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Animals 2019, 9(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030109

Variability in the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Olive Cake By-Products

Departamento de Producción Agraria, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding)
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Simple Summary

Olive cake is a by-product of oil production that can be used in ruminant feeding, but its composition can vary with multiple factors. The objective of this study was to determine the variability in the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of 42 olive cake samples to evaluate their nutritive value for ruminants. The results showed that the chemical composition of olive cake is highly variable and is markedly affected by processing type and its storage time before processing. Cyclone olive cake had greater nutritive value for ruminants than both crude and extracted olive cake. All olive cake types were poorly degraded in vitro and, therefore, their nutritive value is highly dependent on their ether extract content. Statistical models using olive cake processing type, and either the chemical composition or storage time before processing as covariates, can be used in the practice to predict in vitro ruminal fermentation variables of olive cake samples. The obtained information may contribute to increase the use of olive cake in ruminant feeding.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the variability in the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of olive cake (OC) by-products. Forty-two OC samples with different storage times (1–14 months) and processing (25 crude (COC), 9 exhausted (EOC) and 9 cyclone (CYOC)) were fermented in vitro with sheep ruminal fluid. Exhausted OC samples had a lower ether extract content than COC and CYOC (15.9, 110 and 157 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively), but greater neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 645, 570 and 441 g/kg DM) and acid insoluble nitrogen (9.76, 8.10 and 8.05 g/kg DM) content. Exhausted OC had the greatest (p < 0.05) average gas production rate (AGPR), whereas the greatest fermented organic matter (FOM) was obtained for EOC and CYOC. The best single predictor of the AGPR was total sugars content (R2 = 0.898), whereas NDF was the best one for FOM (R2 = 0.767; p < 0.001). Statistical models using storage time as a predictor variable had lower accuracy and R2 values than those from the chemical composition. In summary, the nutritive value of OC was highly dependent on its processing, but its ether extract content did not negatively affect ruminal fermentation parameters, which could be estimated from either carbohydrate composition or storage time. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive cake; storage time; processing; in vitro ruminal fermentation; prediction models olive cake; storage time; processing; in vitro ruminal fermentation; prediction models
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marcos, C.N.; García-Rebollar, P.; de Blas, C.; Carro, M.D. Variability in the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Olive Cake By-Products. Animals 2019, 9, 109.

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