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Article

Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Kinetics of Agro-Industrial By-Products

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Departamento de Producción Animal, Universidad de León, E-24007 León, Spain
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Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña, CSIC-Universidad de León, Finca Marzanas s/n, 24346 Grulleros, Spain
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Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica de Sistemas y Automática, Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial e Informática, Universidad de León, Campus Universitario de Vegazana, 24071 León, Spain
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Departamento de Producción Agraria, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(11), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110861
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
Agro-industrial by-products are the waste from either agricultural crops or vegetable processing industries, and their disposal represents an environmental problem since they are potential pollutants. One of their most promising alternative uses is as feedstuffs in ruminant diets. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritive value of different by-products by analysing their chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and gas production kinetics. The results showed a high variability in chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and rumen fermentation kinetics among different by-products. In addition, samples of the same by-product from a different origin or subjected to different conservation processes showed a certain variability in the evaluated parameters. The variability among by-products was reflected in the results of the cluster analysis, which divided the materials in four groups based on the multivariate analysis. Most by-products showed the potential to be included as alternative ingredients in ruminant rations. They could be used as a source of energy, fibre or protein, replacing part of the ingredients in a conventional diet and therefore, reducing the risk of environmental pollution and contributing to develop a circular economy by recycling these wastes. In addition, their use as feedstuffs might reduce competition between ruminants and humans for food or land.
The nutritive value of 26 agro-industrial by-products was assessed from their chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and rumen fermentation kinetics. By-products from sugar beet, grape, olive tree, almond, broccoli, lettuce, asparagus, green bean, artichoke, peas, broad beans, tomato, pepper, apple pomace and citrus were evaluated. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and fermentation kinetics varied largely across the by-products. Data were subjected to multivariate and principal component analyses (PCA). According to a multivariate cluster analysis chart, samples formed four distinctive groups (A–D). Less degradable by-products were olive tree leaves, pepper skins and grape seeds (group A); whereas the more degradable ones were sugar beet, orange, lemon and clementine pulps (group D). In the PCA plot, component 1 segregated samples of groups A and B from those of groups C and D. Considering the large variability among by-products, most of them can be regarded as potential ingredients in ruminant rations. Depending on the characteristic nutritive value of each by-product, these feedstuffs can provide alternative sources of energy (e.g., citrus pulps), protein (e.g., asparagus rinds), soluble fibre (e.g., sugar beet pulp) or less digestible roughage (e.g., grape seeds or pepper skin). View Full-Text
Keywords: ruminant; feedstuff; nutritive value; digestibility; gas production technique; multivariate data analysis; hierarchical clustering ruminant; feedstuff; nutritive value; digestibility; gas production technique; multivariate data analysis; hierarchical clustering
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Rodríguez, J.; Ranilla, M.J.; France, J.; Alaiz-Moretón, H.; Carro, M.D.; López, S. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Kinetics of Agro-Industrial By-Products. Animals 2019, 9, 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110861

AMA Style

García-Rodríguez J, Ranilla MJ, France J, Alaiz-Moretón H, Carro MD, López S. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Kinetics of Agro-Industrial By-Products. Animals. 2019; 9(11):861. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110861

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Rodríguez, Jairo, María J. Ranilla, James France, Héctor Alaiz-Moretón, María D. Carro, and Secundino López. 2019. "Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Kinetics of Agro-Industrial By-Products" Animals 9, no. 11: 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110861

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