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Open AccessArticle

A Probiotic Preparation Hydrolyzes Gliadin and Protects Intestinal Cells from the Toxicity of Pro-Inflammatory Peptides

1
Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Section of Microbiology, Sapienza University of Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Roma, 00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020495
Received: 13 January 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating the capacity of a probiotic mixture (two different strains of lactobacilli and three of bifidobacteria) to hydrolyze gluten peptides following simulated gastrointestinal digestion of gliadin (PT-gliadin). The capacity of bacterial hydrolysates to counteract the toxic effects of gliadin-derived peptides in Caco-2 cells was also assessed. The protein and peptide mixtures, untreated or proteolyzed with the probiotic preparation, were analyzed before and after each proteolytic step with different techniques (SDS-PAGE, reverse phase HPLC, filtration on different molecular cut-off membranes). These experiments demonstrated that PT-gliadin can be further digested by bacteria into lower molecular weight peptides. PT-gliadin, untreated or digested with the probiotics, was then used to evaluate oxidative stress, IL-6 cytokine production and expression of tight junctions’ proteins—such as occludin and zonulin—in Caco-2 cells. PT-gliadin induced IL-6 production and modulation and redistribution of zonulin and occludin, while digestion with the probiotic strains reversed these effects. Our data indicate that this probiotic mixture may exert a protective role in CD.
Keywords: gliadin; lactobacilli; bifidobacteria; celiac disease; occludin; zonulin; Caco-2; IL-6 gliadin; lactobacilli; bifidobacteria; celiac disease; occludin; zonulin; Caco-2; IL-6
MDPI and ACS Style

Giorgi, A.; Cerrone, R.; Capobianco, D.; Filardo, S.; Mancini, P.; Zanni, F.; Fanelli, S.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. A Probiotic Preparation Hydrolyzes Gliadin and Protects Intestinal Cells from the Toxicity of Pro-Inflammatory Peptides. Nutrients 2020, 12, 495.

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