Recent Advances in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Metabolite for Food Quality

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2024 | Viewed by 9692

Special Issue Editors

Food Science and Technology Department, University of Cordoba, Campus Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: food science and technology; dairy science; food microbiology and safety; food microbiology; probiotics; meat science; technology; dairy microbiology
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), University of Cordoba, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: microbial risk assessment; predictive modelling; food safety; sustainable food packaging; preservation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lactic acid bacteria are one of the main microbiological groups involved in food. Because of their action, we have some of the main traditional foods, especially in the Mediterranean and other areas. Furthermore, products synthesized by these microorganisms can improve the safety of existing products. The metabolism of acid lactic acid bacteria is the key to many of these contributions. Omics can deepen the knowledge of these micro-organisms, and provide selection and characterization criteria, with a significant economic impact on the food sector.

In this Special Issue, we invite submissions of articles that explore the selection and characterization of lactic acid bacteria, their occurrence in food, and the metabolic aspects that make them suitable for food use, especially their influence and effects, both positive and undesirable.

Prof. Dr. Luis M. Medina
Prof. Dr. Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • lactic acid bacteria 
  • bacteriocins 
  • probiotics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 469 KiB  
Article
Biocontrol of L. monocytogenes with Selected Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria in Raw Milk Soft-Ripened Cheese under Different Water Activity Conditions
Foods 2024, 13(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010172 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 757
Abstract
The effect of selected autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in two elaborations of soft-ripened cheese performed under high and low relative humidity (RH) elaborations, to achieve aw ranging from 0.97 to 0.94 in ripened cheeses. Two selected [...] Read more.
The effect of selected autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in two elaborations of soft-ripened cheese performed under high and low relative humidity (RH) elaborations, to achieve aw ranging from 0.97 to 0.94 in ripened cheeses. Two selected autochthonous strains of Lacticaseibacillus casei 31 and 116 were used. In each elaboration, 8 batches were physicochemically and microbiologically evaluated throughout the ripening process. The aw and pH decreased during ripening to final values ranging from 0.944 to 0.972 aw and 5.0 to 5.3 pH, respectively. LAB was the only microbial group that increased throughout the ripening in high and low RH elaborations. In batches that were uninoculated with LAB strains, L. monocytogenes was either maintained at the initial inoculation level or showed a slight reduction by the end of the ripening process. However, in LAB-inoculated batches in the two elaborations, steady decreases of L. monocytogenes were observed throughout maturation. L. casei 31 alone or in combination with strain 116 provoked reductions of 2 to 4 log CFU/g in L. monocytogenes over 60 days of ripening, which could be enough as a strategy for biocontrol to deal with the usual contamination by L. monocytogenes during cheese processing. Full article
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22 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Manufacture of a Potential Antifungal Ingredient Using Lactic Acid Bacteria from Dry-Cured Sausages
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071427 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The growing interest in functional foods has fueled the hunt for novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) found in natural sources such as fermented foods. Thus, the aims of this study were to isolate, identify, characterize, and quantify LAB’s antifungal activity and formulate an [...] Read more.
The growing interest in functional foods has fueled the hunt for novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) found in natural sources such as fermented foods. Thus, the aims of this study were to isolate, identify, characterize, and quantify LAB’s antifungal activity and formulate an ingredient for meat product applications. The overlay method performed a logical initial screening by assessing isolated bacteria’s antifungal activity in vitro. Next, the antifungal activity of the fermented bacteria-free supernatants (BFS) was evaluated by agar diffusion assay against six toxigenic fungi. Subsequently, the antifungal activity of the most antifungal BFS was quantified using the microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The meat broth that showed higher antifungal activity was selected to elaborate on an ingredient to be applied to meat products. Finally, antifungal compounds such as organic acids, phenolic acids, and volatile organic compounds were identified in the chosen-fermented meat broth. The most promising biological candidates belonged to the Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. P. pentosaceus C15 distinguished from other bacteria by the production of antifungal compounds such as nonanoic acid and phenyl ethyl alcohol, as well as the higher production of lactic and acetic acid. Full article
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19 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
Design of Lactococcus lactis Strains Producing Garvicin A and/or Garvicin Q, Either Alone or Together with Nisin A or Nisin Z and High Antimicrobial Activity against Lactococcus garvieae
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051063 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
Lactococcus garvieae is a main ichthyopathogen in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) farming, although bacteriocinogenic L. garvieae with antimicrobial activity against virulent strains of this species have also been identified. Some of the bacteriocins characterized, such as garvicin A (GarA) and [...] Read more.
Lactococcus garvieae is a main ichthyopathogen in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) farming, although bacteriocinogenic L. garvieae with antimicrobial activity against virulent strains of this species have also been identified. Some of the bacteriocins characterized, such as garvicin A (GarA) and garvicin Q (GarQ), may show potential for the control of the virulent L. garvieae in food, feed and other biotechnological applications. In this study, we report on the design of Lactococcus lactis strains that produce the bacteriocins GarA and/or GarQ, either alone or together with nisin A (NisA) or nisin Z (NisZ). Synthetic genes encoding the signal peptide of the lactococcal protein Usp45 (SPusp45), fused to mature GarA (lgnA) and/or mature GarQ (garQ) and their associated immunity genes (lgnI and garI, respectively), were cloned into the protein expression vectors pMG36c, which contains the P32 constitutive promoter, and pNZ8048c, which contains the inducible PnisA promoter. The transformation of recombinant vectors into lactococcal cells allowed for the production of GarA and/or GarQ by L. lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 and their co-production with NisA by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DPC5598 and L. lactis subsp. lactis BB24. The strains L. lactis subsp. cremoris WA2-67 (pJFQI), a producer of GarQ and NisZ, and L. lactis subsp. cremoris WA2-67 (pJFQIAI), a producer of GarA, GarQ and NisZ, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity (5.1- to 10.7-fold and 17.3- to 68.2-fold, respectively) against virulent L. garvieae strains. Full article
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14 pages, 4748 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Volatile Organic Compounds and Microorganisms Isolated from Raw Sheep Milk Cheeses Determined by Sanger Sequencing and GC–IMS
Foods 2023, 12(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020372 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2438
Abstract
Recently, the interest of consumers regarding artisan cheeses worldwide has increased. The ability of different autochthonous and characterized lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce aromas and the identification of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) responsible for flavor in cheeses are important aspects to [...] Read more.
Recently, the interest of consumers regarding artisan cheeses worldwide has increased. The ability of different autochthonous and characterized lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce aromas and the identification of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) responsible for flavor in cheeses are important aspects to consider when selecting strains with optimal aromatic properties, resulting in the diversification of cheese products. The objective of this work is to determine the relationship between VOCs and microorganisms isolated (Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis subsp. hordniae) from raw sheep milk cheeses (matured and creamy natural) using accuracy and alternative methods. On combining Sanger sequencing for LAB identification with Gas Chromatography coupled to Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC–IMS) to determinate VOCs, we describe cheeses and differentiate the potential role of each microorganism in their volatilome. The contribution of each LAB can be described according to their different VOC profile. Differences between LAB behavior in each cheese are shown, especially between LAB involved in creamy cheeses. Only L. lactis subsp. hordniae and L. mesenteroides show the same VOC profile in de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) cultures, but for different cheeses, and show two differences in VOC production in skim milk cultures. The occurrence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. hordniae from cheese is reported for first time. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 1527 KiB  
Review
Leuconostoc citreum: A Promising Sourdough Fermenting Starter for Low-Sugar-Content Baked Goods
Foods 2024, 13(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010096 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
This review highlights Leuconostoc citreum’s promising possibilities as a proficient mannitol producer and its potential implications for sugar reduction, with a focus on its use in sourdough-based baked good products. Mannitol, a naturally occurring sugar alcohol, has gained popularity in food items [...] Read more.
This review highlights Leuconostoc citreum’s promising possibilities as a proficient mannitol producer and its potential implications for sugar reduction, with a focus on its use in sourdough-based baked good products. Mannitol, a naturally occurring sugar alcohol, has gained popularity in food items due to its low calorie content and unique beneficial qualities. This study summarizes recent research findings and investigates the metabolic pathways and culture conditions that favor increased mannitol production by Leuconostoc citreum. Furthermore, it investigates the several applications of mannitol in baked goods, such as its function in increasing texture, flavor and shelf life while lowering the sugar content. Sourdough-based products provide an attractive niche for mannitol integration, as customer demand for healthier and reduced-sugar options increases. Full article
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14 pages, 1003 KiB  
Review
Microbial Fermentation Processes of Lactic Acid: Challenges, Solutions, and Future Prospects
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122311 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
The demand for lactic acid and lactic acid-derived products in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries is increasing year by year. In recent decades, the synthesis of lactic acid by microbials has gained much attention from scientists due to the superior optical purity [...] Read more.
The demand for lactic acid and lactic acid-derived products in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries is increasing year by year. In recent decades, the synthesis of lactic acid by microbials has gained much attention from scientists due to the superior optical purity of the product, its low production costs, and its higher production efficiency compared to chemical synthesis. Microbial fermentation involves the selection of feedstock, strains, and fermentation modes. Each step can potentially affect the yield and purity of the final product. Therefore, there are still many critical challenges in lactic acid production. The costs of feedstocks and energy; the inhibition of substrates and end-product; the sensitivity to the inhibitory compounds released during pretreatment; and the lower optical purity are the main obstacles hindering the fermentation of lactic acid. This review highlights the limitations and challenges of applying microbial fermentation in lactic acid production. In addition, corresponding solutions to these difficulties are summarized in order to provide some guidance for the industrial production of lactic acid. Full article
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