Special Issue "Non-Infectious Stressors and Livestock Productivity: Molecular Mechanisms, Biomarkers and Strategies for Controlling Immune Response of Ruminants"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Giovanna Ciliberti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Interests: immune system; ruminants; cytokines; environmental stressors; feeding strategy; animal welfare
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mariangela Caroprese
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Interests: ruminant welfare; veterinary immunology; oxidative state of ewes; effects of heat stress and feeding strategies on ruminant welfare and production; effects of algae and PUFAs in the diet on ruminant immune responses and milk production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammatory responses can be activated by different stimuli that originate a physiological response aimed at restoring homeostasis and controlling the internal constant milieu. The condition of homeostatic inflammation is considered similar to chronic inflammation; however, the question about considering the role of inflammation as a pathogenic or protective response is under debate. The homeostatic inflammation is part of the homeostasis process; however, this persistent damage can increase the exposition to a risk of lethal inflammation. The innate and adaptive responses are strictly interconnected pathways of immune response and contribute concomitantly to protect the organism against pathogens and/or stressors capable of initiating the cascade of immune activation. The innate immune sensors are able to recognize host-derived molecules, namely damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are directly released from damaged cells to trigger the phagocytosis. Moreover, nondamaged cells are capable of producing endogenous ligands as danger signals, such as fatty acids, phospholipids and nucleic acid leading chronic inflammation and disease. When passing from an innate to an adaptive response, the interactions among phagocytic cells, T-cells, dentritic cells (DC), and regulatory T-cells (Treg) are controlled by different mechanisms, such as intra- extracellular redox environments. The T-cells’ functions are controlled by the equilibrium between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems; on the contrary, an exposition to oxinflammation negatively affects immune reactivity, increasing the susceptibility to metabolic diseases. The current scenario of climate change exposes even more animals to environmental change and stressful conditions, with a rise in energy cellular expense for the adaptation process, which contributes to the excess of immune responses and oxidative stress exposition, thus highly compromising reproduction, productive performances and increasing the disease susceptibility of livestock.

We invite original research papers and reviews that address experiments on the understanding of non-infectious stressors and inflammation focusing on novel biomarkers and molecular mechanisms in different tissues both in vivo and in vitro. Research papers and reviews addressing different strategies for improving immune response or control inflammation are welcome.

Dr. Maria Giovanna Ciliberti
Prof. Dr. Mariangela Caroprese
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • DAMPs
  • innate immunity
  • livestock
  • inflammation
  • non-infectious stressors

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
Immunomodulatory Effects of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Lornoxicam on Phenotype and Function of Camel Blood Leukocytes
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072023 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1465
Abstract
(1) Background: Lornoxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, antiphlogistic and antipyretic effects. The improved tolerance of lornoxicam due to the relatively shorter elimination half-life in comparison to other members of the oxicams may favor its application in the management of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Lornoxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, antiphlogistic and antipyretic effects. The improved tolerance of lornoxicam due to the relatively shorter elimination half-life in comparison to other members of the oxicams may favor its application in the management of pain and inflammation in race dromedary camels. There are no studies conducted yet on the immunomodulatory or immunotoxilogic effect of lornoxicam in camels. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor lornoxicam on some phenotypic and functional properties of camel blood leukocytes; (2) Methods: Using flow cytometry, blood leukocyte composition, monocyte phenotype, and antimicrobial functions of neutrophils and monocytes were analyzed ex vivo after a single dose injection with lornoxicam. In addition, the effect of in vitro incubation of camel blood with lornoxicam on leukocyte cell vitality and antimicrobial functions were evaluated; (3) Results: The injection of camels with a single dose of lornoxicam resulted in a significant change in their leukogram with reduced numbers of total leukocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Within the lymphocyte population, the numbers of CD4+ T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells decreased significantly in blood after injection of camels with lornoxicam. In addition, injection of lornoxicam resulted in decreased abundance of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and increased abundance of the scavenger receptor CD163 on blood monocytes, indicating an anti-inflammatory phenotype of monocytes. Functionally, administration of lornoxicam decreased the capacity of camel neutrophils and monocytes to uptake bacteria and to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) after bacterial stimulation. Similarly, the in vitro whole blood incubation with lornoxicam resulted in reduced phagocytosis and ROS production activity of the camel blood phagocytes. Flow cytometric analysis of cell vitality, including cell necrosis and apoptosis, revealed a pro-apoptotic effect of lornoxicam on camel leukocytes; (4) Conclusions: Lornoxicam administration, at the dose and intervals utilized herein, induces significant changes in the phenotype and function of camel blood leukocytes. The reduced cell numbers of all studied leukocyte subpopulations in lornoxicam-treated camels, which seems to be a result of enhanced cell apoptosis, indicates an inhibitory effect rather than a modulatory effect of lornoxicam on the camel immune system, which need to be considered when using lornoxicam in camel medicine. Full article
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