Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Light Intensity and Temperature on Flowering and Morphology of Potted Red Firespike
Next Article in Special Issue
Yield, Quality, Antioxidants and Elemental Composition of New Leek Cultivars under Organic or Conventional Systems in a Greenhouse
Previous Article in Journal
Analyzing the Export Performance of the Horticultural Sub-Sector in Ethiopia: ARDL Bound Test Cointegration Analysis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Growth Responses and Root Characteristics of Lettuce Grown in Aeroponics, Hydroponics, and Substrate Culture

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A & M AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Shanghai Jieyou Agriculture Sci & Tech Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201210, China
Spraying Systems (Shanghai) Co., Shanghai 201611, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 35;
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
PDF [9729 KB, uploaded 24 October 2018]


Aeroponics is a relatively new soilless culture technology which may produce food in space-limited cities or on non-arable land with high water-use efficiency. The shoot and root growth, root characteristics, and mineral content of two lettuce cultivars were measured in aeroponics, and compared with hydroponics and substrate culture. The results showed that aeroponics remarkably improved root growth with a significantly greater root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and greater total root length, root area, and root volume. However, the greater root growth did not lead to greater shoot growth compared with hydroponics, due to the limited availability of nutrients and water. It was concluded that aeroponics systems may be better for high value true root crop production. Further research is necessary to determine the suitable pressure, droplet size, and misting interval in order to improve the continuous availability of nutrients and water in aeroponics, if it is to be used to grow crops such as lettuce for harvesting above-ground parts. View Full-Text
Keywords: soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Q.; Li, X.; Tang, B.; Gu, M. Growth Responses and Root Characteristics of Lettuce Grown in Aeroponics, Hydroponics, and Substrate Culture. Horticulturae 2018, 4, 35.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Horticulturae EISSN 2311-7524 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top