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Horticulturae 2018, 4(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040055

Dissipation of Pre-Harvest Pesticides on ‘Clementine’ Mandarins after Open Field Application, and Their Persistence When Stored under Conventional Postharvest Conditions

1
Grupo de Análisis de Contaminantes Trazas (GACT), Departamento de Química del Litoral, Facultad de Química, CENUR Litoral Norte, UdelaR, Paysandú 60000, Uruguay
2
Grupo de Análisis de Contaminantes Trazas (GACT), Cátedra de Farmacognosia y Productos Naturales, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, UdelaR, Montevideo 11800, Uruguay
3
Programa Nacional de Investigación Citrícola, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria INIA, Estación Experimental Salto Grande, Camino al Terrible s/n, Salto 50000, Uruguay
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Disease Development: Pre and/or Postharvest Practices)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1589 KB, uploaded 18 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

The dissipation of field-applied difenoconazole, imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin and spinosad on Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) under controlled conditions throughout the citrus production chain was assessed. At harvest, 42 days after application, the dissipation of these pesticides were 80, 92, and 48% for difenoconazole, imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, respectively, and spinosad was below the level of detectability. At day 28 after application, spinosad was no longer detected. The model equations that best describe the dissipation curves of these pesticides on Clementine mandarins showed different patterns. Their half-life on Clementine, calculated by the best-fitted experimental data, were 19.2 day (1st-order model) for difenoconazole, 4.1 day (Root Factor (RF) 1st-order model) for imidacloprid, 39.8 day (2nd-order model) for pyraclostrobin and 5.8 day (1st-order model) for spinosad. These results are the first record of pyraclostrobin persistence on mandarins, showing a longer half-life in this matrix than those reported for any other fruit. The treated fruit were harvested and submitted to the usual postharvest treatments: first, a hypochlorite drenching was performed; as a second step, imazalil and wax were applied, and then the mandarins were stored at 4 °C. After 32 days, cold storage caused no significant effects on the residue levels of the four pesticides compared with those determined on freshly harvested mandarins. All residues were below their Codex and European Union (EU) maximum residue limit (MRL) for mandarin since the spray application day. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide residues; degradation dynamic; citrus; LC-MS/MS pesticide residues; degradation dynamic; citrus; LC-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Besil, N.; Cesio, V.; Luque, E.; Pintos, P.; Rivas, F.; Heinzen, H. Dissipation of Pre-Harvest Pesticides on ‘Clementine’ Mandarins after Open Field Application, and Their Persistence When Stored under Conventional Postharvest Conditions. Horticulturae 2018, 4, 55.

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