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Horticulturae, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessCommunication Chitosan and Carnauba Wax Coatings Are Not Recommended for Yellow Carrots
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040031 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different concentrations of carnauba wax and chitosan edible coatings for commercial quality preservation of ‘Yellow Stone’ carrots. Seven treatments were tested: Chitosan at concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5%; carnauba wax at
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different concentrations of carnauba wax and chitosan edible coatings for commercial quality preservation of ‘Yellow Stone’ carrots. Seven treatments were tested: Chitosan at concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5%; carnauba wax at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 12%, and a control treatment, without coating application. Carrots were stored at 2 °C, 95–100% RH, for 30 days, and were evaluated on the day of application (day 0) and at 7, 15, and 30 days. Indices of brown stains, coloring, and light microscopy analysis were developed. The use of edible coatings for yellow carrots was not viable, regardless of the treatment used, and carnauba waxes caused more severe brown stains. Higher concentrations of carnauba wax caused damage of the carrot periderm, generating, in addition to the stains, deep depressions and superficial viscosity. Only the control treatment showed no degradation in appearance. Treatments with the highest index scores presented lower luminosity, lower b color values, and higher a color values, which showed that the brown stains impacted carrot appearance and, therefore, their visual quality. The results showed that coatings based on chitosan and carnauba wax are not recommended for yellow carrots, since they negatively affected appearance of the product, leaving them unmarketable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Developmental Variation in Fruit Polyphenol Content and Related Gene Expression of a Red-Fruited versus a White-Fruited Fragaria vesca Genotype
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040030
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Two cultivars of F. vesca, red-fruited Baron Solemacher (BS) and white-fruited Pineapple Crush (PC), were studied to compare and contrast the quantitative accumulation of major polyphenols and related biosynthetic pathway gene expression patterns during fruit development and ripening. Developing PC fruit showed
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Two cultivars of F. vesca, red-fruited Baron Solemacher (BS) and white-fruited Pineapple Crush (PC), were studied to compare and contrast the quantitative accumulation of major polyphenols and related biosynthetic pathway gene expression patterns during fruit development and ripening. Developing PC fruit showed higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acids in green stages and a greater accumulation of ellagitannins in ripe fruit in comparison to BS. In addition to anthocyanin, red BS fruit had greater levels of flavan-3-ols when ripe than PC. Expression patterns of key structural genes and transcription factors of the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene, and a putative ABA receptor gene that may regulate the pathway, were also analyzed during fruit development and ripening to determine which genes exhibited differences in expression and when such differences were first evident. Expression of all pathway genes differed between the red BS and white PC at one or more times during development, most notably at ripening when phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1 (PAL1), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone-3′-hydroxylase (F3′H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP:flavonoid-O-glucosyltransferase 1 (UFGT1) were significantly upregulated in the red BS fruit. The transcription factors MYB1 and MYB10 did not differ substantially between red and white fruit except at ripening, when both the putative repressor MYB1 and promoter MYB10 were upregulated in red BS but not white PC fruit. The expression of ABA-related gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) was higher in red BS fruit but only in the early green stages of development. Thus, a multigenic effect at several points in the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid biosynthetic pathway due to lack of MYB10 upregulation may have resulted in white PC fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular, Genetic and Physiological Control of Fruit Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Sulfur Dioxide Pads on Botrytis Mold in ‘Italia’ Table Grapes under Cold Storage
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040029
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
‘Italia’ grape is one of the most important table grape cultivars grown worldwide. Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr., is one of the most important causes of postharvest decay of table grapes, and the control of this disease is very difficult
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‘Italia’ grape is one of the most important table grape cultivars grown worldwide. Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr., is one of the most important causes of postharvest decay of table grapes, and the control of this disease is very difficult because postharvest treatments with synthetic fungicides are not allowed in many countries. The objective of this study was to compare different types of pads releasing different doses of SO2 during cold storage to control gray mold in ‘Italia’ table grapes grown under subtropical conditions. Grape bunches were harvested from a commercial field trained on an overhead trellis located at Cambira, state of Parana (PR), South Brazil. The grapes were packed into carton boxes (capacity, 4.5 kg) and subjected to the following SO2 pad treatments (Uvasys®, Cape Town, South Africa) under cold storage (1.0 ± 1 °C) for 50 days: (i) Control; (ii) SO2 slow release pad; (iii) SO2 dual release pad; (iv) SO2 dual release–fast reduced pad; (v) SO2 slow release pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea suspension; (vi) SO2 dual release pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea suspension; and (vii) SO2 dual release-fast reduced pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea suspension. After cold storage, the grape boxes were maintained for 7 days at room temperature (25 °C). The incidence of gray mold on the grapes, firmness, shattered berries, stem browning, as well as other physicochemical variables, such as bunch mass, bunch mass loss, skin color, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) and SS/TA were evaluated. Both SO2 dual release pads were highly efficient in preventing the incidence of gray mold in ‘Italia’ grapes packed in clamshells during the 50-day period of cold storage and at room temperature, even with Botrytis-inoculated berries. The SO2 slow release pad showed lower efficiency, but was higher than the control. The SO2 dual release pad treatments provided the best results with respect to stem browning scores (fresh and green stems) during cold storage, and no differences were observed among the treatments with respect to the other physicochemical evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Plant Pathology and Prevention)
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Open AccessEditorial Plant Production in Controlled Environments
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040028
Received: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Crop production in open fields is increasingly limited by weather extremes and water shortages, in addition to pests and soil-borne diseases. In order to increase crop yield, quality, and productivity, controlled environment agriculture (CEA) can play an important role as an alternative and
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Crop production in open fields is increasingly limited by weather extremes and water shortages, in addition to pests and soil-borne diseases. In order to increase crop yield, quality, and productivity, controlled environment agriculture (CEA) can play an important role as an alternative and supplemental production system to conventional open field production. CEA is any agricultural technology that enables growers to manipulate the growing environment for improved yield and quality. CEA production systems include high tunnels, greenhouses, and indoor vertical farming, as well as hydroponics and aquaponics. Currently, ‘low-tech’ CEA techniques such as high tunnels (plastic greenhouses with minimum or no cooling and heating) are primarily utilized in developing countries where labor costs are relatively low, and China has by far the largest area covered by high tunnels or ‘Chinese-style’ solar greenhouses. The most control-intensive ‘high-tech’ CEA approach, namely indoor vertical farming, has gained tremendous attention in the past decade by researchers and entrepreneurs around the world, owing to advancements in lighting technology, including use of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and increasing urbanization with new market opportunities. This special issue covers some of the CEA topics such as LED lighting, substrate, and hydroponics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Production in Controlled Environment)
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