Understanding temporal changes in the distribution and abundance of various species is one of the key goals of conservation biology. During recent decades, the abundance and distribution of many species of plants and animals have declined dramatically, mainly because of habitat loss and fragmentation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the rate of extinction of orchids at various sites in different 20-year time intervals over the last 150 years, determined according to changes in society. Using the dataset of the orchid records of the Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic, we determined the disappearance rate of orchids from sites using a grid of 1 × 1 km. We found that the vast majority of orchids disappeared from many of their historical localities in all time intervals analyzed. The number of sites suitable for Czech orchids declined by 8–92%, depending on the species. The most threatened orchid species in the Czech Republic are Spiranthes spiralis
, Anacamptis palustris
, Epipogium aphyllum
and Goodyera repens
. This all seems to be closely related with changes in agricultural practices in the open as well as in forest habitats. Preserving suitable orchid habitats seems to be the key for keeping Czech orchid flora alive.
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