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Vet. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Poultry is the key sustainable source of high-protein and low-fat meat for the growing human population. Restriction of the use of antibiotics in chicken production to avoid induction of antimicrobial resistance has increased the risk of intestinal health problems. Nutritional strategies may serve as alternatives to maintain or improve chicken health. Innate immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells in the intestine, provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Enhancing NK cell function by feed additives, either directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota, may improve immune-mediated resistance and, thus, the health and welfare of broiler chickens. Screening of feed additives resulted in the selection of oligosaccharides for their effects on innate immune cells, intestinal microbiota composition and performance traits. View this paper
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Article
Prevalence and Temporal Dynamics of White Line Disease in Sheep: An Exploratory Investigation into Disease Distribution and Associated Risk Factors
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060116 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Lameness in sheep is a global health, welfare and economic concern. White line disease (WLD), also known as shelly hoof, is a prevalent, non-infectious cause of lameness, characterised by the breakdown of the white line. Little is known about the predisposing factors, nor [...] Read more.
Lameness in sheep is a global health, welfare and economic concern. White line disease (WLD), also known as shelly hoof, is a prevalent, non-infectious cause of lameness, characterised by the breakdown of the white line. Little is known about the predisposing factors, nor the individual disease dynamics over time. Our exploratory study aimed to investigate the prevalence and temporal dynamics of WLD, and the associated risk factors. Feet of 400 ewes from four UK commercial sheep farms were inspected for WLD at four time points across 12 months. The change in WLD state at foot-level (develop or recover) was calculated for three transition periods. We present WLD to be widespread, affecting 46.8% of foot-level and 76.6% of sheep-level observations. States in WLD changed over time, with feet readily developing and recovering from WLD within the study period. The presence of WLD at foot-level, the number of feet affected at sheep-level and dynamics in development and recovery were driven by a variety of foot-, sheep- and farm-level factors. We provide key insight into the multifaceted aetiology of WLD and corroborate previous studies demonstrating its multifactorial nature. Our study highlights an opportunity to reduce WLD prevalence and informs hypotheses for future prospective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonated Water Treatment on the Viability of Eimeria Oocysts and Giardia Cysts from Water Buffaloes: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060115 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of ozonated water treatment on the viability of Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts isolated from naturally infected water buffaloes. Eimeria oocysts were divided into seven groups of six replicates that [...] Read more.
The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of ozonated water treatment on the viability of Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts isolated from naturally infected water buffaloes. Eimeria oocysts were divided into seven groups of six replicates that were treated with ozonated water at three ozone concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) and two contact times (five and ten minutes), and one group (negative control) that was exposed to non-treated water. Giardia cysts were divided into nine groups of six replicates and were treated with ozonated water at four ozone concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 mg/L) and two contact times (one and two minutes), while one group (negative control) was exposed to non-treated water. The results of the ozonated water treatment gave a 33% inhibition of the sporulation of Eimeria oocysts and rendered 96.3% of Giardia cysts non-viable, suggesting that ozonated water treatment could be a promising alternative sanitation technology to common conventional disinfectants for reducing intestinal protozoa infections in water buffaloes; though further in vitro and in vivo tests are needed. Full article
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Article
Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Cytotoxic T-Cell Recall Response to Theileria parva in Cattle Following Vaccination by the Infection and Treatment Method
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060114 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The apicomplexan hemoparasite, Theileria parva, causes East Coast fever (ECF), a frequently fatal disease of African cattle. Vaccine development has been impeded by incomplete understanding of protective immunity following natural exposure or the infection and treatment method (ITM) of immunization. This is [...] Read more.
The apicomplexan hemoparasite, Theileria parva, causes East Coast fever (ECF), a frequently fatal disease of African cattle. Vaccine development has been impeded by incomplete understanding of protective immunity following natural exposure or the infection and treatment method (ITM) of immunization. This is attributable to a paucity of methods to characterize the memory T-cell repertoire following infection. To overcome this impediment, assays developed to study the immune response to other intracellular pathogens were adapted for use in studies with T. parva to enable definition of the phenotype and function of effector T cells in T. parva-immune cattle, facilitating vaccine development. As reported herein, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from ITM-immunized steers with irradiated, autologous, T. parva-infected cell lines elicited a proliferative recall response comprised of CD45R0+/CCR7 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Subsequent co-incubation of stimulated cultures with infected cells demonstrated the presence of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) with the ability to kill infected cells. Comparison of CTL activity in cultures depleted of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells demonstrated CTL activity was primarily attributed to CD8+ T cells. Importantly, stimulation of PBMC from vaccinated steers always elicited proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This was the first important observation obtained from the use of the assay described herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Borne Pathogens and Symbionts)
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Article
Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Horses with Intestinal Disease and Their Healthy Counterparts
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060113 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
(1) Background: The intestinal microbiota plays an essential role in maintaining the host’s health. Dysbiosis of the equine hindgut microbiota can alter the fermentation patterns and cause metabolic disorders. (2) Methods: This study compared the fecal microbiota composition of horses with intestinal disease [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The intestinal microbiota plays an essential role in maintaining the host’s health. Dysbiosis of the equine hindgut microbiota can alter the fermentation patterns and cause metabolic disorders. (2) Methods: This study compared the fecal microbiota composition of horses with intestinal disease and their healthy counterparts living in Korea using 16S rRNA sequencing from fecal samples. A total of 52 fecal samples were collected and divided into three groups: horses with large intestinal disease (n = 20), horses with small intestinal disease (n = 8), and healthy horses (n = 24). (3) Results: Horses with intestinal diseases had fewer species and a less diverse bacterial population than healthy horses. Lactic acid bacteria, Lachnospiraceae, and Lactobacillaceae were overgrown in horses with large intestinal colic. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B), which is a relevant marker of gut dysbiosis, was 1.94, 2.37, and 1.74 for horses with large intestinal colic, small intestinal colic, and healthy horses, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The overgrowth of two lactic acid bacteria families, Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae, led to a decrease in hindgut pH that interfered with normal fermentation, which might cause large intestinal colic. The overgrowth of Streptococcus also led to a decrease in pH in the hindgut, which suppressed the proliferation of the methanogen and reduced methanogenesis in horses with small intestinal colic. Full article
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Case Report
Left Atrial Mural Thrombosis and Hemopericardium in a Dog with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060112 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
A 14-year-old mixed-breed dog with a 2-year history of myxomatous mitral valve disease was examined for collapse and lethargy. At the presentation, pale oral mucous membranes, rapid and weak femoral pulses, and muffled heart sounds with a moderate left apical systolic murmur were [...] Read more.
A 14-year-old mixed-breed dog with a 2-year history of myxomatous mitral valve disease was examined for collapse and lethargy. At the presentation, pale oral mucous membranes, rapid and weak femoral pulses, and muffled heart sounds with a moderate left apical systolic murmur were revealed. Echocardiographic examination showed pericardial effusion with organized echogenic material originating from the left atrial wall. Tamponade of the right atrium and severe left atrial enlargement were also observed. Multiple views of the left atrium and left auricle allowed to visualize a hyperechoic mass adherent to the endocardium of the left atrial wall. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography study allowed to rule out active intrapericardial hemorrhages, and echo-guided pericardiocentesis was performed. No recurrence of pericardial effusion was observed, but the dog suddenly died after 10 days. The postmortem examination confirmed multifocal left atrial thrombosis attached to the endomyocardial tears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices on Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance among Poultry Drug and Feed Sellers in Bangladesh
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060111 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Poultry production has boomed in Bangladesh in recent years. The poultry sector has contributed significantly to meet the increased demand for animal source proteins in the country. However, increased use of antimicrobials appeared to be a significant threat to food safety in the [...] Read more.
Poultry production has boomed in Bangladesh in recent years. The poultry sector has contributed significantly to meet the increased demand for animal source proteins in the country. However, increased use of antimicrobials appeared to be a significant threat to food safety in the poultry sector. The poultry drug and feed sellers are at the frontline position involving selecting and delivering the antimicrobials to the poultry farmers. Studies assessing the poultry drug and feed sellers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) are limited. The current study aimed to assess the community poultry drug and feed sellers’ KAPs of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in some selected areas of Bangladesh. We determined the respondents’ (drug and the feed sellers) KAPs of AMU and AMR using a tested and paper-based questionnaire. The study demonstrated that most respondents have insufficient knowledge, less positive attitudes, and inappropriate practices regarding AMU and AMR. The factor score analysis further showed that the type of respondents and their years of experience, level of education, and training on the drug were the significant factors impacting the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of AMU and AMR. The adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the drug sellers who completed their education up to 12th grade and had training on the drug had adequate knowledge of AMU and AMR. The data also showed that the drug sellers belong to the age group 31–35 and 36–40 years and who completed 12th grade had good attitudes on the same. Likewise, the analysis further determined that drug sellers belonging to the age category 18–25 and 26–30 years, and interestingly, the respondents who completed education up to 12th grade, had better practices. Spearman’s rank-order correlation revealed a positive association between each pair of the KAPs scores for the respondents. The correlation was fair between knowledge–attitudes, knowledge–practices, and attitudes–practices. Based on the current study results, we recommend educational interventions and appropriate training for the poultry drug and feed sellers to raise awareness and to upgrade their current knowledge on the appropriate use of antimicrobials. This will ultimately lead to reducing the chances of developing AMR in the poultry sectors of the country. Full article
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Article
Glucose Oligosaccharide and Long-Chain Glucomannan Feed Additives Induce Enhanced Activation of Intraepithelial NK Cells and Relative Abundance of Commensal Lactic Acid Bacteria in Broiler Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060110 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Restrictions on the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry stimulate the development of alternative nutritional solutions to maintain or improve poultry health. This requires more insight in the modulatory effects of feed additives on the immune system and microbiota composition. Compounds known [...] Read more.
Restrictions on the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry stimulate the development of alternative nutritional solutions to maintain or improve poultry health. This requires more insight in the modulatory effects of feed additives on the immune system and microbiota composition. Compounds known to influence the innate immune system and microbiota composition were selected and screened in vitro, in ovo, and in vivo. Among all compounds, 57 enhanced NK cell activation, 56 increased phagocytosis, and 22 increased NO production of the macrophage cell line HD11 in vitro. Based on these results, availability and regulatory status, six compounds were selected for further analysis. None of these compounds showed negative effects on growth, hatchability, and feed conversion in in ovo and in vivo studies. Based on the most interesting numerical results and highest future potential feasibility, two compounds were analyzed further. Administration of glucose oligosaccharide and long-chain glucomannan in vivo both enhanced activation of intraepithelial NK cells and led to increased relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) amongst ileum and ceca microbiota after seven days of supplementation. Positive correlations between NK cell subsets and activation, and relative abundance of LAB suggest the involvement of microbiota in the modulation of the function of intraepithelial NK cells. This study identifies glucose oligosaccharide and long-chain glucomannan supplementation as effective nutritional strategies to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition and strengthen the intraepithelial innate immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Review
Therapeutic and Prophylactic Use of Oral, Low-Dose IFNs in Species of Veterinary Interest: Back to the Future
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060109 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Cytokines are important molecules that orchestrate the immune response. Given their role, cytokines have been explored as drugs in immunotherapy in the fight against different pathological conditions such as bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer. One of the problems related [...] Read more.
Cytokines are important molecules that orchestrate the immune response. Given their role, cytokines have been explored as drugs in immunotherapy in the fight against different pathological conditions such as bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer. One of the problems related to their administration consists in the definition of the correct dose to avoid severe side effects. In the 70s and 80s different studies demonstrated the efficacy of cytokines in veterinary medicine, but soon the investigations were abandoned in favor of more profitable drugs such as antibiotics. Recently, the World Health Organization has deeply discouraged the use of antibiotics in order to reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant microorganisms. In this respect, the use of cytokines to prevent or ameliorate infectious diseases has been highlighted, and several studies show the potential of their use in therapy and prophylaxis also in the veterinary field. In this review we aim to review the principles of cytokine treatments, mainly IFNs, and to update the experiences encountered in animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Case Report
Conjunctival Inverted Papilloma Progressing to Carcinoma. First Report in Horse
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060108 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 934
Abstract
A five-year-old, entire female Arabian horse with a 6-month history of a non-painful nodule on the conjunctiva of the right eye was evaluated. Ophthalmological examination showed a firm, smooth and fleshy conjunctival mass that raised the suspicion of a conjunctival neoplasm. Histological evaluations [...] Read more.
A five-year-old, entire female Arabian horse with a 6-month history of a non-painful nodule on the conjunctiva of the right eye was evaluated. Ophthalmological examination showed a firm, smooth and fleshy conjunctival mass that raised the suspicion of a conjunctival neoplasm. Histological evaluations showed that the mass was composed of an endophytic growth consisting of numerous long papillary projections of hyperplastic stratified squamous epithelium supported by thin fibrovascular stalks. Typical features of squamous cell carcinoma with disorganized cell growth and infiltration of surrounding tissues were detectable within the mass. Inverted papilloma progressing to carcinoma was diagnosed. Follow-up examination showed that no local recurrence was present during the 12-month follow-up period. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report describing the inverted papilloma in the horse and, due to its progression to squamous cell carcinoma, warns about the inclusion of the inverted papilloma in the differential diagnosis of conjunctival neoplasm and driven treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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Article
Nosema ceranae Infections in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Treated with Pre/Probiotics and Impacts on Colonies in the Field
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060107 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Alternatives to the antibiotic fumagillin for the control of Nosema ceranae, a gut parasite of the honey bee, are needed. The prebiotics eugenol, chitosan, and naringenin and the probiotic Protexin® (Enterococcus faecium) provided in sugar syrup or protein patty [...] Read more.
Alternatives to the antibiotic fumagillin for the control of Nosema ceranae, a gut parasite of the honey bee, are needed. The prebiotics eugenol, chitosan, and naringenin and the probiotic Protexin® (Enterococcus faecium) provided in sugar syrup or protein patty either in spring or fall were evaluated for their effects on N. ceranae infection, colony population, honey yield and winter survivorship using field colonies. In the first year, spring treatments with eugenol, naringenin, and Protexin® significantly reduced N. ceranae infection and increased honey production, while Protexin® also increased adult bee populations and chitosan was ineffective. Fall treatments increased survivorship and decreased N. ceranae infection the following spring. In the second year, selected compounds were further tested with a larger number of colonies per treatment and only protein patty used in the spring and sugar syrup in the fall. Protexin® and naringenin significantly decreased N. ceranae infections and increased the population of adult bees after spring treatment, but did not affect honey yields. There were no differences between treatments for colony winter mortality, but surviving colonies that had been treated with Protexin® and naringenin were significantly more populated and had lower N. ceranae spore counts than control, non-treated colonies. Protexin® and naringenin were the most promising candidates for controlling N. ceranae and promoting honey bee populations, warranting further investigation. Future research should investigate the optimal colony dose and treatment frequency to maximize colony health. Full article
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Article
Effect of Ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan Fraction on In Vitro Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060106 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major epidemic in pig production, leading to economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. The use of medicinal plants with antiviral properties might be useful help to prevent and control PRRSV outbreaks. Caesalpinia sappan [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major epidemic in pig production, leading to economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. The use of medicinal plants with antiviral properties might be useful help to prevent and control PRRSV outbreaks. Caesalpinia sappan (CS) heartwood is an important herbal ingredient used in Thai folk medicine, possessing various biological activities, including antiviral activity. The present study focuses on the in vitro antiviral activity against PRRSV of a semi-purified fraction of ethanolic CS crude extract using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Qualification of the fractions illustrating positive antiviral activity was carried out with liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The preparative chromatography separated the crude extract into six consecutive fractions, among which the first fraction showed potential antiviral activity by inhibiting PRRSV replication in a MARC-145 monolayer (virus titer 2.75 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL (log10) vs. 9.50 median log10 TCID50/mL of the control) at 72 h post-infection, and this fraction included byakangelicin, brazilin, naringenin, and brazilein. These results provide useful information for further study to effectively develop the CS bioactive antiviral compounds against PRRSV as a feed additive or veterinary drug in the pig industry. Full article
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Review
Design-Based Approach for Analysing Survey Data in Veterinary Research
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060105 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Sample surveys are an essential approach used in veterinary research and investigation. A sample obtained from a well-designed sampling process along with robust data analysis can provide valuable insight into the attributes of the target population. Two approaches, design-based or model-based, can be [...] Read more.
Sample surveys are an essential approach used in veterinary research and investigation. A sample obtained from a well-designed sampling process along with robust data analysis can provide valuable insight into the attributes of the target population. Two approaches, design-based or model-based, can be used as inferential frameworks for analysing survey data. Compared to the model-based approach, the design-based approach is usually more straightforward and directly makes inferences about the finite target population (such as the dairy cows in a herd or dogs in a region) rather than an infinite superpopulation. In this paper, the concept of probability sampling and the design-based approach is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of the estimations and their justifications in the context of several different elementary sampling methods, including simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and one-stage cluster sampling. Finally, a concrete example of a complex survey design (involving multistage sampling and stratification) is demonstrated, illustrating how finding unbiased estimators and their corresponding variance formulas for a complex survey builds on the techniques used in elementary sampling methods. Full article
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Case Report
Local Hemodynamic Changes Immediately after Correction of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery in a Dog: A Contrast Computed Tomographic Study
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060104 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 927
Abstract
A 1-year-old female Akita dog was referred for intermittent regurgitation. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA), resulting in constriction of the esophagus. After surgical ligation of the ARSA, CTA showed that the ARSA was not enhanced by contrast [...] Read more.
A 1-year-old female Akita dog was referred for intermittent regurgitation. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA), resulting in constriction of the esophagus. After surgical ligation of the ARSA, CTA showed that the ARSA was not enhanced by contrast medium, and that sufficient collateral circulation of the right forelimb was supplied through the vertebral artery. Furthermore, the right and left vertebral arteries merged into the basilar artery at the level of the atlas, and no abnormal expansion of the ventral spinal artery was observed. Overall, we demonstrated the importance of post-surgical CTA for identification of surgical complications, including the formation of abnormal vessel alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Enterococcus faecalis Supplementation as Direct-Fed Microbials on Rumen Microbiota of Boer and Speckled Goat Breeds
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060103 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 917
Abstract
The effects on rumen microbial communities of direct-fed probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Enterococcus faecalis, singly and in combination as feed supplements to both the Boer and Speckled goats were studied using the Illumina Miseq platform targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S [...] Read more.
The effects on rumen microbial communities of direct-fed probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Enterococcus faecalis, singly and in combination as feed supplements to both the Boer and Speckled goats were studied using the Illumina Miseq platform targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA microbial genes from sampled rumen fluid. Thirty-six goats of both the Boer and Speckled were divided into five experimental groups: (T1) = diet + Lactobacillus rhamnosus; (T2) = diet + Enterococcus faecalis; (T3) = diet + Lactobacillus rhamnosus + Enterococcus faecalis; (T4, positive control) = diet + antibiotic and (T5, negative control) = diet without antibiotics and without probiotics. Our results revealed that Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, TM7, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota dominate the bacterial communities. In our observations, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Enterococcus faecalis supplements reduced the archaeal population of Methanomassiliicocca in the T1, T2 and T3 groups, and caused an increase in the T4 group. Chlamydiae were present only in the T5 group, suggesting that probiotic and antibiotic inhibit the growth of pathogens in the rumen. We inferred, based on our results, that Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Enterococcus faecalis favour the survival of beneficial microbial communities in the goats’ rumen. This may lead to an overall improved feed efficacy and growth rate. Full article
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Communication
Surrogate Indexes of Insulin Resistance in Dairy Goats: Transitional Variation in Subclinical Hyperketonemia
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060102 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Background: Dairy goats are highly susceptible to subclinical hyperketonemia (SCHK) during the transition period. This study aimed to compare the variation in metabolic parameters and surrogate indexes of insulin resistance (sIR) between goats with SCHK and clinically healthy (HEAL) goats during the transition [...] Read more.
Background: Dairy goats are highly susceptible to subclinical hyperketonemia (SCHK) during the transition period. This study aimed to compare the variation in metabolic parameters and surrogate indexes of insulin resistance (sIR) between goats with SCHK and clinically healthy (HEAL) goats during the transition period. Methods: Twenty Guanzhong dairy goats were assorted to HEAL (n = 10) and SCHK (n = 10) groups according to the blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of each goat at −3, −2, −1, 0 (partum), +1, +2, and +3 weeks relative to kidding to analyses GLU and INS. The sIR was calculated from blood metabolic parameters. Results: Compared with the HEAL goats, the insulin concentrations were significantly higher in SCHK goats during the first three weeks postpartum. The QUICKI, revised QUICKI (RQUICKI), and RQUICKIBHBA were significantly lower in goats with SCHK at 1 week postpartum, while the homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) was significantly higher. Conclusion: Goats with SCHK made more efforts through elevated insulin levels at early lactation than HEAL goats, thereby maintaining the normal glucose concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases)
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Article
Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Owned Dogs in Lagos State, Nigeria
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060101 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infection in dogs poses risk of transmission to their owners and family members. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with E. granulosus s.l. infection among owned dogs presented at veterinary clinics or hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. [...] Read more.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infection in dogs poses risk of transmission to their owners and family members. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with E. granulosus s.l. infection among owned dogs presented at veterinary clinics or hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. Fecal samples from 217 dogs were screened for the presence of taeniid eggs using a sedimentation test in a cross sectional study. The taeniid eggs were identified at molecular level using a multiplex PCR. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on intrinsic and extrinsic factors from 133 dog owners. Out of the 217 dog fecal samples, 13 (6.0%) had taeniid eggs, of which 12 (92.3%) were identified as Echinococcus granulosus s.l. We found that Echinococcus granulosus infection is present among owned dogs in Lagos State with an overall prevalence of 5.5%. Location of the veterinary clinics or hospital and purpose for keeping dogs were significant factors associated with E. granulosus infection among owned dogs. Dogs living in suburban areas and kept for security purposes or guarding have higher probability of infection. Appropriate and regular treatment of dogs with praziquantel is highly recommended to reduce risk of E. granulosus transmission to humans. Full article
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Review
Review on Ethnoveterinary Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060099 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Background: Livestock represents an important sector for the livelihood of sub-Saharan African countries’ inhabitants. In these countries, farmers raise livestock to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes, but its production is hampered by rampant animal diseases. The impact of [...] Read more.
Background: Livestock represents an important sector for the livelihood of sub-Saharan African countries’ inhabitants. In these countries, farmers raise livestock to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes, but its production is hampered by rampant animal diseases. The impact of animal diseases is particularly severe for poor communities that, although relying heavily on livestock, have limited access to modern veterinary services and therefore rely on indigenous medicines for the treatment of livestock ailments. Methods: The current review focuses on the ethnoveterinary health management practices found amongst livestock producers in sub-Saharan Africa. Documents were sourced from Google databases. Results: A total of 56 documents were reviewed, most of which were published recently (after 2000). The documents revealed the wide use of ethnoveterinary medicines among livestock producers in sub-Saharan African countries because of their cost and accessibility, threats to ethnomedicinal plant species through improper harvesting methods, overexploitation, the existence of inappropriate ethnoveterinary practices, and methods of conserving ethnomedicinal species. Conclusions: Given the persistent threats posed to ethnoveterinary medicine and/or practices in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the findings of this review highlight the importance of integrating and promoting the use of ethnoveterinary medicine that is likely to be lost if it is not given enough importance. It is also important to obtain an overview of recent publications on ethnoveterinary medicines to identify the gaps and scope required to be filled by future studies. It is envisaged that the review will stimulate further ethnoveterinary research among livestock disease management practices, which could lead to new pharmaceuticals in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Article
Alterations in the Expression Profile of Serum miR-155, miR-223, miR-17, miR-200a, miR-205, as well as Levels of Interleukin 6, and Prostaglandins during Endometritis in Arabian Mares
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060098 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
So far the intimate link between serum microRNA (miRNA) and uterine inflammation in mares is unknown. We aimed (I) to investigate expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 (II) and to measure concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandins (PGF [...] Read more.
So far the intimate link between serum microRNA (miRNA) and uterine inflammation in mares is unknown. We aimed (I) to investigate expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 (II) and to measure concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandins (PGF and PGE2) in serum of mares with healthy and abnormal uterine status (endometritis). This study was conducted on 80 Arabian mares: young (4–7 years), and old (8–14 years). Mares were divided into 48 sub-fertile (endometritis) and 32 fertile (control) at stud farms. Serum was collected for measuring IL-6, PGF, and PGE2, as well as miRNA isolation and qRT-PCR. Concentrations of IL-6, PGE2, and PGF were higher in mares with endometritis compared to control. Age of mares had a remarkable effect on IL-6, PGE2, and PGF concentrations. Relative abundance of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 was higher in both young and old mares with endometritis. We noticed that eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 revealed higher expression level in old than young mares with endometritis. This is the first study that has revealed the changes in cell free miRNA and serum inflammatory mediators during endometritis, and these findings could be used for a better understanding the pathophysiology mechanisms of endometritis in equine. Full article
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Article
Manipulation of Rice Straw Silage Fermentation with Different Types of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculant Affects Rumen Microbial Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060100 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Bacterial inoculants are known to improve the quality of silage. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of different types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. reuteri, L. brevi, and S. bovis) inoculation [...] Read more.
Bacterial inoculants are known to improve the quality of silage. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of different types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. reuteri, L. brevi, and S. bovis) inoculation (106 cfu/ DM) on rice straw silage quality and to determine these effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestibility and microbial populations in an in vitro condition. Inoculated rice straw was ensiled for 15 and 30 days. For the in vitro study, rumen fluid was obtained from three rumen-fistulated bulls fed on mixed forage and concentrate at 60:40 ratio twice daily. Inoculation with LAB improved (p < 0.05) the rice straw silage quality as indicated by higher dry matter and crude protein contents, decreased pH and butyric acid, and increased propionic acid and LAB numbers, especially after 30 days of ensiling. Results from the in vitro study revealed that starting with the addition of LAB to rice straw silage improved in vitro fermentation characteristics such as increased total volatile fatty acids and dry matter digestibility (p < 0.05). LAB treatments also decreased methane production and methane/total gas ratio after 15 and 30 days of ensiling. From the rumen microbial population perspective, cellulolytic, and fungal zoospores were enhanced, while protozoa and methanogens were decreased by the LAB treatments. Based on these results, it could be concluded that inoculating rice straw silage with LAB (especially for L. plantarum and S. bovis) improved silage quality, rumen fermentation parameters and microbial populations in vitro. Full article
Article
Effect of Intense Exercise on Plasma Macrominerals and Trace Elements in Lidia Bulls
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060097 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Minerals are inorganic substances present in all body tissues and fluids that directly or indirectly influence the maintenance of multiple metabolic processes and, therefore, are essential for the development of various biological functions. The Lidia bull breed may be considered an athlete, as [...] Read more.
Minerals are inorganic substances present in all body tissues and fluids that directly or indirectly influence the maintenance of multiple metabolic processes and, therefore, are essential for the development of various biological functions. The Lidia bull breed may be considered an athlete, as during a bull fight it displays considerable physical effort of great intensity and short duration in a highly stressful situation. The objective of this study was to assess plasma minerals concentration (macro- and microminerals) in Lidia bulls after intense physical exercise during a bull fight. Plasma Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo concentrations were measured in 438 male Lidia bulls. Ca, P and Mg were measured using a Cobas Integra autoanalyzer, while Na and K were determined by ICP-AES, and Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo were measured by ICP-MS. All macrominerals, (Ca: 2.96 ± 0.31, Mg: 1.27 ± 0.17, P: 3.78 ± 0.65, K: 7.50 ± 1.58, Na: 150.15 ± 19.59 in mmol/L), and Cr (1.24 ± 0.58), Ni (0.249 ± 1.07), Cu (22.63 ± 4.84) and Zn (24.14 ± 5.59, in μmol/L) showed greater mean values than the reported reference values in the published literature, while Co (0.041 ± 0.07), Se (0.886 ± 0.21) and Mo (0.111 ± 0.08, in μmol/L) values were lower than those reported for other bovine breeds. These increased concentrations could be justified mainly by muscle cell metabolism, hepatic need to provide energy, and intense dehydration and hemoconcentration by losses through sweat glands or urination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Article
Different Non-Structural Carbohydrates/Crude Proteins (NCS/CP) Ratios in Diet Shape the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Water Buffalo
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060096 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are crucial for host health and production efficiency in ruminants. Its microbial composition can be influenced by several endogenous and exogenous factors. In the beef and dairy industry, the possibility to manipulate gut microbiota by diet [...] Read more.
The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are crucial for host health and production efficiency in ruminants. Its microbial composition can be influenced by several endogenous and exogenous factors. In the beef and dairy industry, the possibility to manipulate gut microbiota by diet and management can have important health and economic implications. The aims of this study were to characterize the different GIT site microbiota in water buffalo and evaluate the influence of diet on GIT microbiota in this animal species. We characterized and compared the microbiota of the rumen, large intestine and feces of water buffaloes fed two different diets with different non-structural carbohydrates/crude proteins (NSC/CP) ratios. Our results indicated that Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in all the GIT sites, with significant differences in microbiota composition between body sites both within and between groups. This result was particularly evident in the large intestine, where beta diversity analysis displayed clear clustering of samples depending on the diet. Moreover, we found a difference in diet digestibility linked to microbiota modification at the GIT level conditioned by NSC/CP levels. Diet strongly influences GIT microbiota and can therefore modulate specific GIT microorganisms able to affect the health status and performance efficiency of adult animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Article
Effects of Litter Size and Parity Number on Mammary Secretions Including, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, Immunoglobulin G and Vitamin A of Black Bengal, Saanen and Their Crossbred Goats in Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060095 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the composition including concentrations of IGF-1, IgG and Vit A in colostrum and their effects by litter size and goat parity in 3 groups of goats; Black Bengal (BB), Saanen (SA) and their crossbred (BBSA). Thirty-eight goats [...] Read more.
The present study aims to investigate the composition including concentrations of IGF-1, IgG and Vit A in colostrum and their effects by litter size and goat parity in 3 groups of goats; Black Bengal (BB), Saanen (SA) and their crossbred (BBSA). Thirty-eight goats were used (23 BB, 7 BBSA and 8 SA). The composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solid; TS) in colostrum (Day 0; D0) and milk (Day 4; D4 and Day 7; D7) were measured. The IGF-1, IgG concentrations were analysed in some samples collected at D0, D4 and D7 while Vit A was analysed only in colostrum. The results showed that colostrum components were similar among experimental groups. However, the colostral IGF-1 concentration of BBSA (983.0 ± 163.6 ng/mL) was higher than that of BB (340.7 ± 85.5 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and SA (417.1 ± 93.9 ng/mL, p < 0.01). The colostral IgG concentration of BB (8.2 ± 0.9 mg/mL) was lower than that of BBSA (12.9 ± 1.7 mg/mL, p < 0.05) and SA (12.9 ± 1.0 mg/mL, p < 0.01). Colostral Vit A concentration in BBSA (787.2 ± 152.6 µg/100 gm) was higher than that in BB (388.9 ± 84.3 µg/100 gm, p < 0.05) but was not different from SA (522.8 ± 96.9 µg/100 gm). Colostrum from all groups contained higher protein and TS but was lower in lactose concentration than milk. The IGF-1 and IgG concentrations in colostrum were much higher than in milk both D4 and D7 (p < 0.001). Additionally, litter size had no effects on colostrum contents but colostrum from goats with a higher parity number had higher IgG concentration. It is concluded that colostrum from BBSA may be superior when fed to BB newborn goats in terms of higher IGF-1, IgG and Vit A contents. Moreover, colostrum from goats with a high parity number contained more IgG content. Full article
Article
Surveillance for Babesia odocoilei in Hunter-Harvested Wild-Elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) from Pennsylvania, USA (2016–2017)
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060094 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Babesia odocoilei is a tick-borne protozoal parasite which infects the erythrocytes of members of the families Cervidae and Bovidae. Infection can result in hemolytic anemia, lethargy, anorexia, and death. The reservoir host of B. odocoilei is the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); [...] Read more.
Babesia odocoilei is a tick-borne protozoal parasite which infects the erythrocytes of members of the families Cervidae and Bovidae. Infection can result in hemolytic anemia, lethargy, anorexia, and death. The reservoir host of B. odocoilei is the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, infections with overt disease have only been documented in reindeer (Rangider tarandu tarandus), caribou (Rangider tarandu caribou) and captive elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis). Infected elk may remain asymptomatic, creating the risk for dissemination of the pathogen when elk are relocated. Additionally, infected asymptomatic elk may contribute to the spread of B. odocoilei in the local wildlife/captive population via feeding ticks. Information regarding endemic regions of B. odocoilei infection is limited due to frequent asymptomatic infections and a lack of targeted surveillance of B. odocoilei in wildlife. To obtain data on B. odocoilei infection in wild elk in Pennsylvania, we tested blood samples collected from 190 hunter-harvested wild elk between 2016 and 2017. Of the 190 blood samples tested, 18.4% (35/190) tested positive for Babesia spp. Genetic sequencing of the positive samples showed a 98.0–100.0% match for B. odocoilei. No other Babesia species were identified. Results of this study documents B. odocoilei infection within hunter-harvested wild elk from Pennsylvania. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Protein Carbonyl (PCO), Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) as Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers of Septic Inflammation in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060093 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers of sepsis are lacking, but essential in veterinary medicine. We aimed to assess the accuracy of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), protein carbonyls (PCO) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in differentiating dogs with sepsis from those with sterile inflammation and healthy ones, [...] Read more.
Reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers of sepsis are lacking, but essential in veterinary medicine. We aimed to assess the accuracy of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), protein carbonyls (PCO) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in differentiating dogs with sepsis from those with sterile inflammation and healthy ones, and predict the outcome in septic dogs. These analytes were retrospectively evaluated at admission in 92 dogs classified into healthy, septic and polytraumatized. Groups were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by a Mann–Whitney U test to assess differences between survivors and non-survivors. Correlation between analytes was assessed using the Spearman’s test, and their discriminating power was assessed through a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. PON1 and CRP were, respectively, significantly lower and higher in dogs with sepsis compared with polytraumatized and clinically healthy dogs (p < 0.001 for both the analytes), and also in dogs with trauma compared with healthy dogs (p = 0.011 and p = 0.017, respectively). PCO were significantly increased in septic (p < 0.001) and polytraumatized (p < 0.005) as compared with healthy dogs. PON1 and CRP were, respectively, significantly lower and higher in dogs that died compared with survivors (p < 0.001 for both analytes). Ultimately, evaluation of CRP and PON1 at admission seems a reliable support to diagnose sepsis and predict outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Biplanar High-Speed Fluoroscopy of Pony Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon (SDFT)—An In Vivo Pilot Study
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060092 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is the most frequently injured structure of the musculoskeletal system in sport horses and a common cause for early retirement. This project’s aim was to visualize and measure the strain of the sound, injured, and healing SDFTs [...] Read more.
The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is the most frequently injured structure of the musculoskeletal system in sport horses and a common cause for early retirement. This project’s aim was to visualize and measure the strain of the sound, injured, and healing SDFTs in a pony during walk and trot. For this purpose, biplanar high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography (FluoKin), as a high precision X-ray movement analysis tool, was used for the first time in vivo with equine tendons. The strain in the metacarpal region of the sound SDFT was 2.86% during walk and 6.78% during trot. When injured, the strain increased to 3.38% during walk and decreased to 5.96% during trot. The baseline strain in the mid-metacarpal region was 3.13% during walk and 6.06% during trot and, when injured, decreased to 2.98% and increased to 7.61%, respectively. Following tendon injury, the mid-metacarpal region contributed less to the overall strain during walk but showed increased contribution during trot. Using this marker-based FluoKin technique, direct, high-precision, and long-term strain measurements in the same individual are possible. We conclude that FluoKin is a powerful tool for gaining deeper insight into equine tendon biomechanics. Full article
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Communication
Characterization of Cecal Smooth Muscle Contraction in Laying Hens
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060091 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The ceca play an important role in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract in chickens. Nevertheless, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the functionality of the ceca in poultry, especially with respect to physiological cecal smooth muscle contraction. The aim of the [...] Read more.
The ceca play an important role in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract in chickens. Nevertheless, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the functionality of the ceca in poultry, especially with respect to physiological cecal smooth muscle contraction. The aim of the current study is the ex vivo characterization of cecal smooth muscle contraction in laying hens. Muscle strips of circular cecal smooth muscle from eleven hens are prepared to investigate their contraction ex vivo. Contraction is detected using an isometric force transducer, determining its frequency, height and intensity. Spontaneous contraction of the chicken cecal smooth muscle and the influence of buffers (calcium-free buffer and potassium-enriched buffer) and drugs (carbachol, nitroprusside, isoprenaline and Verapamil) affecting smooth muscle contraction at different levels are characterized. A decrease in smooth muscle contraction is observed when a calcium-free buffer is used. Carbachol causes an increase in smooth muscle contraction, whereas atropine inhibits contraction. Nitroprusside, isoprenaline and Verapamil result in a depression of smooth muscle contraction. In conclusion, the present results confirm a similar contraction behavior of cecal smooth muscles in laying hens as shown previously in other species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Gastroenterology)
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Article
Influence of Selective Agents (EMJH-STAFF), Sample Filtration and pH on Leptospira interrogans Serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae Cultivation and Isolation from Swine Urine
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060090 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Leptospira spp. cause the zoonotic disease leptospirosis, which occurs in numerous mammalians worldwide. Isolation is still important for serotyping and genotyping of Leptospira, which in turn is essential for epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis and the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines. However, [...] Read more.
Leptospira spp. cause the zoonotic disease leptospirosis, which occurs in numerous mammalians worldwide. Isolation is still important for serotyping and genotyping of Leptospira, which in turn is essential for epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis and the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines. However, isolation of Leptospira from clinical specimens is inherently insensitive. This study was conducted to examine the influence of selective agents, sample filtration, sample pH and the use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer for sample storage to improve the success of cultivation and isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae from swine urine. EMJH (Ellinghausen McCullough, Johnson and Harris) medium including the selective agents sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, amphotericin, fosfomycin and 5-fluorouracil (STAFF) increased the success of Leptospira isolation from spiked swine urine samples. Sample filtration yielded only negative results. Isolation in EMJH-STAFF was successful from swine urine with a density as low as 104 Leptospira/mL, and urine with pH ≤ 7 impaired the cultivation rate. Cultivation and isolation were not improved by the addition of PBS to spiked urine samples prior to storage for 24 h at 4 °C. The results of the study demonstrate that cultivation and isolation of leptospires from swine urine can be improved by enhanced methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Standardization of Diagnostics in Swine Diseases)
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Review
Using the Five-Microskills Method in Veterinary Medicine Clinical Teaching
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060089 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Effective clinical teaching is essential for the development of veterinary learners. Teaching clinical reasoning is a challenge for veterinary instructors as many lack adequate training in clinical teaching. In this paper, we propose the use of the five-microskills (FMS; also known as the [...] Read more.
Effective clinical teaching is essential for the development of veterinary learners. Teaching clinical reasoning is a challenge for veterinary instructors as many lack adequate training in clinical teaching. In this paper, we propose the use of the five-microskills (FMS; also known as the one-minute preceptor) model of clinical teaching as a tool that can be used not only in teaching during clinical encounters but also during traditional teaching sessions (e.g., practicals). The FMS model assists the instructor in estimating the level of knowledge and development of the learner and allows for providing feedback. The FMS model is applicable in the busy clinical or teaching schedule of the instructor and requires training only of the instructor, not the learner. We provide two examples of the use of the FMS model, one of a clinical encounter and the other a biochemistry practical. From the examples, readers should be able to extract the basis of the model and start using it in their day-to-day practice. For proper use of the model, 1–4 h of training is usually recommended. Full article
Article
Molecular Detection of Toxigenic Clostridioides difficile among Diarrheic Dogs and Cats: A Mounting Public Health Concern
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060088 - 22 May 2021
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Nowadays, pet animals are known to be asymptomatic carriers of Clostridioidesdifficile. This study was conducted to investigate the burden of toxigenic C. difficile among diarrheic dogs and cats using direct PCR on fecal samples to reveal better insights about the epidemiology [...] Read more.
Nowadays, pet animals are known to be asymptomatic carriers of Clostridioidesdifficile. This study was conducted to investigate the burden of toxigenic C. difficile among diarrheic dogs and cats using direct PCR on fecal samples to reveal better insights about the epidemiology of such toxigenic strains referring to its public health significance. For this purpose, fecal samples were obtained from 58 dogs and 42 cats experiencing diarrhea. Following DNA extraction, the extracted DNA was examined for the occurrence of C. difficile as well as toxigenic strains through the detection of C. difficile 16S rRNA and toxin encoding genes (tcdA, tcdB, cdtA and cdtB) using PCR. Moreover, partial DNA sequencing of toxigenic strains retrieved from dog and cat was carried out. Of 100 examined diarrheic animals, 90 (90%) were C. difficile positive, including 93.1% and 85.7% of dogs and cats, respectively. In addition, toxigenic strains were detected in 13 animals, giving an overall prevalence 13% with the following prevalence rates among dogs and cats 12.1% and 14.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequence revealed high genetic relatedness of tcdA sequence obtained from a cat to strains of human diarrheic cases to point out the public health threat of such sequence. In conclusion, the direct detection of toxigenic C. difficile using PCR among dogs and cats highlights the potential role of household pets as a source for such strains to human contacts. Full article
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