and Saccocirridae. [...] Read more.
Members of the following marine annelid families are found almost exclusively in the interstitial environment and are highly adapted to move between sand grains, relying mostly on ciliary locomotion: Apharyngtidae n. fam., Dinophilidae, Diurodrilidae, Nerillidae, Lobatocerebridae, Parergodrilidae, Polygordiidae, Protodrilidae, Protodriloididae, Psammodrilidae and Saccocirridae. This article provides a review of the evolution, systematics, and diversity of these families, with the exception of Parergodrilidae, which was detailed in the review of Orbiniida by Meca, Zhadan, and Struck within this Special Issue. While several of the discussed families have previously only been known by a few described species, recent surveys inclusive of molecular approaches have increased the number of species, showing that all of the aforementioned families exhibit a high degree of cryptic diversity shadowed by a limited number of recognizable morphological traits. This is a challenge for studies of the evolution, taxonomy, and diversity of interstitial families as well as for their identification and incorporation into ecological surveys. By compiling a comprehensive and updated review on these interstitial families, we hope to promote new studies on their intriguing evolutionary histories, adapted life forms and high and hidden diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Biodiversity of Annelids)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Weeds Hinder the Establishment of Native Plants on a Reclaimed North American Boreal Mine Site?
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020076 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The majority of plant diversity in the boreal forest of northern Alberta, Canada is comprised of native understory plant species that are continuously facing competition from other species, including both undesirable native and weedy species. In oil sands mine reclamation, cover soils rich [...] Read more.
The majority of plant diversity in the boreal forest of northern Alberta, Canada is comprised of native understory plant species that are continuously facing competition from other species, including both undesirable native and weedy species. In oil sands mine reclamation, cover soils rich in organic matter are used to cap overburden materials. The aim of this study is to understand the role of weeds on different reclamation cover soils (forest floor-mineral mix and peat-mineral mix) and determine if they hinder the establishment of the native plant community. This study was conducted four growing seasons after site establishment in June 2019. At that time, both soil types had approximately 45% total cover, had 21 species per plot, and were composed of mainly native vegetation. Competition from non-native forbs (11% average cover, mainly Sonchus arvensis and Melilotus alba) did not seem to impact the development of the native vegetation community on either soil type given the high cover and richness of native forbs. However, native graminoids (predominantly Calamagrostis canadensis) were associated with reduced native forb cover and richness at graminoid cover greater than 17%. Overall, non-native forbs appeared to have little impact on the native forb community on either soil type while native graminoids had a negative influence. We suggest that the classification of what is considered an undesirable weedy species should be evaluated in the context of ecosystem management goals rather than simply the presence of non-native species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Avian Haemosporidian Diversity on Sardinia: A First General Assessment for the Insular Mediterranean
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020075 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
The Western Palearctic is one of the most investigated regions for avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon), yet geographic gaps in our regional knowledge remain. Here, we report the first haemosporidian screening of the breeding birds from Sardinia (the [...] Read more.
The Western Palearctic is one of the most investigated regions for avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon), yet geographic gaps in our regional knowledge remain. Here, we report the first haemosporidian screening of the breeding birds from Sardinia (the second-largest Mediterranean Island and a biodiversity hotspot), and the first for the insular Mediterranean in general. We examined the occurrence of haemosporidians by amplifying their mtDNA cytb gene in 217 breeding birds, belonging to 32 species. The total prevalence of infected birds was 55.3%, and of the 116 haplotypes recovered, 84 were novel. Despite the high number of novel lineages, phylogenetic analysis did not highlight Sardinia-specific clades; instead, some Sardinian lineages were more closely related to lineages previously recovered from continental Europe. Host-parasite network analysis indicated a specialized host-parasite community. Binomial generalized linear models (GLMs), performed at the community level, suggested an elevational effect on haemosporidian occurrence probability (negative for Haemoproteus; positive for Leucocytozoon) likely due to differences in the abundance of insect vectors at different elevations. Furthermore, a GLM revealed that sedentary birds showed a higher probability of being infected by novel haplotypes and long-distance migrants showed a lower probability of novel haplotype infection. We hypothesize that the high diversity of haemosporidians is linked to the isolation of breeding bird populations on Sardinia. This study adds to the growing knowledge on haemosporidians lineage diversity and distribution in insular environments and presents new insights on potential host-parasite associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bird Parasites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
18S rRNA Analysis Reveals High Diversity of Phytoplankton with Emphasis on a Naked Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium sp. at the Han River (Korea)
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020073 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Biomonitoring of phytoplankton communities in freshwater ecosystems is imperative for efficient water quality management. In the present study, we present the seasonal diversity of phytoplankton from the non-reservoir area of the Han River (Korea), assessed using the 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our results [...] Read more.
Biomonitoring of phytoplankton communities in freshwater ecosystems is imperative for efficient water quality management. In the present study, we present the seasonal diversity of phytoplankton from the non-reservoir area of the Han River (Korea), assessed using the 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our results uncovered a considerably high eukaryotic diversity, which was predominantly represented by phytoplankton in all the seasons (38–63%). Of these, the diatoms, Cyclostephanos tholiformis, Stephanodiscus hantzschii, and Stephanodiscus sp., were frequently detected in spring and winter. Interestingly, for the first time in the Han River, we detected a large number of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) reads belonging to the naked dinoflagellate Gymnodinium sp., which dominated in autumn (15.8%) and was observed only in that season. Molecular cloning and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Gymnodinium sp. in the samples collected in 2012 and 2019. Moreover, a comparison of the present data with our previous data from a reservoir area (Paldang Dam) revealed similar patterns of phytoplankton communities. This molecular approach revealed a prospective toxic species that was not detected through microscopy. Collectively, resolving phytoplankton communities at a level relevant for water quality management will provide a valuable reference for future studies on phytoplankton for environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Diversity and Culture Collections)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Current State of Eunicida (Annelida) Systematics and Biodiversity
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020074 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
In this study, we analyze the current state of knowledge on extant Eunicida systematics, morphology, feeding, life history, habitat, ecology, distribution patterns, local diversity and exploitation. Eunicida is an order of Errantia annelids characterized by the presence of ventral mandibles and dorsal maxillae [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyze the current state of knowledge on extant Eunicida systematics, morphology, feeding, life history, habitat, ecology, distribution patterns, local diversity and exploitation. Eunicida is an order of Errantia annelids characterized by the presence of ventral mandibles and dorsal maxillae in a ventral muscularized pharynx. The origin of Eunicida dates back to the late Cambrian, and the peaks of jaw morphology diversity and number of families are in the Ordovician. Species richness is heterogeneous among the seven recent families, with more than half of the valid species belonging to the Eunicidae + Onuphidae clade, one of the latest clades to diverge. Eunicidans inhabit soft and hard substrates from intertidal to deep waters in all oceans. The few freshwater species are restricted to Histriobdellidae, a family exclusively commensal/parasite of crustaceans. The reproductive biology, development and ecology of most families are poorly known and the information available suggests low dispersal ability. However, all families have records of widely distributed species. Scrutiny of these wide distributions has often revealed the presence of exotic species or more than one species. The exploration of the deep-sea and of new habitats has led to recent descriptions of new species. Furthermore, the revision of type specimens, the examination of new morphological features and the use of molecular data have revealed hidden biodiversity under unjustified synonyms, poor understanding of morphological features and incomplete descriptions. Molecular studies are still very few or nonexistent for the families Histriobdellidae, Hartmaniellidae, Lumbrineridae and Oenonidae. The integration of new methodologies for morphological and molecular study, along with information on biological and ecological traits appears to be the path to improve the knowledge on the diversity of Eunicida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Biodiversity of Annelids)
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Open AccessArticle
Genesis, Evolution, and Genetic Diversity of the Hexaploid, Narrow Endemic Centaurea tentudaica
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020072 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Within the genus Centaurea L., polyploidy is very common, and it is believed that, as to all angiosperms, it was key in the history of its diversification and evolution. Centaurea tentudaica is a hexaploid from subsect. Chamaecyanus of unknown origin. In this study, [...] Read more.
Within the genus Centaurea L., polyploidy is very common, and it is believed that, as to all angiosperms, it was key in the history of its diversification and evolution. Centaurea tentudaica is a hexaploid from subsect. Chamaecyanus of unknown origin. In this study, we examined the possible autopolyploid or allopolyploid origin using allozymes and sequences of three molecular markers: nuclear-ribosomic region ETS, and low-copy genes AGT1 and PgiC. We also included three species geographically and morphologically close to C. tentudaica: C. amblensis, C. galianoi, and C. ornata. Neighbor-Net and Bayesian analyses show a close relationship between C. amblensis and C. tentudaica and no relationship to any of the other species, which suggest that C. tentudaica is an autopolyploid of C. amblensis. Allozyme banding pattern also supports the autopolyploidy hypothesis and shows high levels of genetic diversity in the polyploid, which could suggest multiple origins by recurrent crosses of tetraploid and diploid cytotypes of C. amblensis. Environmental niche modeling was used to analyze the distribution of the possible parental species during the present, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Last Interglacial Period (LIG), and Penultimate Glacial Maximum (PGM) environmental conditions. Supporting the molecular suggestions that C. tentudaica originated from C. amblensis, environmental niche modeling confirms that past distribution of C. amblensis overlapped with the distribution of C. tentudaica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation Genetics and Biogeography of Seed Plant Species)
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Open AccessArticle
Long Term Interactions of Native and Invasive Species in a Marine Protected Area Suggest Complex Cascading Effects Challenging Conservation Outcomes
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020071 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Understanding the interactions among invasive species, native species and marine protected areas (MPAs), and the long-term regime shifts in MPAs is receiving increased attention, since biological invasions can alter the structure and functioning of the protected ecosystems and challenge conservation efforts. Here we [...] Read more.
Understanding the interactions among invasive species, native species and marine protected areas (MPAs), and the long-term regime shifts in MPAs is receiving increased attention, since biological invasions can alter the structure and functioning of the protected ecosystems and challenge conservation efforts. Here we found evidence of marked modifications in the rocky reef associated biota in a Mediterranean MPA from 2009 to 2019 through visual census surveys, due to the presence of invasive species altering the structure of the ecosystem and triggering complex cascading effects on the long term. Low levels of the populations of native high-level predators were accompanied by the population increase and high performance of both native and invasive fish herbivores. Subsequently the overgrazing and habitat degradation resulted in cascading effects towards the diminishing of the native and invasive invertebrate grazers and omnivorous benthic species. Our study represents a good showcase of how invasive species can coexist or exclude native biota and at the same time regulate or out-compete other established invaders and native species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Sea)
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Open AccessArticle
The Analysis of Italian Plant Agrobiodiversity Databases Reveals That Hilly and Sub-Mountain Areas Are Hotspots of Herbaceous Landraces
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020070 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Landraces are an agri-food and historical-cultural heritage but are undergoing losses worldwide. Italy is taking action to counteract this problem by following European guidelines. One of the most important measures is the Agrobiodiversity National Register (ANR), but 12 Italian regions currently appear without [...] Read more.
Landraces are an agri-food and historical-cultural heritage but are undergoing losses worldwide. Italy is taking action to counteract this problem by following European guidelines. One of the most important measures is the Agrobiodiversity National Register (ANR), but 12 Italian regions currently appear without any landraces and around 80% of the landraces listed are trees, with less detailed data on herbaceous species. The aim of this study is to investigate the situation for Italian herbaceous landraces preserved on farms (in situ) by merging and analyzing data contained in the main databases on plant agrobiodiversity in Italy. Data were georeferenced, organized by botanic families and Italian regions, and analyzed by GIS and R. A total of 1615 herbaceous landraces were found (versus the 416 recorded in the ANR). Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae together comprise 70% of all herbaceous landraces and are mostly preserved/grown in areas between 150 and 800 m a.s.l. Some hilly and sub-mountain areas of the Apennines and the Alps are hotspots of herbaceous landraces due to anthropic and environmental factors. The results of this research will be useful to enrich the ANR and trigger actions of characterization, conservation, and promotion of these plant resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
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