Special Issue "Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Prebiotics and Probiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc.Prof. Dr. Vanessa Stadlbauer-Köllner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria
Interests: cirrhosis; microbiome; probiotic; prebiotic; sarcopenia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term “probiotic” was coined by the Noble prize winner Ilia Metchnikoff more than 100 years ago, who hypothesized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with bacteria found in yogurt. The development of modern, culture-independent ways to study microbiome composition at various sites within and outside the human body has greatly enlarged our knowledge on the role of the microbiome in health and disease. However, many of these studies are descriptive and report associations rather than causality. Furthermore, there is a high demand for therapeutic strategies that utilize or target the human microbiome to prevent or treat diseases. With this Special Issue of the journal Nutrients, this knowledge gap should be filled by high-quality data on the effect of probiotics and prebiotics in health and disease.

Dr. Vanessa Stadlbauer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • Probiotic
  • Prebiotic
  • Microbiome
  • Clinical research
  • Prevention
  • Gut–liver axis
  • Gut–brain axis
  • Gut permeability
  • Inflammation
  • Bacterial translocation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Safety Assessment of Bacteroides Uniformis CECT 7771, a Symbiont of the Gut Microbiota in Infants
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020551 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The formulation of next-generation probiotics requires competent preclinical studies to show their efficacy and safety status. This study aims to confirm the safety of the prolonged oral use of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771, a strain that protected against metabolic disorders and obesity in [...] Read more.
The formulation of next-generation probiotics requires competent preclinical studies to show their efficacy and safety status. This study aims to confirm the safety of the prolonged oral use of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771, a strain that protected against metabolic disorders and obesity in preclinical trials, in a sub-chronic 90 day trial in animals. The safety assessment was conducted in male and female Wistar rats (n = 50) administered increasing doses (108 CFU/day, 109 CFU/day, or 1010 CFU/day) of B. uniformis CECT 7771, 1010 CFU/day of B. longum ATCC 15707T, which complies with the qualifying presumption of safety (QPS) status of the EU, or vehicle (placebo), as the control. Pancreatic, liver, and kidney functions and cytokine concentrations were analyzed. Bacterial translocation to peripheral tissues was evaluated, and colon integrity was investigated histologically. No adverse metabolic or tissue integrity alterations were associated with treatments; however, alanine aminotransferase levels and the ratio of anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum indicated a potentially beneficial role of B. uniformis CECT 7771 at specific doses. Additionally, the microbial community structure was modified by the interventions, and potentially beneficial gut bacteria were increased. The results indicated that the oral consumption of B. uniformis CECT 7771 during a sub-chronic 90 day study in rats did not raise safety concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Strain-Specific Probiotic Properties of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli for the Prevention of Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus in a Preclinical Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020498 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to [...] Read more.
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to test their comparative efficacy. Neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, or Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 from days 2–14 of life. On day five, animals received RV SA-11 orally. Fecal samples were collected daily, weighed, and scored for the calculation of severity and incidence of diarrhea. In addition, fecal pH and fecal viral shedding were measured. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and their blood was obtained for the quantification of RV-specific immunoglobulins. RV infection was induced in ~90% of the animals. All probiotics caused a reduction of several clinical variables of severity and incidence of diarrhea, except L. salivarius PS2. L. acidophilus NCFM, B. breve M-16V, and L. helveticus R0052 seemed to be very effective probiotic strains. In addition, all Lactobacillus strains reduced the viral elimination one day post-inoculation. No differences were detected in the specific anti-RV humoral response. The present study highlights the strain-specific effects of probiotics and identifies promising probiotics for use in ameliorating and preventing RV-induced diarrhea in children, for example by including them in infant formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
A Probiotic Preparation Hydrolyzes Gliadin and Protects Intestinal Cells from the Toxicity of Pro-Inflammatory Peptides
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020495 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating the capacity of a probiotic mixture (two different strains of lactobacilli and three of bifidobacteria) to hydrolyze gluten peptides following simulated gastrointestinal digestion of gliadin (PT-gliadin). The capacity of bacterial hydrolysates to counteract the toxic effects of gliadin-derived peptides in Caco-2 cells was also assessed. The protein and peptide mixtures, untreated or proteolyzed with the probiotic preparation, were analyzed before and after each proteolytic step with different techniques (SDS-PAGE, reverse phase HPLC, filtration on different molecular cut-off membranes). These experiments demonstrated that PT-gliadin can be further digested by bacteria into lower molecular weight peptides. PT-gliadin, untreated or digested with the probiotics, was then used to evaluate oxidative stress, IL-6 cytokine production and expression of tight junctions’ proteins—such as occludin and zonulin—in Caco-2 cells. PT-gliadin induced IL-6 production and modulation and redistribution of zonulin and occludin, while digestion with the probiotic strains reversed these effects. Our data indicate that this probiotic mixture may exert a protective role in CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Fucose Ameliorates Tryptophan Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Colitis
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020445 - 11 Feb 2020
Abstract
Growing evidence suggests that intestinal mucosa homeostasis impacts immunity, metabolism, the Central Nervous System (CNS), and behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of the monosaccharide fucose on inflammation, metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and social behavior in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mouse [...] Read more.
Growing evidence suggests that intestinal mucosa homeostasis impacts immunity, metabolism, the Central Nervous System (CNS), and behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of the monosaccharide fucose on inflammation, metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and social behavior in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model. Our data show that chronic colitis is accompanied by the decrease of the serum tryptophan level and the depletion of the intestinal microbiota, specifically tryptophan-producing E. coli and Bifidobacterium. These changes are associated with defects in the male mouse social behavior such as a lack of preference towards female bedding in an odor preference test. The addition of fucose to the test animals’ diet altered the bacterial community, increased the abundance of tryptophan-producing E. coli, normalized blood tryptophan levels, and ameliorated social behavior deficits. At the same time, we observed no ameliorating effect of fucose on colon morphology and colitis. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which intestinal inflammation affects social behavior in male mice. We propose fucose as a promising prebiotic, since it creates a favorable environment for the beneficial bacteria that promote normalization of serum tryptophan level and amelioration of the behavioral abnormalities in the odor preference test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Synbiotic Combination of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) and Lactobacillus acidophilus Inhibits Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010103 - 30 Dec 2019
Abstract
Djulis is a functional grain containing prebiotic dietary fiber, which has an anti-cancer potential. This study examined the preventive effect of djulis alone or in combination with Lactobacillus acidophilus on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Rats were [...] Read more.
Djulis is a functional grain containing prebiotic dietary fiber, which has an anti-cancer potential. This study examined the preventive effect of djulis alone or in combination with Lactobacillus acidophilus on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Rats were divided into five groups and fed B (AIN-93G, blank), C (AIN-93G, control), D (10% djulis), DLA (10% djulis plus 5 × 106 cfu L. acidophilus/g), and DHA (10% djulis plus 5 × 107 cfu L. acidophilus/g) diets, respectively. All rats except for those in group B received three doses of DMH (40 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and 3% DSS in drinking water. After 10 weeks of feeding, the colon was analyzed for precancerous lesions and biomarkers. DMH and DSS treatment induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF), especially in the distal colon. D, DLA, and DHA significantly reduced the numbers of total ACF, sialomucin-producing ACF (SIM-ACF), and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the distal colon compared to C. Additionally, DLA and DHA further downregulated the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and regulated apoptosis-related proteins. These results suggest that synbiotic combination of djulis and L. acidophilus shows the best inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis via regulation of proliferative, inflammatory, and apoptotic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020346 - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory [...] Read more.
Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory characteristics. A mixture of two kinds of milk promotes kefir sensory and rheological properties aside from improving its nutritional value. Additives such as inulin can also enrich kefir’s health qualities and organoleptic characters. Several metabolic products are generated during kefir production and account for its distinct flavour and aroma: Lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and aroma compounds such as acetoin and acetaldehyde. During the storage process, microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir can further undergo changes, some of which improve its shelf life. Kefir exhibits many health benefits owing to its antimicrobial, anticancer, gastrointestinal tract effects, gut microbiota modulation and anti-diabetic effects. The current review presents the state of the art relating to the role of probiotics, prebiotics, additives, and different manufacturing practices in the context of kefir’s physicochemical, sensory, and chemical properties. A review of kefir’s many nutritional and health benefits, underlying chemistry and limitations for usage is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Probiotics: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010132 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
Probiotic is little known for its benefits on upper gastrointestinal health. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of probiotics in alleviating the frequency and severity of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general adult population. The [...] Read more.
Probiotic is little known for its benefits on upper gastrointestinal health. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of probiotics in alleviating the frequency and severity of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general adult population. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for prospective studies on GERD, heartburn, regurgitation, and dyspepsia, without any limitation on sample size. The Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of randomized controlled trials. In total, 13 prospective studies that were published in 12 articles were included in the analysis and scored per the Jadad scale as high- (five studies), medium- (two), and low- (six) quality. One article reported on two probiotic groups; thus, 14 comparisons were included in the selected studies, of which 11 (79%) reported positive benefits of probiotics on symptoms of GERD. Five out of 11 positive outcomes (45%) noted benefits on reflux symptoms: three noted reduced regurgitation; improvements in reflux or heartburn were seen in one study; five (45%) saw improvements in dyspepsia symptoms; and nine (81%) saw improvements in other upper gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea (three studies), abdominal pain (five), and gas-related symptoms (four), such as belching, gurgling, and burping. In conclusion, probiotic use can be beneficial for GERD symptoms, such as regurgitation and heartburn. However, proper placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trials with a sufficient number of participants are warranted to confirm its efficacy in alleviating these symptoms. Further, interventions with longer durations and an intermediate analysis of endpoints should be considered to determine the proper therapeutic window. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Probiotic Species on Iron Absorption and Iron Status
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122938 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
Background: Strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia (IDA) have varying effectiveness. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of probiotics on iron absorption and iron status-related markers in humans. Methods: We followed the preferred [...] Read more.
Background: Strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia (IDA) have varying effectiveness. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of probiotics on iron absorption and iron status-related markers in humans. Methods: We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Relevant articles were identified from Embase, Pubmed, Scopus, and CINAHL from inception to February, 2019. We conducted a meta-analysis for eight studies examining the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v) on iron absorption. Results: Fifteen studies reported in 12 articles were identified (N = 950). Our meta-analysis of eight studies using a random-effects model demonstrated a significant increase in iron absorption following administration of the probiotic Lp299v with a pooled standardized mean difference (an average intervention effect size) of 0.55 (95% CI 0.22–0.88, p = 0.001). Of the seven randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized clinical trials examining a range of probiotic species on iron status, only one study supplementing with Lp299v showed improvement in serum iron; no other studies reported improvement in iron status-related indices with probiotic treatment. Conclusions: Lp299v significantly improved iron absorption in humans. Future research should include the assessment of Lp299v effect on iron absorption and iron status in populations at high risk of IDA, including pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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