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Horticulturae, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessReview Water Use Efficiency in Urban Food Gardens: Insights from a Systematic Review and Case Study
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030027
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Water use and the cost of water are key factors when considering the net value of urban agriculture (UA). This systematic review critically evaluates past and recent UA yield research from the perspective of water use efficiency. A systematic literature search was conducted
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Water use and the cost of water are key factors when considering the net value of urban agriculture (UA). This systematic review critically evaluates past and recent UA yield research from the perspective of water use efficiency. A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases Scopus, ProQuest Agriculture and Environment, and Web of Science for references from 1975 to 2018, with 25 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Of these, only five articles had actively collected UA water use data, all on purpose-built experimental gardens. Considering the scarcity of UA water use efficiency and water measurement literature, South Australia is presented as a case study to demonstrate the considerable diversity of water pricing, water sources and irrigation methods available to urban food growers. The practical challenges of garden placement and the wide variety of cultivation techniques, water sources and irrigation methods are reviewed. Four equations to calculate the water use efficiency (WUE) of UA are proposed and demonstrated. Collection of additional UA water use data would support more robust evaluations of the water use efficiency and economic implications of different cultivation techniques. Further work in this field will enable a realistic understanding of the current and future contribution of UA to our society. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Pecan Propagation: Seed Mass as a Reliable Tool for Seed Selection
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030026
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Pecan is one of the most important horticultural nut crops in the world. It is a deciduous species native to the temperate zones of North America, introduced into the subtropical regions of Brazil during the 1870s. High quality seedlings are essential to establishing
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Pecan is one of the most important horticultural nut crops in the world. It is a deciduous species native to the temperate zones of North America, introduced into the subtropical regions of Brazil during the 1870s. High quality seedlings are essential to establishing healthy and productive orchards, and selection of seeds is an important factor in this issue. In this study we evaluated the correlation between seed mass, emergence rate and morphometric traits of seedlings in the pecan cultivar Importada. A significant positive correlation (r > 0.81) between seed mass and plantlet height, stem diameter, emergence rate and number of leaves was observed. Our results suggest that seed mass can be used as a direct method for seed selection towards production of vigorous pecan seedlings. However, since an increase in seed mass is usually associated with a decrease in the number of seeds that a plant can produce per unit canopy, long-duration studies are recommended in order to evaluate the influence of seed selection on a plantation’s production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Propagation of Fruit, Vegetable and Ornamental Plants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Electronic Cold-PasteurizationTM (ECPTM) on Fruit Quality and Postharvest Diseases during Blueberry Storage
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030025
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
With the growing popularity of blueberries and the associated increase in blueberry imports and exports worldwide, delivering fruit with high quality, longer shelf-life, and meeting phytosanitary requirements has become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of electron
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With the growing popularity of blueberries and the associated increase in blueberry imports and exports worldwide, delivering fruit with high quality, longer shelf-life, and meeting phytosanitary requirements has become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation using a new Electronic Cold-PasteurizationTM (ECPTM) technology on fruit quality, microbial safety, and postharvest disease development in two southern highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Farthing’ and ‘Rebel’. Fruit packed in clamshells were subjected to four levels of ECPTM irradiation (0, 0.15, 0.5, and 1.0 kGy) and evaluated for fruit quality attributes, surface microbial load, and postharvest disease incidence during various storage times after treatment and cold storage. Overall, there was no effect of irradiation on visual fruit quality in either cultivar. Fruit firmness and skin toughness in ‘Farthing’ was reduced following irradiation at 1.0 kGy, but no such effect was observed in ‘Rebel’. Other fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight, total soluble solids content, or titratable acidity were not affected. Irradiation at 1.0 kGy significantly reduced total aerobic bacteria and yeast on the fruit surface, and in the case of ‘Rebel’, also levels of total coliform bacteria. There was no significant effect of irradiation on postharvest disease incidence in these trials. Overall, data from this study suggests that an irradiation dose lower than 1.0 kGy using ECPTM can be useful for phytosanitary treatment in blueberry fruit while avoiding undesirable effects on fruit quality in a cultivar-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Ethephon, Abscisic Acid, and Methyl Jasmonate on Fruit Ripening in Rabbiteye Blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum)
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030024
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Ripening in blueberry fruit is irregular and occurs over an extended period requiring multiple harvests, thereby increasing the cost of production. Several phytohormones contribute to the regulation of fruit ripening. Certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) can alter the content, perception, or action of
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Ripening in blueberry fruit is irregular and occurs over an extended period requiring multiple harvests, thereby increasing the cost of production. Several phytohormones contribute to the regulation of fruit ripening. Certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) can alter the content, perception, or action of these phytohormones, potentially accelerating fruit ripening and concentrating the ripening period. The effects of three such PGRs—ethephon, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate—on fruit ripening were evaluated in the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum) cultivars ‘Premier’ and ‘Powderblue’. Application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing PGR, at 250 mg L−1 when 30–40% of fruit on the plant were ripe, accelerated ripening by increasing the proportion of blue (ripe) fruit by 1.5–1.8-fold within 4 to 7 days after treatment in both cultivars. Ethephon applications did not generally alter fruit quality characteristics at harvest or during postharvest storage, except for a slight decrease in juice pH at 1 day of postharvest storage and an increase in fruit firmness and titratable acidity after 15 days of postharvest storage in Powderblue. In Premier, ethephon applications decreased the proportion of defective fruit at 29 days of postharvest storage. Abscisic acid (600–1000 mg L−1) and methyl jasmonate (0.5–1 mM) applications did not alter the proportion of ripe fruit in either cultivar. These applications also had little effect on fruit quality characteristics at harvest and during postharvest storage. None of the above PGR applications affected the development of naturally occurring postharvest pathogens during storage. Together, data from this study indicated that ethephon has the potential to accelerate ripening in rabbiteye blueberry fruit, allowing for a potential decrease in the number of fruit harvests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessReview A Semi-Systematic Review of Capillary Irrigation: The Benefits, Limitations, and Opportunities
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030023
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Capillary irrigation systems have been investigated for some years as a means to deliver water to plants in container gardening. This review paper identifies that traditional capillary irrigation systems such as capillary wicks, capillary mats, and ebb and flow systems have been shown
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Capillary irrigation systems have been investigated for some years as a means to deliver water to plants in container gardening. This review paper identifies that traditional capillary irrigation systems such as capillary wicks, capillary mats, and ebb and flow systems have been shown to produce higher crop yields and use less water than conventional irrigation methods. In addition, capillary irrigation offers an added advantage by reducing the volume of potentially harmful leachate into surrounding soil environments. However, these systems are basically limited to small pot sizes and are widely used for growing ornamental and nursery plants in glasshouse conditions. Further, the cost and complexity of Negative Pressure Difference Irrigation may have limited its practical use. Conversely, wicking beds (WBs) are low-tech and water-efficient systems which can be used for growing plants with different rooting depths. Irrespective of the wide acceptance of WBs among the growing community, this review recognises that there is no published research providing design recommendations for WBs and their expected performance relative to other irrigation systems. Therefore, some potential advantages of WBs are noted in the context of capillary irrigation research; however, a substantial knowledge gap exists relating to the optimised design and use of WBs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ripening Characteristics and Pigment Changes in Russeted Pear Fruit in Response to Ethylene and 1-MCP
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030022
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
Ripening characteristics and pigment changes were investigated in ‘La France’, ‘Gorham’, and their russeted sports ‘Gold La France’ and ‘Grand Champion’ pears. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and ripened at 20 °C. In all cultivars, fruit softening was concomitant with a burst
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Ripening characteristics and pigment changes were investigated in ‘La France’, ‘Gorham’, and their russeted sports ‘Gold La France’ and ‘Grand Champion’ pears. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and ripened at 20 °C. In all cultivars, fruit softening was concomitant with a burst in ethylene production. Interestingly, such changes were delayed in russet pear when compared with their wild-types. Chlorophyll level in russet pear at harvest was the same as in the wild-type. In ‘Gorham’ and ‘Grand Champion’ pears, its level rapidly decreased during ripening. Ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) did not affect the color and pigments in ‘La France’ and ‘Gold La France’ pears. In contrast, in ‘Gorham’ and ‘Grand Champion’ pears, chlorophyll degradation was suppressed by 1-MCP treatment, but not completely. These results suggested that chlorophyll degradation was regulated by both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent means. The influence of ethylene on the expression of chlorophyll-degradation-related genes seemed to be similar in both russet and wild-type. The Stay green-1 gene was stimulated by ethylene and suppressed by 1-MCP treatment. In contrast, little effect of ethylene or 1-MCP was observed on chlorophyllase 1, pheophytinase, pheophorbide a oxygenase, and NYC1-like genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular, Genetic and Physiological Control of Fruit Quality)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Agronomic Management for Enhancing Plant Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses: High and Low Values of Temperature, Light Intensity, and Relative Humidity
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030021
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Abiotic stresses have direct effects on plant growth and development. In agriculture, sub-optimal values of temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity can limit crop yield and reduce product quality. Temperature has a direct effect on whole plant metabolism, and low or high temperatures
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Abiotic stresses have direct effects on plant growth and development. In agriculture, sub-optimal values of temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity can limit crop yield and reduce product quality. Temperature has a direct effect on whole plant metabolism, and low or high temperatures can reduce growth or induce crop damage. Solar radiation is the primary driver of crop production, but light intensity can also have negative effects, especially if concurrent with water stress and high temperature. Relative humidity also plays an important role by regulating transpiration and water balance of crops. In this review, the main effects of these abiotic stresses on crop performance are reported, and agronomic strategies used to avoid or mitigate the effects of these stresses are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Effects on Performance of Horticultural Crops)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Effect of Continuous Exposure to Low Levels of Ethylene on Mycelial Growth of Postharvest Fruit Fungal Pathogens
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030020
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Ethylene enhances the ripening and senescence of fruit with increased susceptibility to fungal decay a common feature of such changes. Most studies on the effect of ethylene have been in vivo where it is not possible to determine whether any effect due to
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Ethylene enhances the ripening and senescence of fruit with increased susceptibility to fungal decay a common feature of such changes. Most studies on the effect of ethylene have been in vivo where it is not possible to determine whether any effect due to ethylene arises from changes in metabolism of produce or from a direct effect on the pathogen. The few in vitro studies, that have been carried out, have been with very high ethylene levels, and did not identify the source of pathogens tested. This study examined the effect of air and ethylene, at 0.1 and 1 μL L−1, on the growth of fungi isolated from five climacteric fruits (persimmon, pear, tomato, mango and papaya), and three non-climacteric fruits (orange, grape and blueberry). All fungi isolated from climacteric fruits had reduced mycelial growth when held in 0.1 and 1 μL L−1 ethylene but those from non-climacteric fruits showed no effect of ethylene. The finding was unexpected and suggests that fungi that colonise climacteric fruits are advantaged by delaying growth when fruits start to ripen. Since non-climacteric fruits do not exhibit any marked increase in ethylene, colonising pathogens would not need such an adaptive response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication The Potential Use of Hot Water Rinsing and Brushing Technology to Extend Storability and Shelf Life of Sweet Acorn Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030019
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Acorn squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) are very sweet and are an excellent source of nutrients and vitamins. Very little information is available about their optimal storage temperature or how to extend their shelf life. The present goal was to elucidate the
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Acorn squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) are very sweet and are an excellent source of nutrients and vitamins. Very little information is available about their optimal storage temperature or how to extend their shelf life. The present goal was to elucidate the best storage temperature of this fruit, and to evaluate hot water rinsing and brushing (HWRB) technology to maintain fruit quality for several months. The optimal storage temperature was found to be 15 °C. However, treating the fruits with HWRB at 54 °C for 15 s and then storing them at 15 °C significantly maintained fruit quality for 3.5 months, as indicated by higher fruit firmness, lower decay incidence, and improved retention of green skin color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessArticle Cold Storage and Biocontrol Agents to Extend the Storage Period of ‘BRS Isis’ Seedless Table Grapes
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030018
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
‘BRS Isis’ is a novel hybrid seedless table grape with large reddish bunches. This cultivar is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and has potential to be exported overseas; however, under these growth conditions, grapes can be severely damaged by gray mold (
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‘BRS Isis’ is a novel hybrid seedless table grape with large reddish bunches. This cultivar is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and has potential to be exported overseas; however, under these growth conditions, grapes can be severely damaged by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), the main postharvest disease of table grapes. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate different pre- and postharvest strategies to extend the storage period of ‘BRS Isis’ seedless table grapes. The treatments consisted of grapes packed into carton boxes under cold storage (1 °C and high relative humidity), pre- and/or postharvest treatment with potassium bicarbonate or a biological control agent (Bacillus subtilis), all with Botrytis inoculation. Additionally, two controls, with and without Botrytis inoculation, were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight treatments and three replications, and each plot consisted of four bunches. After a 50-day cold storage period, the carton boxes were kept for five days at room temperature (22 °C). Gray mold incidence and water loss, as well as soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, and color attributes were evaluated during both periods. Cold storage effectively reduced gray mold in ‘BRS Isis’ seedless grape for a period of 50 days, even when grapes were inoculated; however, no difference among treatments was observed. Higher water loss was observed in both non-treated control treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Plant Pathology and Prevention)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Postharvest Techniques to Prevent the Incidence of Botrytis Mold of ‘BRS Vitoria’ Seedless Grape under Cold Storage
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030017
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
‘BRS Vitoria’ (Vitis spp.) is a novel hybrid seedless table grape recommended for cultivation in tropical and subtropical areas, especially for overseas export. The main postharvest disease of this cultivar is botrytis or gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), which occurs even
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‘BRS Vitoria’ (Vitis spp.) is a novel hybrid seedless table grape recommended for cultivation in tropical and subtropical areas, especially for overseas export. The main postharvest disease of this cultivar is botrytis or gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), which occurs even under low temperatures in cold chambers. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) release pads have been used to control this disease under cold storage, but some grape cultivars are sensitive to certain levels of this compound. The objective of this work was to evaluate different types of SO2 generator pads in order to prevent the incidence of gray mold of ‘BRS Vitoria’ seedless grape, as well to avoid other grape injuries during cold storage. Grape bunches were harvested when fully ripened (16°Brix) from a commercial field trained on overhead trellis and located at Marialva, state of Parana (PR) (South Brazil). Grapes were packed into carton boxes and subjected to the following SO2 pad treatments (Uvasys®, Cape Town, South Africa) in a cold chamber (2 °C): (a) control; (b) SO2 slow release pad; (c) SO2 dual release pad; (d) SO2 dual release–fast reduced pad; (e) SO2 slow release pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea; (f) SO2 dual release pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea; and (g) SO2 dual release–fast reduced pad with grapes inoculated with B. cinerea. After a 50-day cold chamber period, the grape boxes were kept for 7 days at room temperature at 25 °C. A randomized design was used with seven treatments and four replications, with five bunches per plot. The incidence of gray mold on grapes was evaluated after the 50-day cold storage and after the 7-days-at-room-temperature periods, as well other grape physicochemical variables, such as shattered berries, stem browning, bunch mass, bunch mass loss, skin color, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), and SS/TA. The dual release pads were more efficient in preventing the incidence of gray mold and mass loss in ‘BRS Vitoria’ seedless grapes than the slow release pads in both storage periods. The incidence of shattered berries was lower when any type SO2 pad was used during cold storage, and no effects were observed on stem browning, firmness, or berry skin color of ‘BRS Vitoria’ grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
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Open AccessArticle Growth, Water-Use Efficiency, Stomatal Conductance, and Nitrogen Uptake of Two Lettuce Cultivars Grown under Different Percentages of Blue and Red Light
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030016
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to characterize growth, water-use efficiency (WUE), stomatal conductance (gs), SPAD index values, and shoot nitrogen uptake of two lettuce cultivars grown under different percentages of blue and red light. The treatments evaluated were 100%
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The objective of this study was to characterize growth, water-use efficiency (WUE), stomatal conductance (gs), SPAD index values, and shoot nitrogen uptake of two lettuce cultivars grown under different percentages of blue and red light. The treatments evaluated were 100% red; 7% blue + 93% red; 26% blue + 74% red; 42% blue + 58% red; 66% blue + 34% red; and 100% blue. Broad-spectrum (19% blue, 43% green, and 38% red) light was used to observe the effects of wavelength interactions. All of the treatments provided an average daily light integral (DLI) of 17.5 mol·m‒2·d‒1 (270 ± 5 µmol·m‒2·s‒1 over an 18-h photoperiod). The experiment was replicated three times over time; each terminated 21 days after treatment initiation. Leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and SPAD index had a similar response in that all of the parameters increased with up to 66% blue light, and slightly decreased or remained constant with 100% blue light. In contrast, leaf number, shoot dry mass, and WUE generally decreased in response to blue light. Conversely, for every 10% increase in blue light, gs increased by 10 mmol·m‒2·s‒1. Nitrogen uptake was unaffected by light quality. Our findings indicate that when grown under different blue and red photon flux ratios, the WUE of lettuce significantly decreases under higher blue light, which could be attributed to a reduction in plant growth (leaf number and dry mass), and an increase in gs. However, green light within broad-spectrum lamps might counteract blue-light mediated effects on gs and WUE in lettuce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Production in Controlled Environment)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison between Organic and Conventional Olive Farming in Messenia, Greece
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030015
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Olive farming is one of the most important occupations in Messenia, Greece. The region is considered the largest olive producer in the country and it is recognized as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) for Kalamata olive oil, which is considered extra fine.
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Olive farming is one of the most important occupations in Messenia, Greece. The region is considered the largest olive producer in the country and it is recognized as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) for Kalamata olive oil, which is considered extra fine. In response to the declining trend of organic olive farming in Greece, this study assesses to what extent organic olive farming in Messenia provides a financially and environmentally competitive alternative to conventional olive farming. In this study, 39 olive farmers (23 conventional and 16 organic) participated in interviews based on questionnaires. The results showed that organic olive farming is significantly more profitable than conventional farming, primarily because of a higher price for organic olive oil. Despite this, the majority of the conventional farmers perceived a low profit from organic farming as the main constraint to organic olive farming. All farmers agreed that organic olive farming contributed to a better environment, health and quality of olive oil. Organic farmers used fewer synthetic pesticides and fertilizers and applied more environmentally-friendly ground vegetation management techniques than conventional farmers. Overall, organic farming was found to provide a competitive and sustainable alternative to conventional olive farming in Messenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Pertinent to Fresh Produce)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Implications of Smallholder Farm Production Diversity for Household Food Consumption Diversity: Insights from Diverse Agro-Ecological and Market Access Contexts in Rural Tanzania
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030014
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 8 July 2018
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Abstract
Owing to persistent challenges of food and nutritional insecurity, recent literature has focused on the role diversity of farm production has on food consumption diversity, particularly for smallholder households. Yet, the relationship between farm production diversity and household food consumption diversity remains complex
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Owing to persistent challenges of food and nutritional insecurity, recent literature has focused on the role diversity of farm production has on food consumption diversity, particularly for smallholder households. Yet, the relationship between farm production diversity and household food consumption diversity remains complex and empirical evidence is, so far, mixed. The present article assesses this relationship using two districts—Kilosa and Chamwino—with contrasting agro-ecological and market contexts in rural Tanzania. These districts represent the majority of farming systems found in Tanzania as well as in several countries within the region. We used household data and employed descriptive as well as multivariate regression analyses. The results indicated a positive role of farm production diversity for food consumption diversity in the district with relatively harsh climatic and agro-ecological characteristics and poor access to markets. Furthermore, increased farm production diversity was generally associated with seasonal food consumption diversity. However, results suggested a lesser role of farm production diversity in the presence of better agro-ecological and market access characteristics. These findings imply that promoting farm production diversity should consider the existing agro-ecological and market characteristics. In addition, achieving increased food consumption diversity among rural households may require effective market related infrastructure and institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing Strategies of Horticultural Production Chain)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Purchase Patterns of Price Conscious Consumers
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030013
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Price greatly influences consumers’ purchasing decisions. Individuals whose decisions are primarily driven by price are said to be ‘price conscious’. To date, studies have focused on defining price consciousness and identifying factors that contribute to price-conscious behavior. However, research using visual attention to
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Price greatly influences consumers’ purchasing decisions. Individuals whose decisions are primarily driven by price are said to be ‘price conscious’. To date, studies have focused on defining price consciousness and identifying factors that contribute to price-conscious behavior. However, research using visual attention to assess how price conscious consumers use in-store stimuli is limited. Here, consumers’ purchasing decisions are assessed using a rating-based conjoint analysis paired with eye tracking technology when shopping for ornamental plants. An ordered logit model is employed to understand price conscious consumers’ purchase patterns and choice outcomes. Overall, price conscious consumers are less attentive to price information. Being price conscious tends to reduce purchase likelihood, ceteris paribus. Increasing visual attention to price decreases consumers’ purchase likelihood, which is amplified for price conscious consumers. Price conscious consumers tend to be quicker decision makers than non-price conscious consumers. Results are beneficial to retailers interested in targeting or primarily catering to price conscious consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing Strategies of Horticultural Production Chain)
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Open AccessArticle Lettuce Biomass Accumulation and Phytonutrient Concentrations Are Influenced by Genotype, N Application Rate and Location
Horticulturae 2018, 4(3), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4030012
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this research is to determine how increasing levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, locations, and cultivars affected yields, biomass accumulation, and polyphenol concentrations in lettuce. This study is carried out at the North Mississippi Research and Extension Center (NMREC) and Northwest
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The purpose of this research is to determine how increasing levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, locations, and cultivars affected yields, biomass accumulation, and polyphenol concentrations in lettuce. This study is carried out at the North Mississippi Research and Extension Center (NMREC) and Northwest Washington Research and Extension Center (NWREC). The experiment is a randomized complete block design arranged in a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial with 4 replications. Treatments include two cos (romaine) lettuce cultivars, ‘Salvius’ and ‘Thurinus’. N treatments include 42, 63, 105 and 189 kg·ha−1. ‘Salvius’ has greater fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM), and a smaller DM:FM ratio when compared to ‘Thurinus’. The NWREC location has higher lettuce FM and DM. Quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G) increases with increasing N concentrations. There are interactions between locations and lettuce cultivars for chlorogenic acid, Q-3-G, and quercetin/luteolin glucuronide (QL-G). There is increased chlorogenic acid content in ‘Salvius’ at the NMREC and increased concentrations of Q-3-G and QL-G in ‘Thurinus’ compared to the NWREC location. ‘Thurinus’ has significantly more chicoric acid and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside (QM-G) than ‘Salvius’. Lettuce at the NWREC has significantly more chicoric acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C-3-G). Lettuce at the NWREC has greater yields and biomass accumulation. Lettuce at the NWREC also has greater amounts of flavonoids and anthocyanins. ‘Salvius’ has greater amounts of phenolic acids and ‘Thurinus’ has greater amounts of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Full article
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