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Open AccessArticle

Response of the Human Milk Microbiota to a Maternal Prebiotic Intervention Is Individual and Influenced by Maternal Age

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
2
Food Research Center (FoRC), University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
5
Faculty of High Education of the Interior of São Paulo, Marília 17512-130, Brazil
6
School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 03828-000, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041081
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 11 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Maternal bacteria are shared with infants via breastfeeding. Prebiotics modulate the gut microbiota, promoting health benefits. We investigated whether the maternal diet supplementation with a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) could influence the milk microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating women received 4.5 g of fructooligosaccharides + 2 g of maltodextrin (FOS group) and twenty-five received 2 g of maltodextrin (placebo group) for 20 days. Breast-milk samples were taken before and after the intervention. The DNA from samples was used for 16S rRNA sequencing. No statistical differences between the groups were found for the bacterial genera after the intervention. However, the distances of the trajectories covered by paired samples from the beginning to the end of the supplementation were higher for the FOS group (p = 0.0007) indicating greater changes in milk microbiota compared to the control group. Linear regression models suggested that the maternal age influenced the response for FOS supplementation (p = 0.02). Interestingly, the pattern of changes to genus abundance upon supplementation was not shared between mothers. We demonstrated that manipulating the human milk microbiota through prebiotics is possible, and the maternal age can affect this response. View Full-Text
Keywords: fructooligosaccharide; breast milk; breastfeeding; infant; clinical intervention; microorganisms fructooligosaccharide; breast milk; breastfeeding; infant; clinical intervention; microorganisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Padilha, M.; Brejnrod, A.; Danneskiold-Samsøe, N.B.; Hoffmann, C.; Iaucci, J.d.M.; Cabral, V.P.; Xavier-Santos, D.; Taddei, C.R.; Kristiansen, K.; Saad, S.M.I. Response of the Human Milk Microbiota to a Maternal Prebiotic Intervention Is Individual and Influenced by Maternal Age. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1081. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041081

AMA Style

Padilha M, Brejnrod A, Danneskiold-Samsøe NB, Hoffmann C, Iaucci JdM, Cabral VP, Xavier-Santos D, Taddei CR, Kristiansen K, Saad SMI. Response of the Human Milk Microbiota to a Maternal Prebiotic Intervention Is Individual and Influenced by Maternal Age. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1081. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041081

Chicago/Turabian Style

Padilha, Marina; Brejnrod, Asker; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels B.; Hoffmann, Christian; Iaucci, Julia d.M.; Cabral, Vanessa P.; Xavier-Santos, Douglas; Taddei, Carla R.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Saad, Susana M.I. 2020. "Response of the Human Milk Microbiota to a Maternal Prebiotic Intervention Is Individual and Influenced by Maternal Age" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1081. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041081

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