Special Issue "Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Prebiotics and Probiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vanessa Stadlbauer-Köllner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria
Interests: cirrhosis; microbiome; probiotic; prebiotic; sarcopenia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term “probiotic” was coined by the Noble prize winner Ilia Metchnikoff more than 100 years ago, who hypothesized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with bacteria found in yogurt. The development of modern, culture-independent ways to study microbiome composition at various sites within and outside the human body has greatly enlarged our knowledge on the role of the microbiome in health and disease. However, many of these studies are descriptive and report associations rather than causality. Furthermore, there is a high demand for therapeutic strategies that utilize or target the human microbiome to prevent or treat diseases. With this Special Issue of the journal Nutrients, this knowledge gap should be filled by high-quality data on the effect of probiotics and prebiotics in health and disease.

Dr. Vanessa Stadlbauer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Probiotic
  • Prebiotic
  • Microbiome
  • Clinical research
  • Prevention
  • Gut–liver axis
  • Gut–brain axis
  • Gut permeability
  • Inflammation
  • Bacterial translocation

Published Papers (44 papers)

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Article
Interleukin-6 Gene Expression Changes after a 4-Week Intake of a Multispecies Probiotic in Major Depressive Disorder—Preliminary Results of the PROVIT Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092575 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent disease, in which one third of sufferers do not respond to antidepressants. Probiotics have the potential to be well-tolerated and cost-efficient treatment options. However, the molecular pathways of their effects are not fully elucidated yet. Based [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent disease, in which one third of sufferers do not respond to antidepressants. Probiotics have the potential to be well-tolerated and cost-efficient treatment options. However, the molecular pathways of their effects are not fully elucidated yet. Based on previous literature, we assume that probiotics can positively influence inflammatory mechanisms. We aimed at analyzing the effects of probiotics on gene expression of inflammation genes as part of the randomized, placebo-controlled, multispecies probiotics PROVIT study in Graz, Austria. Fasting blood of 61 inpatients with MDD was collected before and after four weeks of probiotic intake or placebo. We analyzed the effects on gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In IL-6 we found no significant main effects for group (F(1,44) = 1.33, p = ns) nor time (F(1,44) = 0.00, p = ns), but interaction was significant (F(1,44) = 5.67, p < 0.05). The intervention group showed decreasing IL-6 gene expression levels while the placebo group showed increasing gene expression levels of IL-6. Probiotics could be a useful additional treatment in MDD, due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Results of the current study are promising, but further studies are required to investigate the beneficial effects of probiotic interventions in depressed individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
PHAGE-2 Study: Supplemental Bacteriophages Extend Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04 Benefits on Gut Health and Microbiota in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082474 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
Probiotics are increasingly used by consumers and practitioners to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress and improve gut function. Here, we sought to determine whether the addition of supplemental bacteriophages (PreforPro) could enhance the effects of a common probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. [...] Read more.
Probiotics are increasingly used by consumers and practitioners to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress and improve gut function. Here, we sought to determine whether the addition of supplemental bacteriophages (PreforPro) could enhance the effects of a common probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) on GI health. A total of 68 participants were enrolled in a 4-week, randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where primary outcomes included self-assessments of GI health, a daily stool log, and 16s rRNA analysis of gut microbial populations. We observed within-group improvements in GI inflammation (p = 0.01) and a trending improvement in colon pain (p = 0.08) in individuals consuming B. lactis with PreforPro, but not in the group consuming only the probiotic. There was also a larger increase in Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid-producing microbial taxa detected in the stool of participants taking PreforPro with B. lactis compared to the probiotic alone. Overall, these results suggest the addition of PreforPro as a combination therapy may alter gut ecology to extend the GI benefits of consuming B. lactis or other probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Effects of Probiotic Strains on Disease Activity and Enteric Permeability in Psoriatic Arthritis–A Pilot Open-Label Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082337 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1948
Abstract
(1) Background: Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) is a painful disease of the joints and spine. Recent reports observed distinct enteric dysbiosis in PsA; intake of probiotic strains is considered to ameliorate enteric dysbiosis. If probiotics are effective in PsA is elusive. (2) Methods: In [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) is a painful disease of the joints and spine. Recent reports observed distinct enteric dysbiosis in PsA; intake of probiotic strains is considered to ameliorate enteric dysbiosis. If probiotics are effective in PsA is elusive. (2) Methods: In this pilot open-label study we enrolled 10 PsA patients with low to medium disease activity who received probiotics for 12 weeks. Analysis of faecal zonulin, α1-antitrypsin and calprotectin, as well as peripheral immune phenotyping was performed at baseline, after 12 weeks and 12 weeks after termination of probiotic intake. (3) Results: All patients showed increased levels of the enteric permeability marker zonulin which correlated with the frequency of peripheral Th17 cells. Calprotectin, a marker for intestinal inflammation was elevated in 6 out of 10 patients. Probiotic intake resulted in a reduction of disease activity and gut permeability. These effects, however, were not sustained beyond termination of probiotic intake. (4) Conclusions: PsA patients suffer from enhanced enteric permeability and inflammation. Probiotics may ameliorate disease activity in PsA by targeting these alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Impact of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus casei Strain IMAU60214 on the Immune Function of Macrophages in Malnourished Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082303 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Malnutrition is commonly associated with immunological deregulation, increasing the risk of infectious illness and death. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei IMAU60214 on monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from well-nourished healthy children, well-nourished infected children [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is commonly associated with immunological deregulation, increasing the risk of infectious illness and death. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei IMAU60214 on monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from well-nourished healthy children, well-nourished infected children and malnourished infected children, which was evaluated by an oxygen-dependent microbicidal mechanism assay of luminol-increase chemiluminescence and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-10, as well as phagocytosis using zymosan and as its antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. We found that reactive oxygen species (ROS), secretion cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels), phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity increased in all groups after pre-treatment with heat-killed L. casei IMAU60214 at a ratio of 500:1 (bacteria:MDM) over 24 h compared with MDM cells without pre-treatment. The results could indicate that heat-killed L. casei IMAU60214 is a potential candidate for regulating the immune function of macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Barrier Protection and Recovery Effects of Gut Commensal Bacteria on Differentiated Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082251 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Alterations in the gut microbiota composition play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as specific commensal bacterial species are underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of three commensal bacterial [...] Read more.
Alterations in the gut microbiota composition play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as specific commensal bacterial species are underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of three commensal bacterial species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), Roseburia intestinalis (R. intestinalis) and Bacteroides faecis (B. faecis) in an in vitro model of intestinal inflammation, by using differentiated Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells, stimulated with a pro-inflammatory cocktail consisting of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFNγ), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results obtained in this work demonstrated that all three bacterial species are able to recover the impairment of the epithelial barrier function induced by the inflammatory stimulus, as determined by an amelioration of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the paracellular permeability of the cell monolayer. Moreover, inflammatory stimulus increased claudin-2 expression and decreased occludin expression were improved in the cells treated with commensal bacteria. Furthermore, the commensals were able to counteract the increased release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by the inflammatory stimulus. These findings indicated that F. prausnitzii, R. intestinalis and B. faecis improve the epithelial barrier integrity and limit inflammatory responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 in Vaginal Samples of Healthy Women after Oral Administration
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082211 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis are common causes of impaired health and quality of life for women. Although antimicrobial agents remain the main strategy for the treatment of vaginal infections, their repeated use involves high rates of resistance and recurrence. Alternative approaches such [...] Read more.
Bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis are common causes of impaired health and quality of life for women. Although antimicrobial agents remain the main strategy for the treatment of vaginal infections, their repeated use involves high rates of resistance and recurrence. Alternative approaches such as probiotics are studied. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 already demonstrated beneficial effects in experimental models of vaginal infections. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the recovery of S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 in vaginal samples in healthy women after oral consumption. Sixty healthy women were randomized to receive a daily dose of S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 or a placebo for 4 weeks. Subcultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to detect the strain in vaginal and stool samples. A safety assessment was carried out throughout the study. Fifty-seven women completed the study. Over the 4-week supplementation phase, S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 has been detected in the vaginal samples of 21% of women (n = 4/19) in the 500 mg Probiotic group and 16% of women (n = 3/19) in the 1000 mg Probiotic group. The strain was detected in the faeces of 90% of women consuming the probiotic. This is the first clinical study demonstrating the migration of yeast from intestine to vagina where it may exert its benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Dynamics of Structural and Functional Changes in Gut Microbiota during Treatment with a Microalgal β-Glucan, Paramylon and the Impact on Gut Inflammation
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082193 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Previously, we have shown that oral administration of yeast derived β-1,3/1,6-d-glucan enhances immune regulation and alters the composition of the gut microbiota. However, it is not known if other structurally distinct β-glucans have similar properties. Here, using C57BL/6 mice, we show [...] Read more.
Previously, we have shown that oral administration of yeast derived β-1,3/1,6-d-glucan enhances immune regulation and alters the composition of the gut microbiota. However, it is not known if other structurally distinct β-glucans have similar properties. Here, using C57BL/6 mice, we show the potential of a microalgae derived β-1,3-d-glucan, paramylon (PM), in shaping the gut microbiota and modulating the susceptibility to colitis. The community structure within the gut microbiota showed progressive changes including selective enrichment of specific communities and lowered community richness and diversity during prolonged oral treatment with PM. Compared to control mice, the gut microbiota of PM-treated mice had significantly higher abundance of Verrucomicrobia and lower abundance of Firmicutes. Specific taxa that were significantly more abundant in PM-treated mice include Akkermansia muciniphila and several Bacteroides members. Predictive functional analysis revealed overrepresentation of carbohydrate metabolism function in the fecal microbiota of PM recipients compared to controls, and this function was linked to Bacteroides spp. Prolonged pretreatment with PM not only diminished susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis severity, but also caused enhanced immune regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates the prebiotic properties of PM and the potential benefits of its prolonged oral consumption to gut health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Effect of a Nutritional Intervention on the Intestinal Microbiota of Vertically HIV-Infected Children: The Pediabiota Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072112 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Aims: The gut microbiota exerts a critical influence in the immune system. The gut microbiota of human virus immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected children remains barely explored. We aimed to characterize the fecal microbiota in vertically HIV-infected children and to explore the effects of its modulation [...] Read more.
Aims: The gut microbiota exerts a critical influence in the immune system. The gut microbiota of human virus immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected children remains barely explored. We aimed to characterize the fecal microbiota in vertically HIV-infected children and to explore the effects of its modulation with a symbiotic nutritional intervention. Methods: a pilot, double blind, randomized placebo-controlled study including HIV-infected children who were randomized to receive a nutritional supplementation including prebiotics and probiotics or placebo for four weeks. HIV-uninfected siblings were recruited as controls. The V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced in fecal samples. Results: 22 HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with viral load (VL) <50/mL completed the follow-up period. Mean age was 11.4 ± 3.4 years, eight (32%) were male. Their microbiota showed reduced alpha diversity compared to controls and distinct beta diversity at the genus level (Adonis p = 0.042). Patients showed decreased abundance of commensals Faecalibacterium and an increase in Prevotella, Akkermansia and Escherichia. The nutritional intervention shaped the microbiota towards the control group, without a clear directionality. Conclusions: Vertical HIV infection is characterized by changes in gut microbiota structure, distinct at the compositional level from the findings reported in adults. A short nutritional intervention attenuated bacterial dysbiosis, without clear changes at the community level. Summary: In a group of 24 vertically HIV-infected children, in comparison to 11 uninfected controls, intestinal dysbiosis was observed despite effective ART. Although not fully effective to restore the microbiota, a short intervention with pre/probiotics attenuated bacterial dysbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Sex-Specific Differences in the Gut Microbiome in Response to Dietary Fiber Supplementation in IL-10-Deficient Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072088 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
There is growing interest in studying dietary fiber to stimulate microbiome changes that might prevent or alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, dietary fiber effects have shown varying degrees of efficacy, for reasons that are unclear. This study examined whether the effects of [...] Read more.
There is growing interest in studying dietary fiber to stimulate microbiome changes that might prevent or alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, dietary fiber effects have shown varying degrees of efficacy, for reasons that are unclear. This study examined whether the effects of isomaltodextrin on gut microbiota and IBD were dependent on dose or host sex, using an Interleukin (IL)-10 deficient murine colitis model. After 12 weeks, colonic IL-12p70 was depressed in male mice receiving high-dose isomaltodextrin supplementation compared to the control group (p = 0.04). Male mice receiving high-dose isomaltodextrin exhibited changes in microbial alpha-diversity, including enhanced richness and evenness (p = 0.01) and limited reduction in the relative abundance of Coprococcus (q = 0.08), compared to the control group. These microbial compositional changes were negatively associated with IL-12p70 levels in the male group (rs ≤ −0.51, q ≤ 0.08). In contrast, female mice receiving isomaltodextrin displayed a reduction in alpha-diversity and Coprococcus abundance and a high level of IL-12p70, as did the control group. Together, these results indicate that isomaltodextrin altered the gut microbial composition linking specific immune-regulatory cytokine responses, while the interactions among fiber, microbiota and immune response were dose dependent and largely sex specific. The results further indicate that interactions between environmental and host factors can affect microbiome manipulation in the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Targeting the Intestinal Microbiota to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes and Enhance the Effect of Metformin on Glycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072041 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
Early treatment may prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals who are at high risk. Lifestyle interventions and the hypoglycemic drug metformin have been shown to reduce T2DM incidence. The effectiveness of such interventions may be enhanced [...] Read more.
Early treatment may prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals who are at high risk. Lifestyle interventions and the hypoglycemic drug metformin have been shown to reduce T2DM incidence. The effectiveness of such interventions may be enhanced by targeting environmental factors such as the intestinal microbiota, which has been proven to predict the response to lifestyle interventions and play a part in mediating the glucose-lowering effects of metformin. Shifts in the intestinal microbiota “towards a more balanced state” may promote glucose homeostasis by regulating short-chain fatty acids’ production. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effect of a multi-strain probiotic on glycemic, inflammatory, and permeability markers in adults with prediabetes and early T2DM and to assess whether the probiotic can enhance metformin’s effect on glycaemia. A randomised controlled pilot study was conducted in 60 adults with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and with prediabetes or T2DM (within the previous 12 months). The participants were randomised to a multi-strain probiotic (L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus, L. gasseri, B. breve, B. animalis sbsp. lactis, B. bifidum, S. thermophilus, and S. boulardii) or placebo for 12 weeks. Analyses of the primary outcome (fasting plasma glucose) and secondary outcomes, including, but not limited to, circulating lipopolysaccharide, zonulin, and short chain fatty acids and a metagenomic analysis of the fecal microbiome were performed at baseline and 12 weeks post-intervention. The results showed no significant differences in the primary and secondary outcome measures between the probiotic and placebo group. An analysis of a subgroup of participants taking metformin showed a decrease in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, and zonulin; an increase in plasma butyrate concentrations; and an enrichment of microbial butyrate-producing pathways in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group. Probiotics may act as an adjunctive to metformin by increasing the production of butyrate, which may consequently enhance glucose management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
The Effects of Prebiotic Supplementation with OMNi-LOGiC® FIBRE on Fecal Microbiome, Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds, and Gut Permeability in Murine Neuroblastoma-Induced Tumor-Associated Cachexia
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072029 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Malignant diseases can cause tumor-associated cachexia (TAC). Supplementation with prebiotic non-digestible carbohydrates exerts positive metabolic effects in experimental oncologic diseases. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of prebiotic supplementation with OMNi-LOGiC® FIBRE on intestinal microbiome, bacterial metabolism, gut [...] Read more.
Malignant diseases can cause tumor-associated cachexia (TAC). Supplementation with prebiotic non-digestible carbohydrates exerts positive metabolic effects in experimental oncologic diseases. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of prebiotic supplementation with OMNi-LOGiC® FIBRE on intestinal microbiome, bacterial metabolism, gut permeability, and inflammation in a murine model of neuroblastoma (NB)-associated TAC. For this study, 2,000,000 NB cells (MHH-NB11) were implanted into athymic mice followed by daily supplementation with water or 200 mg prebiotic oligosaccharide (POS) OMNi-LOGiC® FIBRE (NB-Aqua, n = 12; NB-POS, n = 12). Three animals of each tumor group did not develop NB. The median time of tumor growth (first visibility to euthanasia) was 37 days (IQR 12.5 days) in the NB-Aqua group and 37 days (IQR 36.5 days) in the NB-POS group (p = 0.791). At euthanasia, fecal microbiome and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gut permeability (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran), and gut barrier markers were measured. Values were compared to sham animals following injection of culture medium and gavage of either water or OMNi-LOGiC® FIBRE (SH-Aqua, n = 10; SH-POS, n = 10). Alpha diversity did not differ significantly between the groups. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed clustering differences between Aqua and POS animals. Both NB and POS supplementation led to taxonomic alterations of the fecal microbiome. Of 49 VOCs, 22 showed significant differences between the groups. NB animals had significantly higher gut permeability than Aqua animals; POS did not ameliorate these changes. The pore and leak pathways of tight junctions did not differ between groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that NB-induced TAC causes increased gut permeability coupled with compositional changes in the fecal microbiome and VOC profile. Prebiotic supplementation with OMNi-LOGiC® FIBRE seemed to induce modifications of the fecal microbiome and VOC profile but did not improve gut permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
The Effectiveness of Synbiotic Preparation Containing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Probiotic Strains and Short Chain Fructooligosaccharides in Patients with Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome—A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071999 - 05 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
The purpose of the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of synbiotic preparation containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus FloraActive™ 19070-2, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 32418, Bifidobacterium lactis DSMZ 32269, Bifidobacterium longum DSMZ 32946, Bifidobacterium bifidum DSMZ 32403 and fructooligosaccharides in adult patients [...] Read more.
The purpose of the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of synbiotic preparation containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus FloraActive™ 19070-2, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 32418, Bifidobacterium lactis DSMZ 32269, Bifidobacterium longum DSMZ 32946, Bifidobacterium bifidum DSMZ 32403 and fructooligosaccharides in adult patients with diarrhea-dominant IBS (IBS-D). The study included eighty patients with moderate and severe IBS-D who were randomized to receive synbiotics or placebo for eight weeks. Finally, a total of sixty-eight patients finished the study. The primary endpoints included the assessment of the symptoms’ severity with IBS symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS), an improvement of IBS global symptoms with Global Improvement Scale (IBS-GIS) and adequate relief of symptoms after four and eight weeks of therapy. Secondary endpoints, which were collected by telephone interviewers three times a week included the assessment of individual IBS symptoms and adverse events. Synbiotic treatment in comparison to placebo significantly improved IBS-GIS (p = 0.043), and IBS-SSS score inducing a decrease in the total IBS-SSS (p = 0.042) and in domain-specific scores related to flatulence (p = 0.028) and bowel habit (p = 0.028) after four and eight weeks. Patients treated with synbiotics reported in weekly observations a significant amelioration in a feeling of incomplete bowel movements, flatulence, pain, stool pressure and diarrheal stools compared to those receiving placebo. There were no differences in adverse events between both groups. Concluding, the multi-strain synbiotic preparation was associated with a significant improvement in symptoms in IBS-D patients and was well-tolerated. These results suggest that the use of synbiotics offers a benefit for IBS-D patients. [Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04206410 registered 20 December 2019]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Effects of Dietary Fibres on Acute Indomethacin-Induced Intestinal Hyperpermeability in the Elderly: A Randomised Placebo Controlled Parallel Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071954 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The effect of dietary fibres on intestinal barrier function has not been well studied, especially in the elderly. We aimed to investigate the potential of the dietary fibres oat β-glucan and wheat arabinoxylan to strengthen the intestinal barrier function and counteract acute non-steroid [...] Read more.
The effect of dietary fibres on intestinal barrier function has not been well studied, especially in the elderly. We aimed to investigate the potential of the dietary fibres oat β-glucan and wheat arabinoxylan to strengthen the intestinal barrier function and counteract acute non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin)-induced hyperpermeability in the elderly. A general population of elderly subjects (≥65 years, n = 49) was randomised to a daily supplementation (12g/day) of oat β-glucan, arabinoxylan or placebo (maltodextrin) for six weeks. The primary outcome was change in acute indomethacin-induced intestinal permeability from baseline, assessed by an in vivo multi-sugar permeability test. Secondary outcomes were changes from baseline in: gut microbiota composition, systemic inflammatory status and self-reported health. Despite a majority of the study population (85%) showing a habitual fibre intake below the recommendation, no significant effects on acute indomethacin-induced intestinal hyperpermeability in vivo or gut microbiota composition were observed after six weeks intervention with either dietary fibre, compared to placebo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Changes in the Intestinal Microbiome during a Multispecies Probiotic Intervention in Compensated Cirrhosis
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061874 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Probiotics have been used in trials to therapeutically modulate the gut microbiome and have shown beneficial effects in cirrhosis. However, their effect on the microbiome of cirrhosis patients is not fully understood yet. Here, we tested the effects of a multispecies probiotic on [...] Read more.
Probiotics have been used in trials to therapeutically modulate the gut microbiome and have shown beneficial effects in cirrhosis. However, their effect on the microbiome of cirrhosis patients is not fully understood yet. Here, we tested the effects of a multispecies probiotic on microbiome composition in compensated cirrhosis. The gut microbiome composition of 58 patients with compensated cirrhosis from a randomized controlled trial who received a daily dose of multispecies probiotics or placebo for six months was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiome composition of patients who received probiotics was enriched with probiotic strains and the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Bacteroides vulgatus, Alistipes shahii and a Prevotella species was increased in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. Patients who had microbiome changes in response to probiotic treatment also showed a significant increase in neopterin and a significant decrease in faecal zonulin levels after intervention, which was not observed in placebo-treated patients or patients with unchanged microbiome compositions. In conclusion, multispecies probiotics may enrich the microbiome of compensated cirrhotic patients with probiotic bacteria during a six-month intervention and beneficially change the residential microbiome and gut barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Anti-Heartburn Effects of Sugar Cane Flour: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061813 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects approximately 20% of Australians. Patients suffer a burning sensation known as heartburn due to the movement of acidic stomach content into the esophagus. There is anecdotal evidence of the effectiveness of prebiotic sugarcane flour in controlling symptoms of [...] Read more.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects approximately 20% of Australians. Patients suffer a burning sensation known as heartburn due to the movement of acidic stomach content into the esophagus. There is anecdotal evidence of the effectiveness of prebiotic sugarcane flour in controlling symptoms of GERD. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a prebiotic sugarcane flour in alleviating symptoms in medically-diagnosed GERD patients. This pilot study was a single center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted on 43 eligible participants. The intervention group (n = 22) were randomized to receive 3 g of sugarcane flour per day, and the control group (n = 21) received 3 g of cellulose placebo per day. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were assessed before and after three weeks treatment using the validated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health Related Quality of Life questionnaire (GERD-HRQL). After three weeks there were significant differences in symptoms for heartburn, regurgitation, and total symptoms scores (p < 0.05) between the sugarcane flour and placebo. Mean GERD-HRQL scores increased in the placebo group for regurgitation (mean increase 1.7; 95% CI 0.23 to 3.2; p = 0.015) and total symptom scores (2.9; 95% CI 0.26 to 5.7; p = 0.033). In contrast, there were significant reductions in heartburn (mean decrease −2.2; 95% CI −4.2 to −0.14; p = 0.037) and total symptom scores (−3.7; 95% CI −7.2 to −0.11; p = 0.044) in the intervention group. This pilot study has shown significant positive effects of sugarcane flour in the reduction of GERD symptoms, and a larger randomized controlled trial is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Intestinal Permeability in Children with Celiac Disease after the Administration of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin into a Gluten-Free Diet—Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Pilot Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061736 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Abnormalities in the intestinal barrier are a possible cause of celiac disease (CD) development. In animal studies, the positive effect of prebiotics on the improvement of gut barrier parameters has been observed, but the results of human studies to date remain inconsistent. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Abnormalities in the intestinal barrier are a possible cause of celiac disease (CD) development. In animal studies, the positive effect of prebiotics on the improvement of gut barrier parameters has been observed, but the results of human studies to date remain inconsistent. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of twelve-week supplementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) with prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (10 g per day) on the intestinal permeability in children with CD treated with a GFD. A pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled nutritional intervention was conducted in 34 children with CD, being on a strict GFD. Sugar absorption test (SAT) and the concentrations of intestinal permeability markers, such as zonulin, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, claudin-3, calprotectin, and glucagon-like peptide-2, were measured. We found that the supplementation with prebiotic did not have a substantial effect on barrier integrity. Prebiotic intake increased excretion of mannitol, which may suggest an increase in the epithelial surface. Most children in our study seem to have normal values for intestinal permeability tests before the intervention. For individuals with elevated values, improvement in calprotectin and SAT was observed after the prebiotic intake. This preliminary study suggests that prebiotics may have an impact on the intestinal barrier, but it requires confirmation in studies with more subjects with ongoing leaky gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota in Stable Cirrhotic Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061651 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Background: In cirrhosis, a pathological gut microbiome has been linked with immune dysfunction. A pilot study of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in alcoholic cirrhosis demonstrated significant improvement in neutrophil function. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LcS on neutrophil function [...] Read more.
Background: In cirrhosis, a pathological gut microbiome has been linked with immune dysfunction. A pilot study of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in alcoholic cirrhosis demonstrated significant improvement in neutrophil function. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LcS on neutrophil function and significant infection rates in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: 92 cirrhotic patients (Child–Pugh score ≤10) were randomized to receive LcS or placebo, three times daily for six months. Primary end-points were incidence of significant infection and neutrophil function. Secondary end-points were cytokine profile, endotoxin, bacterial DNA positivity, intestinal permeability and quality of life. Results: Rates of infection, decompensation or neutrophil function did not differ between placebo and probiotic groups. LcS significantly reduced plasma monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and, on subgroup analysis, plasma interleukin-1β (alcoholic cirrhosis), interleukin-17a and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (non-alcoholic cirrhosis), compared with placebo. No significant differences in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation or metabolomic profile were observed. Conclusion: LcS supplementation in patients with early cirrhosis is safe. Although no significant infections were observed in either group, LcS improved cytokine profile towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, an effect which appears to be independent of bacterial translocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Impact of Short-Term Isoflavone Intervention in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Patients on Microbiota Composition and Metagenomics
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061622 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–20% of women of reproductive age worldwide and is associated with disorders of glucose metabolism. Hormone and metabolic signaling may be influenced by phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones. Their endocrine effects may modify symptom penetrance in PCOS. Equol [...] Read more.
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–20% of women of reproductive age worldwide and is associated with disorders of glucose metabolism. Hormone and metabolic signaling may be influenced by phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones. Their endocrine effects may modify symptom penetrance in PCOS. Equol is one of the most active isoflavone metabolites, produced by intestinal bacteria, and acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Method: In this interventional study of clinical and biochemical characterization, urine isoflavone levels were measured in PCOS and control women before and three days after a defined isoflavone intervention via soy milk. In this interventional study, bacterial equol production was evaluated using the log(equol: daidzein ratio) and microbiome, metabolic, and predicted metagenome analyses were performed. Results: After isoflavone intervention, predicted stool metagenomic pathways, microbial alpha diversity, and glucose homeostasis in PCOS improved resembling the profile of the control group at baseline. In the whole cohort, larger equol production was associated with lower androgen as well as fertility markers. Conclusion: The dynamics in our metabolic, microbiome, and predicted metagenomic profiles underline the importance of external phytohormones on PCOS characteristics and a potential therapeutic approach or prebiotic in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Effect of a Multispecies Probiotic on Intestinal and Skin Colonization by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria in Patients in a Long-Term Care Facility: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061586 - 28 May 2020
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are frequently colonized by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, putting them at risk for subsequent infections. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the multispecies probiotic Omnibiotic10AAD® on the intestinal and inguinal skin colonization of patients by multidrug-resistant [...] Read more.
Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are frequently colonized by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, putting them at risk for subsequent infections. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the multispecies probiotic Omnibiotic10AAD® on the intestinal and inguinal skin colonization of patients by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in LTCFs. Patients colonized by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria received a 12 week oral course of Omnibiotic10AAD®. Inguinal swabs and stool samples were collected during and after treatment for microbiological and microbiome analysis. The median age of patients was 76 years. Twelve patients completed the pilot study. Intestinal colonization was reduced to 42% of patients 8 weeks after the end of treatment, but increased to 66% 24 weeks after the end of probiotic treatment. Colonization of inguinal skin was lowest during probiotic treatment and increased thereafter. Fecal microbiome analysis revealed statistically significant increases of the genus Enterococcus comparing start and end of probiotic treatment. In conclusion, a 12 week course of a multispecies probiotic led to a transient reduction of intestinal colonization 8 weeks after the end of treatment. The findings of our pilot study warrant further research in the area of probiotics and intestinal colonization by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Effect of Supplementation with Saccharomyces Boulardii on Academic Examination Performance and Related Stress in Healthy Medical Students: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051469 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
In recent years, bacterial probiotic dietary supplementation has emerged as a promising way to improve cognition and to alleviate stress and anxiety; however, yeast probiotics have not been tested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 30-day supplementation with Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
In recent years, bacterial probiotic dietary supplementation has emerged as a promising way to improve cognition and to alleviate stress and anxiety; however, yeast probiotics have not been tested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 30-day supplementation with Saccharomyces boulardii enhances academic performance under stress and affects stress markers. The trial was retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03427515). Healthy medical students were randomized to supplement their diet with Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-1079 or placebo before sitting for an academic examination, which served as a model of stress. The grades of a final examination adjusted to subject knowledge tested in non-stressful conditions was used as a primary outcome measure. Psychometrically evaluated state anxiety, cortisol and metanephrine salivary levels, and pulse rate were tested at a non-stressful time point before the intervention as well as just before the stressor. Fifty enrolled participants (22.6 ± 1.4 years of age, 19 males) completed the trial in the Saccharomyces and placebo arms. Supplementation with Saccharomyces did not significantly modify examination performance or increase in state anxiety, salivary cortisol, and metanephrine. However, the intervention resulted in higher increase in pulse rate under stress as compared to placebo by 10.4 (95% CI 4.2–16.6) min−1 (p = 0.0018), and the effect positively correlated with increase in salivary metanephrine (Pearson’s r = 0.35, 95% CI 0.09–0.58, p = 0.012). An intention-to-treat analysis was in line with the per-protocol one. In conclusion, supplementation with Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-1079 appears largely ineffective in improving academic performance under stress and in alleviating some stress markers, but it seems to increase pulse rate under stress, which may hypothetically reflect enhanced sympathoadrenal activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Recipe for a Healthy Gut: Intake of Unpasteurised Milk Is Associated with Increased Lactobacillus Abundance in the Human Gut Microbiome
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051468 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3229
Abstract
Introduction: The gut microbiota plays a role in gut–brain communication and can influence psychological functioning. Diet is one of the major determinants of gut microbiota composition. The impact of unpasteurised dairy products on the microbiota is unknown. In this observational study, we investigated [...] Read more.
Introduction: The gut microbiota plays a role in gut–brain communication and can influence psychological functioning. Diet is one of the major determinants of gut microbiota composition. The impact of unpasteurised dairy products on the microbiota is unknown. In this observational study, we investigated the effect of a dietary change involving intake of unpasteurised dairy on gut microbiome composition and psychological status in participants undertaking a residential 12-week cookery course on an organic farm. Methods: Twenty-four participants completed the study. The majority of food consumed during their stay originated from the organic farm itself and included unpasteurised milk and dairy products. At the beginning and end of the course, participants provided faecal samples and completed self-report questionnaires on a variety of parameters including mood, anxiety and sleep. Nutrient intake was monitored with a food frequency questionnaire. Gut microbiota analysis was performed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured. Results: Relative abundance of the genus Lactobacillus increased significantly between pre- and post-course time points. This increase was associated with participants intake of unpasteurised milk and dairy products. An increase in the faecal SCFA, valerate, was observed along with an increase in the functional richness of the microbiome profile, as determined by measuring the predictive neuroactive potential using a gut–brain module approach. Conclusions: While concerns in relation to safety need to be considered, intake of unpasteurised milk and dairy products appear to be associated with the growth of the probiotic bacterial genus, Lactobacillus, in the human gut. More research is needed on the effect of dietary changes on gut microbiome composition, in particular in relation to the promotion of bacterial genera, such as Lactobacillus, which are recognised as being beneficial for a range of physical and mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Prebiotic Effects of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum on the Composition and Function of the Human Microbiota—Results from the PAGODA Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051257 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2907
Abstract
(1) Background: Alterations in the structural composition of the human gut microbiota have been identified in various disease entities along with exciting mechanistic clues by reductionist gnotobiotic modeling. Improving health by beneficially modulating an altered microbiota is a promising treatment approach. Prebiotics, substrates [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Alterations in the structural composition of the human gut microbiota have been identified in various disease entities along with exciting mechanistic clues by reductionist gnotobiotic modeling. Improving health by beneficially modulating an altered microbiota is a promising treatment approach. Prebiotics, substrates selectively used by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit, are broadly used for dietary and clinical interventions. Herein, we sought to investigate the microbiota-modelling effects of the soluble fiber, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). (2) Methods: We performed a 9 week clinical trial in 20 healthy volunteers that included three weeks of a lead-in period, followed by three weeks of an intervention phase, wherein study subjects received 5 g PHGG up to three times per day, and concluding with a three-week washout period. A stool diary was kept on a daily basis, and clinical data along with serum/plasma and stool samples were collected on a weekly basis. PHGG-induced alterations of the gut microbiota were studied by 16S metagenomics of the V1–V3 and V3–V4 regions. To gain functional insight, we further studied stool metabolites using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. (3) Results: In healthy subjects, PHGG had significant effects on stool frequency and consistency. These effects were paralleled by changes in α- (species evenness) and β-diversity (Bray–Curtis distances), along with increasing abundances of metabolites including butyrate, acetate and various amino acids. On a taxonomic level, PHGG intake was associated with a bloom in Ruminococcus, Fusicatenibacter, Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides and a reduction in Roseburia, Lachnospiracea and Blautia. The majority of effects disappeared after stopping the prebiotic and most effects tended to be more pronounced in male participants. (4) Conclusions: Herein, we describe novel aspects of the prebiotic PHGG on compositional and functional properties of the healthy human microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Hospital Regimens Including Probiotics Guide the Individual Development of the Gut Microbiome of Very Low Birth Weight Infants in the First Two Weeks of Life
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051256 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Background: It is unknown to what extent the microbiome of preterm infants is influenced by hospital regimens including the use of different probiotics when it comes to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: Prospective controlled multicenter cohort study including very low birth [...] Read more.
Background: It is unknown to what extent the microbiome of preterm infants is influenced by hospital regimens including the use of different probiotics when it comes to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: Prospective controlled multicenter cohort study including very low birth weight infants from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) between October 2015 and March 2017. During this time span, stool was sampled every other day during the first two weeks and samples were subjected to amplicon-based microbiome analyses. Out of these, seventeen negative controls were processed (German Registry of Clinical Trials (No.: DRKS00009290)). Results: The groups (3 × 18 infants) showed no statistically significant difference regarding gestational age, birth weight, APGAR scores and oxygen demand. 2029 different taxa were detected, including Enterococcus and Staphylococcus, as well as the probiotic genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium predominating. The bacterial load was found to increase earlier on when probiotics were used. Without probiotics administration, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium contributed only marginally to the fecal microbiome. Some infants did not respond to probiotic administration. The samples from all centers participating reached a very similar diversity after two weeks while the microbiome samples from all three centers clustered significantly yet varied from each other. Conclusion: Probiotics proved to be safe and initiated an earlier increase of bacterial load (with marked individual divergences), which might play a crucial role in the prevention of neonatal morbidities. Meconium was found not to be free of bacterial DNA, and oral antibiotics did not influence the fecal microbiome development negatively, and hospital regimes led to a center-specific, distinct cluster formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Response of the Human Milk Microbiota to a Maternal Prebiotic Intervention Is Individual and Influenced by Maternal Age
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041081 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Maternal bacteria are shared with infants via breastfeeding. Prebiotics modulate the gut microbiota, promoting health benefits. We investigated whether the maternal diet supplementation with a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) could influence the milk microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating women received 4.5 g of fructooligosaccharides + 2 [...] Read more.
Maternal bacteria are shared with infants via breastfeeding. Prebiotics modulate the gut microbiota, promoting health benefits. We investigated whether the maternal diet supplementation with a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) could influence the milk microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating women received 4.5 g of fructooligosaccharides + 2 g of maltodextrin (FOS group) and twenty-five received 2 g of maltodextrin (placebo group) for 20 days. Breast-milk samples were taken before and after the intervention. The DNA from samples was used for 16S rRNA sequencing. No statistical differences between the groups were found for the bacterial genera after the intervention. However, the distances of the trajectories covered by paired samples from the beginning to the end of the supplementation were higher for the FOS group (p = 0.0007) indicating greater changes in milk microbiota compared to the control group. Linear regression models suggested that the maternal age influenced the response for FOS supplementation (p = 0.02). Interestingly, the pattern of changes to genus abundance upon supplementation was not shared between mothers. We demonstrated that manipulating the human milk microbiota through prebiotics is possible, and the maternal age can affect this response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Weight-Reducing Effect of Lactobacillus Plantarum ZJUFT17 Isolated from Sourdough Ecosystem
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040977 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Lactobacillus plantarum ZJUFT17 (T17) is a potential probiotic bacterium isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough. The purpose of this study was to investigate its weight-reducing effects in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further to elucidate possible mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice fed HFD [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus plantarum ZJUFT17 (T17) is a potential probiotic bacterium isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough. The purpose of this study was to investigate its weight-reducing effects in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further to elucidate possible mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice fed HFD were given T17 (2–4 × 108 cfu) intragastrically for 10 weeks. The results showed that the administration of T17 significantly suppressed HFD-induced body weight gain, alleviated HFD-induced increase in serum lipids and decreased energy intake. The serum levels of obesity-related metabolic signaling molecules, including insulin, adiponectin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were markedly improved. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that T17 administration dramatically modulated the gut microbiota, suppressing pathogenic and pro-inflammatory microbes and stimulating the microbes favoring anti-obesity. The weight-reducing efficacy of T17 may be explained by its ability to ameliorate systemic inflammation and insulin resistance mediated by gut microbiota. This study revealed that T17 could ameliorate obesity and the concomitant metabolic syndrome in mice and that the lactic acid bacteria in the sourdough ecosystem may also possess anti-obesity/weight-reducing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Neutral Human Milk Oligosaccharides Are Associated with Multiple Fixed and Modifiable Maternal and Infant Characteristics
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030826 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
We aimed to identify if maternal and infant factors were associated with neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) variability and examined the associations between HMOs concentration and infant growth and disease status in healthy Chinese mothers over a 6-month lactation period. We recruited mothers [...] Read more.
We aimed to identify if maternal and infant factors were associated with neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) variability and examined the associations between HMOs concentration and infant growth and disease status in healthy Chinese mothers over a 6-month lactation period. We recruited mothers and their full-term infants as our subjects. At 1–5 days, 8–14 days, 4 weeks, and 6 months postpartum, all participants were interviewed to collect breast milk samples, obtain follow-up data and measure infant length and weight at their local hospital. A total of 23 neutral HMOs were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- mass spectrometer (MS). Secretor and Lewis phenotype were determined by the concentration of 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP)-II. The associations between maternal and infant factors with HMOs concentrations were investigated. A total of 464 human breast milk samples were collected from 116 mothers at four different time points. In total, 76.7% mothers were found to be Secretor and Lewis positive phenotype (Se+Le+), 17.2% were Se-Le+, 4.3% were Se+Le-, and 1.7% were Se-Le-. Several individual HMOs, including 2′-FL, Lactodifucotetraose (LDFT), LNFP-I were determined by Secretor phenotype. Most individual HMOs decreased at the later stage of lactation, except 3′-FL. We suggest that Secretor phenotype and lactation stage could influence most of the neutral HMOs. Concentrations of specific HMOs may be associated with maternal age, allergic history, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, infant gestational age and gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Safety Assessment of Bacteroides Uniformis CECT 7771, a Symbiont of the Gut Microbiota in Infants
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020551 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
The formulation of next-generation probiotics requires competent preclinical studies to show their efficacy and safety status. This study aims to confirm the safety of the prolonged oral use of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771, a strain that protected against metabolic disorders and obesity in [...] Read more.
The formulation of next-generation probiotics requires competent preclinical studies to show their efficacy and safety status. This study aims to confirm the safety of the prolonged oral use of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771, a strain that protected against metabolic disorders and obesity in preclinical trials, in a sub-chronic 90 day trial in animals. The safety assessment was conducted in male and female Wistar rats (n = 50) administered increasing doses (108 CFU/day, 109 CFU/day, or 1010 CFU/day) of B. uniformis CECT 7771, 1010 CFU/day of B. longum ATCC 15707T, which complies with the qualifying presumption of safety (QPS) status of the EU, or vehicle (placebo), as the control. Pancreatic, liver, and kidney functions and cytokine concentrations were analyzed. Bacterial translocation to peripheral tissues was evaluated, and colon integrity was investigated histologically. No adverse metabolic or tissue integrity alterations were associated with treatments; however, alanine aminotransferase levels and the ratio of anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum indicated a potentially beneficial role of B. uniformis CECT 7771 at specific doses. Additionally, the microbial community structure was modified by the interventions, and potentially beneficial gut bacteria were increased. The results indicated that the oral consumption of B. uniformis CECT 7771 during a sub-chronic 90 day study in rats did not raise safety concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Strain-Specific Probiotic Properties of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli for the Prevention of Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus in a Preclinical Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020498 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to [...] Read more.
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to test their comparative efficacy. Neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, or Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 from days 2–14 of life. On day five, animals received RV SA-11 orally. Fecal samples were collected daily, weighed, and scored for the calculation of severity and incidence of diarrhea. In addition, fecal pH and fecal viral shedding were measured. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and their blood was obtained for the quantification of RV-specific immunoglobulins. RV infection was induced in ~90% of the animals. All probiotics caused a reduction of several clinical variables of severity and incidence of diarrhea, except L. salivarius PS2. L. acidophilus NCFM, B. breve M-16V, and L. helveticus R0052 seemed to be very effective probiotic strains. In addition, all Lactobacillus strains reduced the viral elimination one day post-inoculation. No differences were detected in the specific anti-RV humoral response. The present study highlights the strain-specific effects of probiotics and identifies promising probiotics for use in ameliorating and preventing RV-induced diarrhea in children, for example by including them in infant formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
A Probiotic Preparation Hydrolyzes Gliadin and Protects Intestinal Cells from the Toxicity of Pro-Inflammatory Peptides
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020495 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating the capacity of a probiotic mixture (two different strains of lactobacilli and three of bifidobacteria) to hydrolyze gluten peptides following simulated gastrointestinal digestion of gliadin (PT-gliadin). The capacity of bacterial hydrolysates to counteract the toxic effects of gliadin-derived peptides in Caco-2 cells was also assessed. The protein and peptide mixtures, untreated or proteolyzed with the probiotic preparation, were analyzed before and after each proteolytic step with different techniques (SDS-PAGE, reverse phase HPLC, filtration on different molecular cut-off membranes). These experiments demonstrated that PT-gliadin can be further digested by bacteria into lower molecular weight peptides. PT-gliadin, untreated or digested with the probiotics, was then used to evaluate oxidative stress, IL-6 cytokine production and expression of tight junctions’ proteins—such as occludin and zonulin—in Caco-2 cells. PT-gliadin induced IL-6 production and modulation and redistribution of zonulin and occludin, while digestion with the probiotic strains reversed these effects. Our data indicate that this probiotic mixture may exert a protective role in CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Article
Fucose Ameliorates Tryptophan Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Colitis
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020445 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Growing evidence suggests that intestinal mucosa homeostasis impacts immunity, metabolism, the Central Nervous System (CNS), and behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of the monosaccharide fucose on inflammation, metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and social behavior in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mouse [...] Read more.
Growing evidence suggests that intestinal mucosa homeostasis impacts immunity, metabolism, the Central Nervous System (CNS), and behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of the monosaccharide fucose on inflammation, metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and social behavior in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model. Our data show that chronic colitis is accompanied by the decrease of the serum tryptophan level and the depletion of the intestinal microbiota, specifically tryptophan-producing E. coli and Bifidobacterium. These changes are associated with defects in the male mouse social behavior such as a lack of preference towards female bedding in an odor preference test. The addition of fucose to the test animals’ diet altered the bacterial community, increased the abundance of tryptophan-producing E. coli, normalized blood tryptophan levels, and ameliorated social behavior deficits. At the same time, we observed no ameliorating effect of fucose on colon morphology and colitis. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which intestinal inflammation affects social behavior in male mice. We propose fucose as a promising prebiotic, since it creates a favorable environment for the beneficial bacteria that promote normalization of serum tryptophan level and amelioration of the behavioral abnormalities in the odor preference test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Synbiotic Combination of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) and Lactobacillus acidophilus Inhibits Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010103 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Djulis is a functional grain containing prebiotic dietary fiber, which has an anti-cancer potential. This study examined the preventive effect of djulis alone or in combination with Lactobacillus acidophilus on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Rats were [...] Read more.
Djulis is a functional grain containing prebiotic dietary fiber, which has an anti-cancer potential. This study examined the preventive effect of djulis alone or in combination with Lactobacillus acidophilus on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Rats were divided into five groups and fed B (AIN-93G, blank), C (AIN-93G, control), D (10% djulis), DLA (10% djulis plus 5 × 106 cfu L. acidophilus/g), and DHA (10% djulis plus 5 × 107 cfu L. acidophilus/g) diets, respectively. All rats except for those in group B received three doses of DMH (40 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and 3% DSS in drinking water. After 10 weeks of feeding, the colon was analyzed for precancerous lesions and biomarkers. DMH and DSS treatment induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF), especially in the distal colon. D, DLA, and DHA significantly reduced the numbers of total ACF, sialomucin-producing ACF (SIM-ACF), and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the distal colon compared to C. Additionally, DLA and DHA further downregulated the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and regulated apoptosis-related proteins. These results suggest that synbiotic combination of djulis and L. acidophilus shows the best inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis via regulation of proliferative, inflammatory, and apoptotic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review

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Review
Effects of both Pro- and Synbiotics in Liver Surgery and Transplantation with Special Focus on the Gut–Liver Axis—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082461 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
The gut-liver axis is of upmost importance for the development of infections after surgery. Further bacterial translocation due to surgery-related dysbiosis is associated with limited detoxification function of the liver compromising outcome of surgical therapy. After liver surgery, about 30% of patients develop [...] Read more.
The gut-liver axis is of upmost importance for the development of infections after surgery. Further bacterial translocation due to surgery-related dysbiosis is associated with limited detoxification function of the liver compromising outcome of surgical therapy. After liver surgery, about 30% of patients develop a bacterial infection, with the risk of bacteremia or even sepsis-associated liver failure and mortality in >40%. The potential benefit of pro-/synbiotics given before surgery is still under debate. Thus, a systematic literature search on trials comparing patients with or without supplementation and outcome after liver resection or transplantation was performed. Our search strategy revealed 12 relevant studies on perioperative administration of pro-/synbiotics in liver surgery. The pro-/synbiotic combinations and concentrations as well as administration timeframes differed between studies. Five studies were performed in liver transplantation and 7 in liver resection. All studies but one reported lower infection rates (pooled RR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.31–0.67) with pro-/synbiotics. Liver function was assessed after LT/LR in 3 and 5 studies, respectively. Pro-/synbiotics improved function in 1/3 and 2/5 studies, respectively. Concluding, perioperative pro-/synbiotics clearly reduce infection after liver surgery. However, standard protocols with both well-defined probiotic strain preparations and administration timeframes are pending. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
The Development of High-Quality Multispecies Probiotic Formulations: From Bench to Market
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082453 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. To date, there is an increasing number of commercially available products containing probiotics on the market. Probiotics have been recommended by health care professionals for reasons [...] Read more.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. To date, there is an increasing number of commercially available products containing probiotics on the market. Probiotics have been recommended by health care professionals for reasons ranging from their long-term immunomodulatory effects to proven benefits in the management of different health conditions. For probiotic products, there are several important aspects that determine the success rate of the development from bench to market. The aim of this review is to explore how the current knowledge on microbe–microbe and host–microbe interactions can be used to develop high-quality, evidence-based probiotic formulations, specifically probiotic dietary supplements, with a focus on the selection of safe strains with relevant functional properties. In addition, we will highlight aspects of the probiotic manufacturing process that need to be considered during the product development and the subsequent manufacturing process to guarantee consistent efficacy of a probiotic product. For each high-quality probiotic formulation, it is important to screen multiple strains, and select only those strains that show relevant functional properties and that can be considered safe for human consumption. In addition, it is imperative that attention is paid to the product development and manufacturing process, and that safety and quality properties are monitored. Importantly, the beneficial effects of probiotics should be evaluated in product efficacy studies and post-marketing surveys in order to demonstrate their clinical efficacy. All these aspects need to be evaluated and validated during the development of a successful high-quality and ready-to-market probiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
Insight into the Possible Use of the Predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as a Probiotic
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082252 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
The gut microbiota is a complex microbial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism in the intestinal tract. The members of this ecosystem live together in a balance between them and the host, contributing to its healthy state. Stress, aging, and antibiotic therapies [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a complex microbial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism in the intestinal tract. The members of this ecosystem live together in a balance between them and the host, contributing to its healthy state. Stress, aging, and antibiotic therapies are the principal factors affecting the gut microbiota composition, breaking the mutualistic relationship among microbes and resulting in the overgrowth of potential pathogens. This condition, called dysbiosis, has been linked to several chronic pathologies. In this review, we propose the use of the predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as a possible probiotic to prevent or counteract dysbiotic outcomes and look at the findings of previous research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Review
Sleep and Microbiome in Psychiatric Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082198 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
Objectives: Disturbances in the gut–brain barrier play an essential role in the development of mental disorders. There is considerable evidence showing that the gut microbiome not only affects digestive, metabolic and immune functions of the host but also regulates host sleep and mental [...] Read more.
Objectives: Disturbances in the gut–brain barrier play an essential role in the development of mental disorders. There is considerable evidence showing that the gut microbiome not only affects digestive, metabolic and immune functions of the host but also regulates host sleep and mental states through the microbiota–gut–brain axis. The present review summarizes the role of the gut microbiome in the context of circadian rhythms, nutrition and sleep in psychiatric disorders. Methods: A PubMed search (studies published between April 2015–April 2020) was conducted with the keywords: “sleep, microbiome and psychiatry”; “sleep, microbiome and depression”; “sleep, microbiome and bipolar disorder”, “sleep, microbiome and schizophrenia”, “sleep, microbiome and anorexia nervosa”, “sleep, microbiome and substance use disorder”, “sleep, microbiome and anxiety”; “clock gene expression and microbiome”, “clock gene expression and nutrition”. Only studies investigating the relationship between sleep and microbiome in psychiatric patients were included in the review. Results: Search results yielded two cross-sectional studies analyzing sleep and gut microbiome in 154 individuals with bipolar disorder and one interventional study analyzing the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation in 17 individuals with irritable bowel syndrome on sleep. In patients with bipolar disorder, Faecalibacterium was significantly associated with improved sleep quality scores and a significant correlation between Lactobacillus counts and sleep. Conclusion: Translational research on this important field is limited and further investigation of the bidirectional pathways on sleep and the gut microbiome in mood disorders is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082189 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 6431
Abstract
As an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota can lead to the development of several diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes, cancer, among others), the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to alter the gut microbiome has attracted recent interest. Postbiotics include any substance released [...] Read more.
As an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota can lead to the development of several diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes, cancer, among others), the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to alter the gut microbiome has attracted recent interest. Postbiotics include any substance released by or produced through the metabolic activity of the microorganism, which exerts a beneficial effect on the host, directly or indirectly. As postbiotics do not contain live microorganisms, the risks associated with their intake are minimized. Here, we provided a critical review of postbiotics described in the literature, including their mechanisms of action, clinical characteristics, and potential therapeutic applications. We detailed the pleiotropic effects of postbiotics, including their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. Although the use of postbiotics is an attractive strategy for altering the microbiome, further study into its efficacy and safety is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
Streptococcus thermophilus: To Survive, or Not to Survive the Gastrointestinal Tract, That Is the Question!
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082175 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
The probiotic market is increasing world-wide as well as the number of products marketed as probiotics. Among the latter, many products contain Streptococcus thermophilus strains at several dosages. However, the scientific evidence that should support the probiotic status of those S. thermophilus strains [...] Read more.
The probiotic market is increasing world-wide as well as the number of products marketed as probiotics. Among the latter, many products contain Streptococcus thermophilus strains at several dosages. However, the scientific evidence that should support the probiotic status of those S. thermophilus strains is often contradictory. This review analyses the scientific literature aimed to assess the ability of S. thermophilus strains to survive the human gastrointestinal tract by discussing the scientific validity of the methods applied for the bacterial recovery and identification from stool samples. This review highlights that in most of the intervention studies reviewed, the identification of S. thermophilus strains from stools was not carried out with the necessary taxonomic accuracy to avoid their misidentification with Streptococcus salivarius, a common human commensal and a species phylogenetically close to S. thermophilus. Moreover, this review highlights how critical the accurate taxonomic identification of S. thermophilus in metagenomics-based studies can be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
Efficacy of Dietary Supplements in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Related Autoimmune Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072156 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
The microbiome is an important contributor to a variety of fundamental aspects of human health, including host metabolism, infection, and the immune response. Gut dysbiosis has been identified as a contributor to the errant immune response in a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases [...] Read more.
The microbiome is an important contributor to a variety of fundamental aspects of human health, including host metabolism, infection, and the immune response. Gut dysbiosis has been identified as a contributor to the errant immune response in a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs), such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriatic disease (psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis). Given this, probiotics and prebiotics have been investigated as therapeutic options in these disease states. In our review, we highlight the current evidence on prebiotics and probiotics as well as other supplements (such as fish oils, vitamin D, and curcumin) as therapies for IBD. Recommendations, however, regarding the specific use of such supplements in IBD have been lacking, particularly from professional societies, often due to study limitations related to small sample sizes and design heterogeneity. Hence, we additionally examine the literature on the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and other supplements in related IMIDs, namely RA and psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, as these diseases share many approved therapeutic options with IBD. Based on these combined findings, we offer additional evidence that may help guide clinicians in their treatment of patients with IBD (and other IMIDs) and provide recommendations on potential next steps in therapeutic research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Review
Anti-Pathogenic Functions of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides In Vitro
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061789 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs), complex carbohydrates that resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes, fulfill a diversity of important biological roles. A lot of NDOs are known for their prebiotic properties by stimulating beneficial bacteria in the intestinal microbiota. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) [...] Read more.
Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs), complex carbohydrates that resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes, fulfill a diversity of important biological roles. A lot of NDOs are known for their prebiotic properties by stimulating beneficial bacteria in the intestinal microbiota. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) represent the first prebiotics that humans encounter in life. Inspired by these HMO structures, chemically-produced NDO structures (e.g., galacto-oligosaccharides and chito-oligosaccharides) have been recognized as valuable food additives and exert promising health effects. Besides their apparent ability to stimulate beneficial microbial species, oligosaccharides have shown to be important inhibitors of the development of pathogenic infections. Depending on the type and structural characteristics, oligosaccharides can exert a number of anti-pathogenic effects. The most described effect is their ability to act as a decoy receptor, thereby inhibiting adhesion of pathogens. Other ways of pathogenic inhibition, such as interference with pathogenic cell membrane and biofilm integrity and DNA transcription, are less investigated, but could be equally impactful. In this review, a comprehensive overview of In vitro anti-pathogenic properties of different NDOs and associated pathways are discussed. A framework is created categorizing all anti-pathogenic effects and providing insight into structural necessities for an oligosaccharide to exert one of these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
Thyroid-Gut-Axis: How Does the Microbiota Influence Thyroid Function?
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061769 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 9427
Abstract
A healthy gut microbiota not only has beneficial effects on the activity of the immune system, but also on thyroid function. Thyroid and intestinal diseases prevalently coexist—Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD) are the most common autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and often [...] Read more.
A healthy gut microbiota not only has beneficial effects on the activity of the immune system, but also on thyroid function. Thyroid and intestinal diseases prevalently coexist—Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD) are the most common autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and often co-occur with Celiac Disease (CD) and Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). This can be explained by the damaged intestinal barrier and the following increase of intestinal permeability, allowing antigens to pass more easily and activate the immune system or cross-react with extraintestinal tissues, respectively. Dysbiosis has not only been found in AITDs, but has also been reported in thyroid carcinoma, in which an increased number of carcinogenic and inflammatory bacterial strains were observed. Additionally, the composition of the gut microbiota has an influence on the availability of essential micronutrients for the thyroid gland. Iodine, iron, and copper are crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis, selenium and zinc are needed for converting T4 to T3, and vitamin D assists in regulating the immune response. Those micronutrients are often found to be deficient in AITDs, resulting in malfunctioning of the thyroid. Bariatric surgery can lead to an inadequate absorption of these nutrients and further implicates changes in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and T3 levels. Supplementation of probiotics showed beneficial effects on thyroid hormones and thyroid function in general. A literature research was performed to examine the interplay between gut microbiota and thyroid disorders that should be considered when treating patients suffering from thyroid diseases. Multifactorial therapeutic and preventive management strategies could be established and more specifically adjusted to patients, depending on their gut bacteria composition. Future well-powered human studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of alterations in gut microbiota on thyroid function and diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020346 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 6319
Abstract
Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory [...] Read more.
Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory characteristics. A mixture of two kinds of milk promotes kefir sensory and rheological properties aside from improving its nutritional value. Additives such as inulin can also enrich kefir’s health qualities and organoleptic characters. Several metabolic products are generated during kefir production and account for its distinct flavour and aroma: Lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and aroma compounds such as acetoin and acetaldehyde. During the storage process, microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir can further undergo changes, some of which improve its shelf life. Kefir exhibits many health benefits owing to its antimicrobial, anticancer, gastrointestinal tract effects, gut microbiota modulation and anti-diabetic effects. The current review presents the state of the art relating to the role of probiotics, prebiotics, additives, and different manufacturing practices in the context of kefir’s physicochemical, sensory, and chemical properties. A review of kefir’s many nutritional and health benefits, underlying chemistry and limitations for usage is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Probiotics: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010132 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4308
Abstract
Probiotic is little known for its benefits on upper gastrointestinal health. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of probiotics in alleviating the frequency and severity of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general adult population. The [...] Read more.
Probiotic is little known for its benefits on upper gastrointestinal health. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of probiotics in alleviating the frequency and severity of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general adult population. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for prospective studies on GERD, heartburn, regurgitation, and dyspepsia, without any limitation on sample size. The Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of randomized controlled trials. In total, 13 prospective studies that were published in 12 articles were included in the analysis and scored per the Jadad scale as high- (five studies), medium- (two), and low- (six) quality. One article reported on two probiotic groups; thus, 14 comparisons were included in the selected studies, of which 11 (79%) reported positive benefits of probiotics on symptoms of GERD. Five out of 11 positive outcomes (45%) noted benefits on reflux symptoms: three noted reduced regurgitation; improvements in reflux or heartburn were seen in one study; five (45%) saw improvements in dyspepsia symptoms; and nine (81%) saw improvements in other upper gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea (three studies), abdominal pain (five), and gas-related symptoms (four), such as belching, gurgling, and burping. In conclusion, probiotic use can be beneficial for GERD symptoms, such as regurgitation and heartburn. However, proper placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trials with a sufficient number of participants are warranted to confirm its efficacy in alleviating these symptoms. Further, interventions with longer durations and an intermediate analysis of endpoints should be considered to determine the proper therapeutic window. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Review
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Probiotic Species on Iron Absorption and Iron Status
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122938 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
Background: Strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia (IDA) have varying effectiveness. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of probiotics on iron absorption and iron status-related markers in humans. Methods: We followed the preferred [...] Read more.
Background: Strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia (IDA) have varying effectiveness. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of probiotics on iron absorption and iron status-related markers in humans. Methods: We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Relevant articles were identified from Embase, Pubmed, Scopus, and CINAHL from inception to February, 2019. We conducted a meta-analysis for eight studies examining the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v) on iron absorption. Results: Fifteen studies reported in 12 articles were identified (N = 950). Our meta-analysis of eight studies using a random-effects model demonstrated a significant increase in iron absorption following administration of the probiotic Lp299v with a pooled standardized mean difference (an average intervention effect size) of 0.55 (95% CI 0.22–0.88, p = 0.001). Of the seven randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized clinical trials examining a range of probiotic species on iron status, only one study supplementing with Lp299v showed improvement in serum iron; no other studies reported improvement in iron status-related indices with probiotic treatment. Conclusions: Lp299v significantly improved iron absorption in humans. Future research should include the assessment of Lp299v effect on iron absorption and iron status in populations at high risk of IDA, including pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Perspective
Potential of Skin Microbiome, Pro- and/or Pre-Biotics to Affect Local Cutaneous Responses to UV Exposure
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061795 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2529
Abstract
The human skin hosts innumerable microorganisms and maintains homeostasis with the local immune system despite the challenges offered by environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR causes cutaneous alterations such as acute (i.e., sunburn) and chronic inflammation, tanning, photoaging, skin cancer, and [...] Read more.
The human skin hosts innumerable microorganisms and maintains homeostasis with the local immune system despite the challenges offered by environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR causes cutaneous alterations such as acute (i.e., sunburn) and chronic inflammation, tanning, photoaging, skin cancer, and immune modulation. Phototherapy on the other hand is widely used to treat inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, polymorphic light eruption and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), as well as neoplastic skin diseases such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma, among others. Previous work has addressed the use of pro- and pre-biotics to protect against UVR through anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic and/or pro-and contra-melanogenic properties. Herein, we discuss and share perspectives of the potential benefits of novel treatment strategies using microbes and pro- and pre-biotics as modulators of the skin response to UVR, and how they could act both for protection against UVR-induced skin damage and as enhancers of the UVR-driven therapeutic effects on the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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