Next Article in Journal
Modelling the Impact of Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Obese Mice: Metabolic, Pulmonary, Intestinal, and Cardiac Issues
Next Article in Special Issue
Weight-Reducing Effect of Lactobacillus Plantarum ZJUFT17 Isolated from Sourdough Ecosystem
Previous Article in Journal
Dietary Factors in Relation to Liver Fat Content: A Cross-sectional Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Safety Assessment of Bacteroides Uniformis CECT 7771, a Symbiont of the Gut Microbiota in Infants
Open AccessArticle

Neutral Human Milk Oligosaccharides Are Associated with Multiple Fixed and Modifiable Maternal and Infant Characteristics

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Mass Spectrum Center, Beijing 100190, China
3
Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030826
Received: 24 February 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
We aimed to identify if maternal and infant factors were associated with neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) variability and examined the associations between HMOs concentration and infant growth and disease status in healthy Chinese mothers over a 6-month lactation period. We recruited mothers and their full-term infants as our subjects. At 1–5 days, 8–14 days, 4 weeks, and 6 months postpartum, all participants were interviewed to collect breast milk samples, obtain follow-up data and measure infant length and weight at their local hospital. A total of 23 neutral HMOs were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- mass spectrometer (MS). Secretor and Lewis phenotype were determined by the concentration of 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP)-II. The associations between maternal and infant factors with HMOs concentrations were investigated. A total of 464 human breast milk samples were collected from 116 mothers at four different time points. In total, 76.7% mothers were found to be Secretor and Lewis positive phenotype (Se+Le+), 17.2% were Se-Le+, 4.3% were Se+Le-, and 1.7% were Se-Le-. Several individual HMOs, including 2′-FL, Lactodifucotetraose (LDFT), LNFP-I were determined by Secretor phenotype. Most individual HMOs decreased at the later stage of lactation, except 3′-FL. We suggest that Secretor phenotype and lactation stage could influence most of the neutral HMOs. Concentrations of specific HMOs may be associated with maternal age, allergic history, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, infant gestational age and gender. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides; secretor; lactation stage; influenced factors human milk oligosaccharides; secretor; lactation stage; influenced factors
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, M.; Zhao, Z.; Zhao, A.; Zhang, J.; Wu, W.; Ren, Z.; Wang, P.; Zhang, Y. Neutral Human Milk Oligosaccharides Are Associated with Multiple Fixed and Modifiable Maternal and Infant Characteristics. Nutrients 2020, 12, 826.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop