Special Issue "Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices"

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Elazar Fallik

ARO-the Volcani Center, Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, 68 HaMakkabbim Road, P.O. Box 15159, Rishon LeZiyyon 7505101, Israel
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +972 3968 3622
Interests: postharvest physiology; pathology; sensory and biochemistry issues; fruit; vegetables

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Postharvest losses of fresh produce have always been an obstacle in agriculture. Roughly one-third of global fresh fruits and vegetables are lost because their quality has dropped below an acceptance limit. Losses include any change and/or damage in quantity and quality of produce from the moment of harvest until consumption.

Consumers worldwide have become more and more concerned about the quality of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Product quality is a complex issue: it encompasses visual characteristics such as size, color, shape, defects and rots, all encompassed in general appearance; physical and chemical properties, such as texture, and mineral and vitamin contents; and flavor and other organoleptic characteristics. Thus, fruits and vegetables are also appreciated for their beneficial health effects in. Once produce is harvested, postharvest handling practices do not improve the quality attained in the field; they only can slow the rate at which deterioration occurs. Physiological and pathological deterioration of a produce after harvest can play a principal role in a consumer’s decision to purchase.

Postharvest quality and shelf life of fresh produce also are determined before harvest. Factors that include weather, soil preparation and cultivation, soil type, cultivar, irrigation and fertilization practices, and crop loads affect the quality and flavor properties of harvested fresh produce. However, postharvest quality is also affected by many practices during and after harvest such as temperature management, controlled and modified atmosphere, coating, physical treatments, biocontrol, and more.

This Special Issue on “Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices” intend to provide novel insight into fresh produce disease development with a specific focus on above aspects. Your contribution to this topic through literature review or original research paper that deal with either pre or postharvest practices that affect disease development after harvest are welcomed on all fresh produce.

Prof. Dr. Elazar Fallik
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Horticulturae is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • disease control
  • disease development
  • fresh produce
  • pre harvest practices
  • postharvest practices
  • quality
  • shelf life
  • storage

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dissipation of Pre-Harvest Pesticides on ‘Clementine’ Mandarins after Open Field Application, and Their Persistence When Stored under Conventional Postharvest Conditions
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040055
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
The dissipation of field-applied difenoconazole, imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin and spinosad on Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) under controlled conditions throughout the citrus production chain was assessed. At harvest, 42 days after application, the dissipation of these pesticides were 80, 92, and [...] Read more.
The dissipation of field-applied difenoconazole, imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin and spinosad on Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) under controlled conditions throughout the citrus production chain was assessed. At harvest, 42 days after application, the dissipation of these pesticides were 80, 92, and 48% for difenoconazole, imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, respectively, and spinosad was below the level of detectability. At day 28 after application, spinosad was no longer detected. The model equations that best describe the dissipation curves of these pesticides on Clementine mandarins showed different patterns. Their half-life on Clementine, calculated by the best-fitted experimental data, were 19.2 day (1st-order model) for difenoconazole, 4.1 day (Root Factor (RF) 1st-order model) for imidacloprid, 39.8 day (2nd-order model) for pyraclostrobin and 5.8 day (1st-order model) for spinosad. These results are the first record of pyraclostrobin persistence on mandarins, showing a longer half-life in this matrix than those reported for any other fruit. The treated fruit were harvested and submitted to the usual postharvest treatments: first, a hypochlorite drenching was performed; as a second step, imazalil and wax were applied, and then the mandarins were stored at 4 °C. After 32 days, cold storage caused no significant effects on the residue levels of the four pesticides compared with those determined on freshly harvested mandarins. All residues were below their Codex and European Union (EU) maximum residue limit (MRL) for mandarin since the spray application day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessCommunication
Chitosan and Carnauba Wax Coatings Are Not Recommended for Yellow Carrots
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040031
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different concentrations of carnauba wax and chitosan edible coatings for commercial quality preservation of ‘Yellow Stone’ carrots. Seven treatments were tested: Chitosan at concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5%; carnauba wax at [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of different concentrations of carnauba wax and chitosan edible coatings for commercial quality preservation of ‘Yellow Stone’ carrots. Seven treatments were tested: Chitosan at concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5%; carnauba wax at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 12%, and a control treatment, without coating application. Carrots were stored at 2 °C, 95–100% RH, for 30 days, and were evaluated on the day of application (day 0) and at 7, 15, and 30 days. Indices of brown stains, coloring, and light microscopy analysis were developed. The use of edible coatings for yellow carrots was not viable, regardless of the treatment used, and carnauba waxes caused more severe brown stains. Higher concentrations of carnauba wax caused damage of the carrot periderm, generating, in addition to the stains, deep depressions and superficial viscosity. Only the control treatment showed no degradation in appearance. Treatments with the highest index scores presented lower luminosity, lower b color values, and higher a color values, which showed that the brown stains impacted carrot appearance and, therefore, their visual quality. The results showed that coatings based on chitosan and carnauba wax are not recommended for yellow carrots, since they negatively affected appearance of the product, leaving them unmarketable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Electronic Cold-PasteurizationTM (ECPTM) on Fruit Quality and Postharvest Diseases during Blueberry Storage
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030025
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
With the growing popularity of blueberries and the associated increase in blueberry imports and exports worldwide, delivering fruit with high quality, longer shelf-life, and meeting phytosanitary requirements has become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of electron [...] Read more.
With the growing popularity of blueberries and the associated increase in blueberry imports and exports worldwide, delivering fruit with high quality, longer shelf-life, and meeting phytosanitary requirements has become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation using a new Electronic Cold-PasteurizationTM (ECPTM) technology on fruit quality, microbial safety, and postharvest disease development in two southern highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Farthing’ and ‘Rebel’. Fruit packed in clamshells were subjected to four levels of ECPTM irradiation (0, 0.15, 0.5, and 1.0 kGy) and evaluated for fruit quality attributes, surface microbial load, and postharvest disease incidence during various storage times after treatment and cold storage. Overall, there was no effect of irradiation on visual fruit quality in either cultivar. Fruit firmness and skin toughness in ‘Farthing’ was reduced following irradiation at 1.0 kGy, but no such effect was observed in ‘Rebel’. Other fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight, total soluble solids content, or titratable acidity were not affected. Irradiation at 1.0 kGy significantly reduced total aerobic bacteria and yeast on the fruit surface, and in the case of ‘Rebel’, also levels of total coliform bacteria. There was no significant effect of irradiation on postharvest disease incidence in these trials. Overall, data from this study suggests that an irradiation dose lower than 1.0 kGy using ECPTM can be useful for phytosanitary treatment in blueberry fruit while avoiding undesirable effects on fruit quality in a cultivar-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ethephon, Abscisic Acid, and Methyl Jasmonate on Fruit Ripening in Rabbiteye Blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum)
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030024
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Ripening in blueberry fruit is irregular and occurs over an extended period requiring multiple harvests, thereby increasing the cost of production. Several phytohormones contribute to the regulation of fruit ripening. Certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) can alter the content, perception, or action of [...] Read more.
Ripening in blueberry fruit is irregular and occurs over an extended period requiring multiple harvests, thereby increasing the cost of production. Several phytohormones contribute to the regulation of fruit ripening. Certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) can alter the content, perception, or action of these phytohormones, potentially accelerating fruit ripening and concentrating the ripening period. The effects of three such PGRs—ethephon, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate—on fruit ripening were evaluated in the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum) cultivars ‘Premier’ and ‘Powderblue’. Application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing PGR, at 250 mg L−1 when 30–40% of fruit on the plant were ripe, accelerated ripening by increasing the proportion of blue (ripe) fruit by 1.5–1.8-fold within 4 to 7 days after treatment in both cultivars. Ethephon applications did not generally alter fruit quality characteristics at harvest or during postharvest storage, except for a slight decrease in juice pH at 1 day of postharvest storage and an increase in fruit firmness and titratable acidity after 15 days of postharvest storage in Powderblue. In Premier, ethephon applications decreased the proportion of defective fruit at 29 days of postharvest storage. Abscisic acid (600–1000 mg L−1) and methyl jasmonate (0.5–1 mM) applications did not alter the proportion of ripe fruit in either cultivar. These applications also had little effect on fruit quality characteristics at harvest and during postharvest storage. None of the above PGR applications affected the development of naturally occurring postharvest pathogens during storage. Together, data from this study indicated that ethephon has the potential to accelerate ripening in rabbiteye blueberry fruit, allowing for a potential decrease in the number of fruit harvests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Effect of Continuous Exposure to Low Levels of Ethylene on Mycelial Growth of Postharvest Fruit Fungal Pathogens
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030020
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Ethylene enhances the ripening and senescence of fruit with increased susceptibility to fungal decay a common feature of such changes. Most studies on the effect of ethylene have been in vivo where it is not possible to determine whether any effect due to [...] Read more.
Ethylene enhances the ripening and senescence of fruit with increased susceptibility to fungal decay a common feature of such changes. Most studies on the effect of ethylene have been in vivo where it is not possible to determine whether any effect due to ethylene arises from changes in metabolism of produce or from a direct effect on the pathogen. The few in vitro studies, that have been carried out, have been with very high ethylene levels, and did not identify the source of pathogens tested. This study examined the effect of air and ethylene, at 0.1 and 1 μL L−1, on the growth of fungi isolated from five climacteric fruits (persimmon, pear, tomato, mango and papaya), and three non-climacteric fruits (orange, grape and blueberry). All fungi isolated from climacteric fruits had reduced mycelial growth when held in 0.1 and 1 μL L−1 ethylene but those from non-climacteric fruits showed no effect of ethylene. The finding was unexpected and suggests that fungi that colonise climacteric fruits are advantaged by delaying growth when fruits start to ripen. Since non-climacteric fruits do not exhibit any marked increase in ethylene, colonising pathogens would not need such an adaptive response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
The Potential Use of Hot Water Rinsing and Brushing Technology to Extend Storability and Shelf Life of Sweet Acorn Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030019
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Acorn squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) are very sweet and are an excellent source of nutrients and vitamins. Very little information is available about their optimal storage temperature or how to extend their shelf life. The present goal was to elucidate the [...] Read more.
Acorn squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) are very sweet and are an excellent source of nutrients and vitamins. Very little information is available about their optimal storage temperature or how to extend their shelf life. The present goal was to elucidate the best storage temperature of this fruit, and to evaluate hot water rinsing and brushing (HWRB) technology to maintain fruit quality for several months. The optimal storage temperature was found to be 15 °C. However, treating the fruits with HWRB at 54 °C for 15 s and then storing them at 15 °C significantly maintained fruit quality for 3.5 months, as indicated by higher fruit firmness, lower decay incidence, and improved retention of green skin color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Postharvest Techniques to Prevent the Incidence of Botrytis Mold of ‘BRS Vitoria’ Seedless Grape under Cold Storage
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030017
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
‘BRS Vitoria’ (Vitis spp.) is a novel hybrid seedless table grape recommended for cultivation in tropical and subtropical areas, especially for overseas export. The main postharvest disease of this cultivar is botrytis or gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), which occurs even [...] Read more.
‘BRS Vitoria’ (Vitis spp.) is a novel hybrid seedless table grape recommended for cultivation in tropical and subtropical areas, especially for overseas export. The main postharvest disease of this cultivar is botrytis or gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), which occurs even under low temperatures in cold chambers. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) release pads have been used to control this disease under cold storage, but some grape cultivars are sensitive to certain levels of this compound. The objective of this work was to evaluate different types of SO2 generator pads in order to prevent the incidence of gray mold of ‘BRS Vitoria’ seedless grape, as well to avoid other grape injuries during cold storage. Grape bunches were harvested when fully ripened (16°Brix) from a commercial field trained on overhead trellis and located at Marialva, state of Parana (PR) (South Brazil). Grapes were packed into carton boxes and subjected to the following SO2 pad treatments (Uvasys®, Cape Town, South Africa) in a cold chamber (2 °C): (a) control; (b) SO2 slow release pad; (c) SO2 dual release pad; (d) SO2 dual release–fast reduced pad; (e) SO2 slow release pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea; (f) SO2 dual release pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea; and (g) SO2 dual release–fast reduced pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea. After a 50-day cold chamber period, the grape boxes were kept for 7 days at room temperature at 25 °C. A randomized design was used with seven treatments and four replications, with five bunches per plot. The incidence of gray mold on grapes was evaluated after the 50-day cold storage and after the 7-days-at-room-temperature periods, as well other grape physicochemical variables, such as shattered berries, stem browning, bunch mass, bunch mass loss, skin color, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), and SS/TA. The dual release pads were more efficient in preventing the incidence of gray mold and mass loss in ‘BRS Vitoria’ seedless grapes than the slow release pads in both storage periods. The incidence of shattered berries was lower when any type SO2 pad was used during cold storage, and no effects were observed on stem browning, firmness, or berry skin color of ‘BRS Vitoria’ grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fruit Stem-End Rot
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040050
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
After harvest, the fruit ripens and stem-end rot (SER) starts to develop, leading to significant fruit losses. SER is caused by diverse pathogenic fungi that endophytically colonize the stem during fruit development in the orchard or field and remain quiescent until the onset [...] Read more.
After harvest, the fruit ripens and stem-end rot (SER) starts to develop, leading to significant fruit losses. SER is caused by diverse pathogenic fungi that endophytically colonize the stem during fruit development in the orchard or field and remain quiescent until the onset of fruit ripening. During the endophytic-like stage, the pathogenic fungus colonizes the phloem and xylem of the fruit stem-end; after fruit ripening, the fungus converts to a necrotrophic lifestyle, while colonizing the fruit parenchyma, and causes SER. The fruit stem-end is colonized not only by pathogenic fungi, but also by various nonpathogenic endophytic microorganisms, including fungi, yeast and bacteria. However, little is known about the fruit stem-end endophytic microbiome, which could contain new and existing biocontrol agents. To control fruit SER, treatments such as ripening inhibition, harvesting with the stem, application of chemical or biological fungicides, or physical control such as heat treatments, cold storage, or exposure to light have been suggested. This review focuses on the characterization of SER pathogens, the stem-end microbiome, and different pre- and postharvest practices that could control fruit SER. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Postharvest Treatments with GRAS Salts to Control Fresh Fruit Decay
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040046
Received: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
Control of postharvest diseases of fresh fruits has relied for many years on the continuous use of conventional chemical fungicides. However, nonpolluting alternatives are increasingly needed because of human health and environmental issues related to the generation of chemical residues. Low-toxicity chemicals classified [...] Read more.
Control of postharvest diseases of fresh fruits has relied for many years on the continuous use of conventional chemical fungicides. However, nonpolluting alternatives are increasingly needed because of human health and environmental issues related to the generation of chemical residues. Low-toxicity chemicals classified as food preservatives or as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds have known and very low toxicological effects on mammals and minimal impact on the environment. Among them, inorganic or organic salts such as carbonates, sorbates, benzoates, silicates, etc., show significant advantages for potential commercial use, such as their availability, low cost, and general high solubility in water. Typically, these substances are first evaluated in vitro against target pathogens that cause important postharvest diseases. Selected salts and concentrations are then assayed as aqueous solutions in in vivo tests with target fresh fruit. Laboratory and small-scale experiments are conducted with fruit artificially inoculated with pathogens, whereas naturally infected fruit are used for large-scale, semicommercial, or commercial trials. Another approach that is increasingly gaining importance is evaluating GRAS salts as antifungal ingredients of novel synthetic edible coatings. These coatings could replace the fungicide-amended commercial waxes applied to many fruit commodities and could be used for organic or “zero-residue” fresh fruit production systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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