Special Issue "Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Mariangela Caroprese

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Animal Production; Dairy Animal Science; Milk; Animal Welfare; Veterinary Immunology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in human population to more than 9 billion by 2050 and the concern about food security highlights the challenge of land use. In this context, the increase in demand for animal-based food is a central point in the novel concept of feed-food competition. Currently, livestock account for about 15% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation and manure, and 33% of croplands are used for livestock feed production. Globally, livestock provides 25% of protein intake, and as a consequence, meeting the increasing demand for animal-based food is a major sustainability challenge. A possible approach could be an increase in total efficiency and the reduction of the impact of livestock by feeding livestock recycling biomass from agro-food systems unsuitable as food. The regeneration of natural resources and of by-products from the agro-food system could reduce feed–food competition and, therefore, the utilization of croplands for feed production. Moreover, the use of agricultural by-products in animal feeding represents a circular economy model to guarantee the production of healthy and affordable food by reducing the livestock system impact from an environmental and societal point of view, and minimizing waste outputs.

We invite original research papers and reviews that address experiments on the effects of the utilization of by-products from the agro-food system on livestock production. Research papers and reviews addressing the effects of by-products in the diet on livestock welfare and health are welcome. Additional topics may include preliminary studies on the utilization of by-products from agro-food systems from in vitro experiments.

Prof. Mariangela Caroprese
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • agricultural by-products
  • animal feeding
  • animal production
  • animal welfare and health
  • feed-food competition
  • circular economy.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Nutritive Value of Tomato Pomace for Ruminants and Its Influence on In Vitro Methane Production
Animals 2019, 9(6), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060343
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in nutritive value for ruminants of tomato pomace (TP) samples and analyze its effect on in vitro fermentation when it was included in a high-concentrate diet. Twelve TP samples were obtained from two [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in nutritive value for ruminants of tomato pomace (TP) samples and analyze its effect on in vitro fermentation when it was included in a high-concentrate diet. Twelve TP samples were obtained from two processing plants at weekly intervals and analyzed for chemical composition, in vitro rumen fermentation, and intestinal digestibility. The chemical composition of TP did not differ between processing plants and only slight variations were observed among sampling times. Tomato pomace had a low dry matter content (<300 g/kg), a high content of neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, and ether extract (572, 160, and 82.7 g/kg dry matter on average, respectively), and was rapidly fermented in the rumen. Protein degradability at 16 h in situ incubation was 510 g/kg and in vitro intestinal digestibility of protein was low (430–475 g/kg). Replacing soybean meal and barley straw by dried TP increased the in vitro fermentation rate and the production of volatile fatty acids and reduced NH3-N concentrations without affecting CH4. In summary, TP samples showed little variability in nutritive value over sampling time and TP of up to 180 g/kg could be included in high-concentrate diets without negatively affecting rumen fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sweet Potato Vine on the Onset of Puberty and Follicle Development in Chinese Meishan Gilts
Animals 2019, 9(6), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060297
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sweet potato vine on the onset of puberty and the follicular development in the ovaries of Chinese Meishan gilts. A total of 20 Meishan gilts (initial body weight at 30 ± 0.18 kg) were [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sweet potato vine on the onset of puberty and the follicular development in the ovaries of Chinese Meishan gilts. A total of 20 Meishan gilts (initial body weight at 30 ± 0.18 kg) were randomly fed a control (CON) or sweet potato vine (SPV) supplemented diet until 19 days following the third estrous. Sweet potato vine was instead of part of basal diet with the same amount of energy and protein in the sweet potato vine group. The results indicate that gilts fed with sweet potato vine reached puberty 9.4 days later. The development of ovaries was enhanced by sweet potato vine supplementation, characterized by an increase (p < 0.05) in the relative weight of the ovaries and the number of large follicles (>5 mm). Sweet potato vine supplementation increased (p < 0.05) the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and reduced (p < 0.05) the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of the gilts. Also, the expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA in the granulosa cells from the large follicle (>5 mm) of gilts in the SPV group were increased (p < 0.05) as compared with the CON group. These results indicate that gilts fed with sweet potato vine exhibited delayed puberty as well as improved follicular development, which may contribute to the reproductive performance of Chinese Meishan gilts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Licorice Extract Supplementation on Feed Intake, Digestion, Rumen Function, Blood Indices and Live Weight Gain of Karakul Sheep
Animals 2019, 9(5), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050279
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
This study was designed to investigate the effects of licorice extract supplemented to a cottonseed hull-based diet on rumen function, blood indices and growth of Karakul sheep. Twelve rumen-fistulated 1.5-year-old sheep were blocked in pairs by live weight. Sheep within pairs were randomly [...] Read more.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of licorice extract supplemented to a cottonseed hull-based diet on rumen function, blood indices and growth of Karakul sheep. Twelve rumen-fistulated 1.5-year-old sheep were blocked in pairs by live weight. Sheep within pairs were randomly allocated to feed either on a cottonseed hull basal diet (control group) or on a basal diet containing 4.5% of licorice extract on dry matter (DM) basis (supplemented group). Sheep were housed individually and fed for 60 days, with a 15-day adaptation period and a 45-day measurement period. Feed intake and live weight gain were quantified. Rumen and blood samples were taken during the measurement period. The DM intake was lower for the supplemented group than for the control group. The mean ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate were lower, while the levels of propionate and butyrate were higher for the supplemented group than for the control group. Average daily live weight gain, digestible energy intake, apparent nutrient digestibility and feed conversion efficiency did not differ between the two treatments. The serum concentrations of immunoglobulin A and G were 2.1 and 1.8 times greater, and total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase increased by 1.8 and 1.2 times in the supplemented group compared with the control group. These results indicated that licorice extract supplementation in the diet at 4.5% of DM had a limited impact on rumen function but improved blood immunoglobulin and anti-oxidative status of Karakul sheep, without impairment of feed conversion efficiency or live weight gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaf Powder in Concentrate on the Rumen Fermentation and Ruminal Epithelium in Fattening Hu Sheep
Animals 2019, 9(5), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050218
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
Mulberry leaves have been used as a protein source in replacing concentrates of domestic animals, however, little is known about the relationship between supplementation level and the development of rumen epithelium. This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of different proportions of mulberry [...] Read more.
Mulberry leaves have been used as a protein source in replacing concentrates of domestic animals, however, little is known about the relationship between supplementation level and the development of rumen epithelium. This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of different proportions of mulberry leaf powder (MLP) in dietary concentrate on rumen fermentation and rumen epithelium morphology in fattening Hu sheep. Forty three-month-old male Hu sheep with an initial body weight of 16.5 ± 0.6 kg (BW ± SD) were chosen and randomly divided into five treatments: 0% (control), 15% (T15), 30% (T30), 45% (T45) and 60% (T60) of MLP in concentrate, respectively. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in treatments T15 and T30 have no significant difference with respect to the control treatment, but DMI and ADG in treatments T45 and T60 were lower than the control treatment (p < 0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased linearly and quadraticly as MLP supplementation increased (p < 0.05). The concentration of ammonia (NH3-N) trended to decrease linearly with the increase of MLP supplementation (p < 0.1), whereas the microbial protein (MCP) concentration increased linearly as MLP supplementation increased (p < 0.05). In the results of rumen epithelium morphology, the width of stratum corneum was reduced, whereas the width of ruminal papillae increased (p < 0.05), and the width of stratum granulosum and stratum basale also increased as MLP increased. In summary, MLP supplementation could improve nutrient digestibility, the development of rumen papillae and stratum basale. However, high content MLP (45%–60%) supplementation decreased the growth and food intake performance of fattening Hu sheep. Therefore, 30% MLP is recommended to supplement in concentrate for fattening Hu sheep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Supplementing Tropical Cattle for Improved Nutrient Utilization and Reduced Enteric Methane Emissions
Animals 2019, 9(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050210
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
Given their high nitrogen (N) concentration and low costs, sweet potato vine silage (SPVS) and urea-molasses blocks (UMB) are recommended supplements for tropical regions; therefore, they were investigated in this study. Six heifers were allocated to three diets: the roughage diet (R) consisted [...] Read more.
Given their high nitrogen (N) concentration and low costs, sweet potato vine silage (SPVS) and urea-molasses blocks (UMB) are recommended supplements for tropical regions; therefore, they were investigated in this study. Six heifers were allocated to three diets: the roughage diet (R) consisted of wheat straw (0.61) and Rhodes grass hay (0.39; on dry matter (DM) basis); R + SPVS combined R (0.81) and SPVS (0.19); and with R + UMB animals had access to UMB. During two experimental periods, feed intake, feces and urine excretion, digesta passage, and rumen microbial protein synthesis were determined during seven days and methane emissions during three days. There was no treatment effect (p > 0.05) on DM and N intake. Apparent DM digestibility of R + SPVS (510 g/kg) was higher (p < 0.05) than of R (474 g/kg). Digesta passage and duodenal microbial N flow were similar for all diets (p > 0.05), while N retention was highest with R + SPVS (p > 0.05). Methane emissions per unit of digested feed (g CH4/kg dDM) were lower (p < 0.05) for R + SPVS (55.2) than for R (64.7). Hence, SPVS supplementation to poor–quality roughage has the potential to increase diet digestibility and N retention while reducing CH4 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Vegetable Oils Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation of Dairy Cows’ Diets: Effects on Productive and Reproductive Performance
Animals 2019, 9(5), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050205
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation can affect the productive and reproductive performance in dairy cows subjected to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol under farm conditions. One hundred and ninety-eight Holstein non-pregnant cows were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation can affect the productive and reproductive performance in dairy cows subjected to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol under farm conditions. One hundred and ninety-eight Holstein non-pregnant cows were used. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CON), without added oil, and two diets supplemented with either 2.3% soybean oil (SOY) or 2.3% linseed oil (LIN) as dry matter. The diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isoproteic. Dry matter intake and milk yield were similar among treatments (p > 0.05). Both the percentage of fat (p = 0.011) and protein (p = 0.022) were higher in milk from animals not fed with oil (CON). The greatest saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (p < 0.0001) was observed in milk from cows fed the control diet, without added oil. The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA, and the n-3 PUFA content was higher (p < 0.0001) in the milk from animals fed with oil with respect to the control treatment. The C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 in the milk of animals fed with oil supplements was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in that of the control group. Animals supplemented with linseed oil tended to show higher plasma progesterone level (p = 0.09) and a higher number of pregnant cows on the first artificial insemination (p = 0.07). These animals tended to reduce the number of TAI (p = 0.08). In brief, results showed that vegetable oils rich in PUFA supplementation considerably improve the nutritional profile of milk. PUFA n-3 supplementation slightly improves some reproductive parameters in dairy cows subjected to the fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Dietary Hemp Seed on Oxidative Status in Sows during Late Gestation and Lactation and Their Offspring
Animals 2019, 9(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040194
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
This study shows the antioxidant effect of a dietary hemp seed diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on oxidative status in sows during late gestation and lactation and their offspring. Ten pregnant sows were divided into two groups and fed either [...] Read more.
This study shows the antioxidant effect of a dietary hemp seed diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on oxidative status in sows during late gestation and lactation and their offspring. Ten pregnant sows were divided into two groups and fed either a control diet (CD) or a hemp diet (HD) containing 2% hemp seed meal for a period of 10 days before farrowing and 5% throughout the lactation period (21 d). After farrowing, 16 of their resulting piglets were divided into two groups: control group CD (eight piglets derived from control sows) and HD group (eight piglets derived from HD sows), respectively. Blood collected from sows and piglets at day 1, 7 and 21 was used for the measurement of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GPx)), nitric oxide production (NO), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances—TBARS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma. The results showed a significant improvement in the oxidative status of sows fed HD throughout lactation compared with CD. Similarly, in piglets, HD positively influenced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, TAC and NO levels and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma until weaning, in comparison with the CD group. This study suggests the potential of hemp seed diet to improve the overall antioxidant status of the lactating sows and their progeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Variability in the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Olive Cake By-Products
Animals 2019, 9(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030109
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of olive cake (OC) by-products. Forty-two OC samples with different storage times (1–14 months) and processing (25 crude (COC), 9 exhausted (EOC) and 9 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of olive cake (OC) by-products. Forty-two OC samples with different storage times (1–14 months) and processing (25 crude (COC), 9 exhausted (EOC) and 9 cyclone (CYOC)) were fermented in vitro with sheep ruminal fluid. Exhausted OC samples had a lower ether extract content than COC and CYOC (15.9, 110 and 157 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively), but greater neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 645, 570 and 441 g/kg DM) and acid insoluble nitrogen (9.76, 8.10 and 8.05 g/kg DM) content. Exhausted OC had the greatest (p < 0.05) average gas production rate (AGPR), whereas the greatest fermented organic matter (FOM) was obtained for EOC and CYOC. The best single predictor of the AGPR was total sugars content (R2 = 0.898), whereas NDF was the best one for FOM (R2 = 0.767; p < 0.001). Statistical models using storage time as a predictor variable had lower accuracy and R2 values than those from the chemical composition. In summary, the nutritive value of OC was highly dependent on its processing, but its ether extract content did not negatively affect ruminal fermentation parameters, which could be estimated from either carbohydrate composition or storage time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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