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Vet. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 34 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We have compared intradermal and oral routes of administration for an experimental Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) inactivated vaccine in a rabbit model of subclinical paratuberculosis. We have seen that vaccination has an effect on macrophage polarization and that the route through which the vaccine is administered influences infection outcome and can also have an impact on bTB diagnosis. The intradermal route induced higher bacterial clearances and a potential lower cross reactivity with the tuberculin test. This vaccination route should be considered in future studies involving new immunological reagents against mycobacteria. View this paper
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Article
Taenia ovis in Small Ruminants in Iran: Prevalence, Pathology, and Economic Loss
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010034 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
Taenia ovis larvae can result in economic losses in small ruminants due to condemnation of infected tissues or whole carcasses. From 2017 to 2018, the T. ovis prevalence in 16,180 sheep and 7560 goats at the Najafabad slaughterhouse in Isfahan was determined. More [...] Read more.
Taenia ovis larvae can result in economic losses in small ruminants due to condemnation of infected tissues or whole carcasses. From 2017 to 2018, the T. ovis prevalence in 16,180 sheep and 7560 goats at the Najafabad slaughterhouse in Isfahan was determined. More sheep (477; 2.9%) than goats (90; 1.2%) were found to be infected, and the prevalence was higher in animals <1 y (p < 0.0001), and higher in spring in sheep (8.2%) and goats (2.2%). Female sheep were more frequently infected than males (p < 0.0001); this did not hold true for goats. Of the tissues examined, T. ovis was found more often in the heart muscle of sheep compared with other tissues; however, infections in the heart muscle, masseter muscle, diaphragm, and triceps were similar in goats. Granulomas and caseous necrosis in the heart muscles were associated with the accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory cells and the formation of fibrous tissue around the parasite. Based solely on infected tissues found in this study, the economic loss caused by the presence of T. ovis larvae was estimated to be 4167 United States dollars (USD). Control methods, such as proper disposal of infected tissues and anthelmintic treatment of infected dogs, are necessary to decrease infection and prevent economic loss in small ruminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Australian Veterinarians’ Perceptions Regarding the Zoonotic Potential of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010033 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Public concerns over exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) or MAP components via foods of animal origin could have negative trade consequences, despite the absence of conclusive scientific evidence of a causal association between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn’s disease [...] Read more.
Public concerns over exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) or MAP components via foods of animal origin could have negative trade consequences, despite the absence of conclusive scientific evidence of a causal association between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn’s disease (CD). This study was conducted among Australian veterinarians to understand (a) their perceptions regarding the role of MAP in the causation of CD (an ordinal outcome), and (b) their consideration of the adoption of the precautionary principle against Johne’s disease (JD; a binary outcome). Ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of explanatory variables with the above outcomes, respectively. Almost one-third of the respondents (32.2%) considered that MAP was likely to be involved in the causation of CD whereas more than two-thirds (69.8%) agreed with the adoption of the precautionary principle against JD. Veterinarians who were concerned about exposure to and/or getting infected with MAP were more likely to consider MAP as a causative agent of CD (odds ratio: 7.63; 95% CI: 1.55, 37.63) and favor the adoption of the precautionary principle against JD (odds ratio: 6.20; 95% CI: 1.90, 20.25). Those perceiving MAP as a causative agent of CD were also more likely to favor the adoption of the precautionary principle against JD (odds ratio: 13.2; 95% CI: 1.26, 138.90). The results suggest that Australian veterinarians, particularly those who consider MAP as a causative agent of CD are concerned about exposure to MAP and favor the adoption of the precautionary principle against JD. These findings can be useful for animal health authorities for designing JD control programs and policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
Article
Spontaneous Tumors and Non-Neoplastic Proliferative Lesions in Pet Degus (Octodon degus)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010032 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
In recent years, degus (Octodon degus), rodents native to South America, have been becoming increasingly popular as pet animals. Data about neoplastic diseases in this species are still sparse and mainly limited to single-case reports. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
In recent years, degus (Octodon degus), rodents native to South America, have been becoming increasingly popular as pet animals. Data about neoplastic diseases in this species are still sparse and mainly limited to single-case reports. The aim of this study was to present neoplastic and non-neoplastic proliferative changes in 16/100 pet degus examined at the Veterinary Faculty University of Ljubljana from 2010 to 2015 and to describe the clinic-pathological features of these lesions. Twenty different lesions of the integumentary, musculoskeletal, genitourinary and gastrointestinal systems were diagnosed: amongst these were 13 malignant tumors, six benign tumors, and one non-neoplastic lesion. Cutaneous fibrosarcoma was the most common tumor (7/16 degus). It was detected more often in females (6/7 degus) and lesions were located mainly in hind limbs. The gastrointestinal tract was frequently affected, namely with two malignant neoplasms - an intestinal lymphoma and a mesenteric mesothelioma, four benign tumors – two biliary cystadenomas, an oral squamous papilloma and a hepatocellular adenoma, and a single non-neoplastic proliferative lesion. In one animal, two organic systems were involved in neoplastic lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
Antimicrobial Activity of a Phage Mixture and a Lactic Acid Bacterium against Staphylococcus aureus from Bovine Mastitis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010031 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of a phage mixture and a lactic acid bacterium against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine origin was investigated in vitro with regard to possible applications in the therapy of udder inflammation (mastitis) caused by bacterial infections. The S. aureus isolates [...] Read more.
The antimicrobial activity of a phage mixture and a lactic acid bacterium against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine origin was investigated in vitro with regard to possible applications in the therapy of udder inflammation (mastitis) caused by bacterial infections. The S. aureus isolates used for inoculation derived from quarter foremilk samples of mastitis cases. For the examination of the antimicrobial activity, the reduction of the S. aureus germ density was determined [log10 cfu/mL]. The phage mixture consisted of the three obligatory lytic and S. aureus-specific phages STA1.ST29, EB1.ST11 and EB1.ST27 (1:1:1). The selected Lactobacillus plantarum strain with proven antimicrobial properties and the phage mixture were tested against S. aureus in milk, both alone and in combination. The application of the lactic acid bacterium showed only a low reduction ability for a 24 h incubation period. The bacteriophage mixture as well as its combination with the lactic acid bacterium showed high antimicrobial activity against S. aureus for a 24 h incubation period at 37 °C, with only the phage mixture showing significance. Full article
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Case Report
Dystocia in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010030 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
Dystocia is a complication that occurs at parturition either due to foetal or maternal factors. This condition has been well studies in domesticated species. However, there is very little information on dystocia in the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is utilized [...] Read more.
Dystocia is a complication that occurs at parturition either due to foetal or maternal factors. This condition has been well studies in domesticated species. However, there is very little information on dystocia in the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is utilized for its meat in South America and the Caribbean. More recently, farming of these animals intensively is being practiced in the Neo-tropics. This case report attempted to provide some insight into dystocia in the agouti which has been rarely reported in animals in captivity. A female agouti weighing approximately 3 kg (kg), which was in the last stage of pregnancy, was found dead in its cage. The vulva of the animal had the hind-limbs of the offspring protruding. Upon necropsy the animal had little fat reserves and had two foetuses in the right horn of the uterus. The feet of on offspring were dislocated and exposed at the level of the vulva. Each foetus weighed approximately 200 g. The foetuses were well formed with fur, teeth and eyes. The placenta was attached to each of the foetuses. The pathological findings suggested that dystocia resulted in secondary uterine inertia, which was the cause of death of the adult female agouti. To prevent the recurrence of this situation the gestation should be staged (timed) using ultrasonography. Animals which are in their third stage of gestation should be monitored using cameras or with personnel at the facility to assist agoutis which are having difficulties at parturition. Full article
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Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Rabies in El Jadida Region, Morocco
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010029 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies in the El Jadida region, Morocco. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire among randomly selected residents across 24 study sites. In total, 407 respondents took [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies in the El Jadida region, Morocco. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire among randomly selected residents across 24 study sites. In total, 407 respondents took part in the survey. The majority (367, 92%) were male and had no formal education (270, 66%). Some (118, 29%) believed that rabies does not affect humans. Most respondents (320, 79%) were aware that vaccination could prevent rabies, but nevertheless did not vaccinate their dogs (264, 64.9%) and allowed their dogs to roam freely in search of food. Some (52.8%) would visit traditional healers for treatment in the event of a dog bite incident. Age and educational level were found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and practices (p < 0.05). Although respondents demonstrated some level of knowledge about rabies, overall this study reveals critical gaps in their attitudes and practices. These shortcomings may be associated with a low level of education. Therefore, decision-makers need a new approach to control rabies, with a special focus on public awareness and health education, in order to sustain rabies control programs. Full article
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Review
Horses as a Crucial Part of One Health
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010028 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4829
Abstract
One Health (OH) is a crucial concept, where the interference between humans, animals and the environment matters. This review article focusses on the role of horses in maintaining the health of humans and the environment. Horses’ impact on environmental health includes their influence [...] Read more.
One Health (OH) is a crucial concept, where the interference between humans, animals and the environment matters. This review article focusses on the role of horses in maintaining the health of humans and the environment. Horses’ impact on environmental health includes their influence on soil and the biodiversity of animal and plant species. Nevertheless, the effect of horses is not usually linear and several factors like plant–animal coevolutionary history, climate and animal density play significant roles. The long history of the relationship between horses and humans is shaped by the service of horses in wars or even in mines. Moreover, horses were essential in developing the first antidote to cure diphtheria. Nowadays, horses do have an influential role in animal assisted therapy, in supporting livelihoods in low income countries and as a leisure partner. Horses are of relevance in the spillover of zoonotic and emerging diseases from wildlife to human (e.g., Hendra Virus), and in non-communicable diseases (e.g., post-traumatic osteoarthritis in horses and back pain in horse riders). Furthermore, many risk factors—such as climate change and antimicrobial resistance—threaten the health of both horses and humans. Finally, the horse is a valuable factor in sustaining the health of humans and the environment, and must be incorporated in any roadmap to achieve OH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Exploring the Mental Model of Cattle Farmers in Disease Prevention and Control Practices
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010027 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Farmers play an integral role in minimizing disease threats and managing ongoing diseases on their farms. Various environmental factors influence the decision-making processes of farmers. Deciphering the mental models of farmers allows us to understand the motivations and reasons behind disease prevention and [...] Read more.
Farmers play an integral role in minimizing disease threats and managing ongoing diseases on their farms. Various environmental factors influence the decision-making processes of farmers. Deciphering the mental models of farmers allows us to understand the motivations and reasons behind disease prevention and control choices. This study aimed to explore the mental models of cattle farmers in implementing disease prevention and control practices. Using qualitative in-depth, semi-structured interviews, seven cattle farmers from a university’s foster farm extension program were sampled. Interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results revealed 23 dimensions comprising the mental model of cattle farmers. The dimensions were conceptualized under four major themes. Farmers were most influenced by perceived risk of disease, perceived effectiveness and benefits of disease prevention and control practices, experience, knowledge and emotions, subjective norms and perceived economic loss. The decision-making processes of farmers are complex and are influenced by various factors. While additional research is needed to confirm the findings using quantitative methods and larger sample sizes, insights gained from the study can be used as inputs to tailor communication and training strategies for improved disease prevention and control interventions. Full article
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Article
A Canine Gait Analysis Protocol for Back Movement Assessment in German Shepherd Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010026 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4582
Abstract
Objective—To design and test a motion analysis protocol for the gait analysis of adult German Shepherd (GS) dogs with a focus in the analyses of their back movements. Animals—Eight clinically healthy adult large-sized GS dogs (age, 4 ± 1.3 years; weight, 38.8 ± [...] Read more.
Objective—To design and test a motion analysis protocol for the gait analysis of adult German Shepherd (GS) dogs with a focus in the analyses of their back movements. Animals—Eight clinically healthy adult large-sized GS dogs (age, 4 ± 1.3 years; weight, 38.8 ± 4.2 kg). Procedures—A six-camera stereo-photogrammetric system and two force platforms were used for data acquisition. Experimental acquisition sessions consisted of static and gait trials. During gait trials, each dog walked along a 6 m long walkway at self-selected speed and a total of six gait cycles were recorded. Results—Grand mean and standard deviation of ground reaction forces of fore and hind limbs are reported. Spatial-temporal parameters averaged over gait cycles and subjects, their mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance are analyzed. Joint kinematics for the hip, stifle and tarsal joints and their average range of motion (ROM) values, and their 95% Confidence Interval (CI) values of kinematics curves are reported. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provides normative data of healthy GS dogs to form a preliminary basis in the analysis of the spatial-temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics during quadrupedal stance posture and gait. Also, a new back movement protocol enabling a multi-segment back model is provided. Results show that the proposed gait analysis protocol may become a useful and objective tool for the evaluation of canine treatment with special focus on the back movement. Full article
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Article
Schirmer Tear Test Value and Corneal Lesions’ Incidence during General Anesthesia for Non-Ophthalmic Surgery in Non-Brachycephalic Dogs: A Pilot Study Comparing Three Different Lubricant Eye Drop Formulations
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010025 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2603
Abstract
Aim of this blinded, prospective, randomized clinical study was to compare three different lubricant eye drops (LED) in healthy adult dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for non-ophthalmic surgery. Tear production rate was monitored by means of Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), and incidence of [...] Read more.
Aim of this blinded, prospective, randomized clinical study was to compare three different lubricant eye drops (LED) in healthy adult dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for non-ophthalmic surgery. Tear production rate was monitored by means of Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), and incidence of post-operative corneal abrasions/ulcerations was detected by corneal staining. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed before premedication, at extubation time and 24 h after GA in twenty-five non-brachycephalic dogs (fifty eyes) undergoing elective orthopaedic or spinal surgery procedures. Dogs were randomly allocated to one of three groups receiving as prophylactic LED either carmellose sodium (GC), or 1% hyaluronic acid (GH), or 0.25% hyaluronic acid (GL). In each eye STT-1 was repeated every hour during GA, before instilling one drop of the assigned LED. In all groups STT-1 values drastically decreased during GA, while 24 h later nine eyes (18%) had STT-1 values lower than 15 mm/minute. All of the three formulations tested were fully effective in preventing corneal ulceration (0% in all groups), while 10% of eyes reported superficial de-epithelialization. Fluorescein staining demonstrated that hourly prophylactic LED application prevented exposure keratopathy during general anesthesia in 90% of the eyes in non-brachycephalic dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
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Case Report
African Swine Fever in Mongolia: Course of the Epidemic and Applied Control Measures
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010024 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4217
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is spreading rapidly in Asia and was confirmed in Mongolia on 10 January 2019. Following the outbreak confirmation, a state emergency committee was established with representation from municipal authorities and other relevant authorities including the General Authority for Veterinary [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is spreading rapidly in Asia and was confirmed in Mongolia on 10 January 2019. Following the outbreak confirmation, a state emergency committee was established with representation from municipal authorities and other relevant authorities including the General Authority for Veterinary Services, National Emergency Management Agency, General Agency for Specialized Inspection, and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. The committee provided recommendations and coordinated closely with the State Central Veterinary Laboratory to ensure quick outbreak investigation and response. In addition to outbreak investigations, sampling took place at farms and food premises and suggests a link between the outbreaks and swill feeding practices among backyard pig farmers. Upon government request, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) deployed an expert team to assist in identifying risk factors for the disease spread and provide recommendations as how to improve disease prevention and response. Following the control measures from the involved agencies, the epidemic was successfully controlled and declared over on 11 April 2019. In total, the epidemic affected 83 pig farming households and led to a total of 2862 dead or culled pigs in eleven districts of seven provinces in Mongolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Editorial
Clinical Sciences—Leading the Way in Competency-Based Biomedical Education
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010023 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2018
Abstract
For decades, educators in the clinical sciences have been at the forefront of innovations in educational practices related to science and medicine. Ultimately, such innovations are often translated and implemented as best practices across the breadth of biomedical disciplines. Far from novel, competency-based [...] Read more.
For decades, educators in the clinical sciences have been at the forefront of innovations in educational practices related to science and medicine. Ultimately, such innovations are often translated and implemented as best practices across the breadth of biomedical disciplines. Far from novel, competency-based approaches to higher education have been around since the 1960s. These have their origins in student outcomes-based models that focus on the assessment of demonstrated competencies through students’ applications of theory, learned in the classroom, to perform a task and/or resolve a defined issue or problem. Despite its long history of contributing to human medical education and, more recently, veterinary medical education, competency-based instruction is still rare in undergraduate biomedical education. Herein, we discuss the value of clinical education in leading the way toward competency-based, undergraduate biomedical programs. Full article
Article
Sonographic Evaluation of Medial Iliac Lymph Nodes-to-Aorta Ratio in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010022 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Medial iliac lymph nodes drain many districts and are easy to identify during an ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Since there are no reference values for their size in healthy dogs, the aim of this work was to evaluate the size of the [...] Read more.
Medial iliac lymph nodes drain many districts and are easy to identify during an ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Since there are no reference values for their size in healthy dogs, the aim of this work was to evaluate the size of the medial iliac lymph nodes by using a ratio with the aortic diameter and find a reference range. The population was divided into group A (healthy dogs) and group B, with diseases of the medial iliac lymph nodes. The ratio of length, height and thickness of the medial iliac lymph nodes with the diameter of the aorta were calculated and underwent statistical analysis, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in group A, and 37 in group B. Significant differences were found between the ratio of sick and healthy patients and neoplastic and healthy patients. No significant difference was found between healthy and inflammatory patients. The best cut-off value to discriminate sick and healthy patients was 0.57, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 71%. The cut-off value of neoplastic and healthy patients was 0.69, with a sensitivity of 89.47% and a specificity of 84.13%. This value is highly predictive of neoplasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
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Communication
Rapid Resolution of Large Bowel Diarrhea after the Administration of a Combination of a High-Fiber Diet and a Probiotic Mixture in 30 Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010021 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3964
Abstract
Canine fiber responsive diarrhea is a form of chronic colitis that improves clinically after adding fiber to the diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a combination of a high-fiber, highly digestible, hypoallergenic diet with a probiotic mixture in 30 [...] Read more.
Canine fiber responsive diarrhea is a form of chronic colitis that improves clinically after adding fiber to the diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a combination of a high-fiber, highly digestible, hypoallergenic diet with a probiotic mixture in 30 dogs with chronic colitis that were unresponsive to various dietary and/or pharmacological interventions. Fecal scores, canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) scores, the dysbiosis index (DI), and histologic images of colonic biopsies were evaluated. At baseline (day 0; T0) and after 30 days of treatment (T1), all variables evaluated in our patients (i.e., fecal and CCECAI scores and histopathology) improved significantly at T1, with the exception of DI. However, there was a numerical shift from a state of dysbiosis to one of normobiosis. The combination of the diet and the probiotic used in the present study induced the resolution of clinical signs in a mean of 8.5 days (maximum 15 days) and did not necessitate any other treatments or the further addition of alimentary fiber. Full article
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Article
Lab-Made Electronic Nose for Fast Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010020 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the performance of a lab-made electronic nose (e-nose) composed of an array of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors in the detection and differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the performance of a lab-made electronic nose (e-nose) composed of an array of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors in the detection and differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) incubated in trypticsoy broth (TSB) media. Conventionally, the detection of L. monocytogenes and B. cereus is often performed by enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These techniques require trained operators and expert, expensive reagents and specific containment. In this study, three types of samples, namely, TSB media, L. monocytogenes (serotype 4b American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 13792), and B. cereus (ATCC) 10876, were used for this experiment. Prior to measurement using the e-nose, each bacterium was inoculated in TSB at 1 × 103–104 CFU/mL, followed by incubation for 48 h. To evaluate the performance of the e-nose, the measured data were then analyzed with chemometric models, namely linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA and QDA), and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, the e-nose coupled with SVM showeda high accuracy of 98% in discriminating between TSB media and L. monocytogenes, and between TSB media and B. cereus. It could be concluded that the lab-made e-nose is able to detect rapidly the presence of bacteria L. monocytogenes and B. cereus on TSB media. For the future, it could be used to identify the presence of L. monocytogenes or B. cereus contamination in the routine and fast assessment of food products in animal quarantine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Transverse Right Ventricle Strain and Strain Rate Assessed by 2-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Dogs with Pulmonary Hypertension
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010019 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Right ventricular (RV) strain analysis using 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) permits practitioners to assess regional and global deformation of the myocardium. Recently, assessment of the longitudinal right ventricle (RV) strain and strain rate using 2D STE has been reported in dogs. [...] Read more.
Right ventricular (RV) strain analysis using 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) permits practitioners to assess regional and global deformation of the myocardium. Recently, assessment of the longitudinal right ventricle (RV) strain and strain rate using 2D STE has been reported in dogs. Although longitudinal deformation is the dominant component of the RV systole, RV myocardial fibers of the superficial layer are oriented circumferentially and these contribute to the RV pump function (radial deformation). Because this strain component has not been investigated in dogs, we have assessed radial RV strain and strain rate using 2D STE in healthy dogs and dogs with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We have recruited 74 dogs (40 healthy dogs and 34 dogs with PH) in which we have analyzed radial RV free wall strain and strain rate using XstrainTM software. We have used the left apical 4-chamber view optimized for the RV for analysis of the radial strain and strain rate variables (XstrainTM software denoted radial strain as “transverse”). Seven dogs were excluded during the analysis for low quality images. Transverse strain and strain rate obtained in healthy dogs showed no relationship with heart rate, body weight or age (r2 < 0.09 and p > 0.05 for all variables). Moreover, no relationship between transverse strain/strain rate variables and left atrial-to-aortic ratios was observed (r2 < 0.06 and p = 0.2, for both). Transverse strain and strain rate obtained in dogs with PH, showed weak negative relationships with tricuspid regurgitation velocity (r2 < 0.25 and p = 0.006, for both). Transverse RV strain and strain rate using 2D STE is feasible in most dogs and decrease with worsening of the PH, but these advanced echocardiographic indices do not help in identifying dogs with PH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
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Article
Assessment of Ochratoxin A Exposure in Ornamental and Self-Consumption Backyard Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010018 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that may be present in various food and feed of plant and animal origin, including chicken meat. In Italy, backyard poultry farming is rather widespread. Animals are raised for meat, eggs and for ornamental purpose, and they [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that may be present in various food and feed of plant and animal origin, including chicken meat. In Italy, backyard poultry farming is rather widespread. Animals are raised for meat, eggs and for ornamental purpose, and they are often fed with home-made diets not subject to official controls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure of ornamental and backyard chickens to OTA using biliary ochratoxin A as a biomarker. Therefore, bile samples, in addition to kidney, liver and muscle, were collected from 102 chickens reared in 16 farms located in 6 Italian regions. High-performance liquid chromatography method and fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD) analysis were carried out firstly on bile from all animals, and OTA was detected in 12 chickens (concentration range 3.83–170.42 µg/L). Subsequently, the kidneys of these chickens were also analysed, and the mycotoxin was not detected. The analytical detection limits (LODs) of OTA in bile and kidney were 2.1 µg/L and 0.1 µg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, these animals were exposed to OTA but their meat can be considered safe, given that this mycotoxin, if present, concentrates highest in kidneys. Biliary ochratoxin A confirms its use as a valid biomarker to assess exposure of poultry to OTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
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Perspective
Plasma Concentration Rise after the Intramuscular Administration of High Dose Medetomidine (0.13 mg/kg) for Semen Collection in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010017 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
High dose medetomidine 0.13 mg/kg can be used for semen collection in cats with variable results in terms of quantity and quality. Therefore, a variation in terms of distribution and elimination among patients has been hypothesised. The aim of the study was to [...] Read more.
High dose medetomidine 0.13 mg/kg can be used for semen collection in cats with variable results in terms of quantity and quality. Therefore, a variation in terms of distribution and elimination among patients has been hypothesised. The aim of the study was to characterise the pharmacokinetics of medetomidine (0.13 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly (IM) in healthy male cats. Eighteen male cats undergoing castration were included, and medetomidine (0.13 mg/kg) was administered IM. Venous blood samples were collected at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after medetomidine administration. Before orchiectomy, at T20, sperm collection was attempted. Plasma medetomidine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Semen collection was successful in 15/18 cats. The medetomidine plasma concentration following the IM administration of a bolus was best described using a non-compartment model. Time of maximum concentration was observed at 40 minutes (range 20–90); maximum concentration was 32.8 ng/mL (range 26.8–51.2). The median apparent clearance was 11.9 mL/kg/minute (range 0.7–43.8). In conclusion, medetomidine administered IM at 0.13 mg/kg reached its peak plasma concentration slowly and with variability among patients. In addition, it was characterised by low total body clearance probably due to the cardiovascular alterations associated with medetomidine administration. Full article
Article
Improvement of Embryo Recovery in Holstein Cows Treated by Intra-Ovarian Platelet Rich Plasma before Superovulation
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010016 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
The current research was designed to evaluate if intra-ovarian administration of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) before superovulation could increase the number of follicles responsive to gonadotropin treatment in order to improve embryo recovery in donor cows. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows of proven fertility [...] Read more.
The current research was designed to evaluate if intra-ovarian administration of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) before superovulation could increase the number of follicles responsive to gonadotropin treatment in order to improve embryo recovery in donor cows. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows of proven fertility were employed. After estrous synchronization, at the 18th day of diestrous, the right ovary of each cow was left untreated and served as control while the left ovary was inoculated with 5 mL of PRP. Cows were left to spontaneously return to estrous, and nine days later, a standard superovulation was initiated for every cow. Seven days after artificial insemination (AI), putative embryos were collected by flushing the right and left uterine horns separately. All statistics were calculated by ANOVA. The mean number of follicles, evaluated by transrectal ultrasound scanning, did not statistically differ before PRP treatment between right (control) and left (treated) ovaries (9.18 ± 1.35 and 7.32 ± 1.67, p = 0.28, respectively) as well as at 48 h after PRP injection (7.67 ± 2.52 and 8.00 ± 2.00, p = 0.73, respectively). A statistical (p = 0.023) difference was found in the average number of follicles at the last gonadotropin injection between control and treated ovaries (11.33 ± 2.89 and 20.00 ± 9.17, respectively). The statistically different (p = 0.0037) number of grade 1-2 blastocysts harvested from the uterine horn ipsilateral to control ovaries in comparison to that collected from the treated ones (6.63 ± 2.92 and 14.75 ± 5.92, respectively) suggests that intra-ovarian injection of PRP before superovulation could exert beneficial effects both in latent follicle growth and in vivo embryo production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
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Article
The African Swine Fever Epidemic in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Lithuania (2014–2018)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010015 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
In January 2014 the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar of the Baltic States was reported from Lithuania. It has been the first occurrence of the disease in Eastern EU member states. Since then, the disease spread further affecting [...] Read more.
In January 2014 the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar of the Baltic States was reported from Lithuania. It has been the first occurrence of the disease in Eastern EU member states. Since then, the disease spread further affecting not only the Baltic States and Poland but also south-eastern Europe, the Czech Republic and Belgium. The spreading pattern of ASF with its long-distance spread of several hundreds of kilometers on the one hand and the endemic situation in wild boar on the other is far from being understood. By analyzing data of ASF cases in wild boar along with implemented control measures in Lithuania from 2014–2018 this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the disease. In brief, despite huge efforts to eradicate ASF, the disease is now endemic in the Lithuanian wild boar population. About 86% of Lithuanian’s territory is affected and over 3225 ASF cases in wild boar have been notified since 2014. The ASF epidemic led to a considerable decline in wild boar hunting bags. Intensified hunting might have reduced the wild boar population but this effect cannot be differentiated from the population decline caused by the disease itself. However, for ASF detection sampling of wild boar found dead supported by financial incentives turned out to be one of the most effective tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Review
Avian Pattern Recognition Receptor Sensing and Signaling
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010014 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3057
Abstract
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of immune sensors that play a critical role in detecting and responding to several conserved patterns of microorganisms. As such, they play a major role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and anti-microbial defense. Fundamental knowledge [...] Read more.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of immune sensors that play a critical role in detecting and responding to several conserved patterns of microorganisms. As such, they play a major role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and anti-microbial defense. Fundamental knowledge pertaining to the discovery of PRR functions and their ligands continue to advance the understanding of immune system and disease resistance, which led to the rational design and/or application of various PRR ligands as vaccine adjuvants. In addition, the conserved nature of many PRRs throughout the animal kingdom has enabled the utilization of the comparative genomics approach in PRR identification and the study of evolution, structural features, and functions in many animal species including avian. In the present review, we focused on PRR sensing and signaling functions in the avian species, domestic chicken, mallard, and domestic goose. In addition to summarizing recent advances in the understanding of avian PRR functions, the present review utilized a comparative biology approach to identify additional PRRs, whose functions have been well studied in mammalians but await functional characterization in avian. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Diversity of Diptera Species in Estonian Pig Farms
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010013 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
In light of the African swine fever outbreaks in Estonian pig farms during the past few years, the question of the vector potential of Diptera in the pig farm environment has risen. However, the arthropod fauna of the pig farm environment is currently [...] Read more.
In light of the African swine fever outbreaks in Estonian pig farms during the past few years, the question of the vector potential of Diptera in the pig farm environment has risen. However, the arthropod fauna of the pig farm environment is currently not well established. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the species diversity in pig farms. In total, 22 Diptera species or species groups were found in Estonian pig farms. There were altogether 186,701 individual arthropods collected, from which 96.6% (180,444) belonged to the order of true flies (Insecta: Diptera). The remaining 3.4% were from other insect orders, arachnids, or just damaged and unidentifiable specimens. The activity density and diversity of dipterans differed significantly between 12 sampled farms but not throughout the sampling period. The present study is amongst the few to provide a large-scale overview of pig-farm-associated Diptera in the temperate climate zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Article
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Biological-Derived Silver Nanoparticles: Preliminary Data
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010012 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2069
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are promising alternatives to antibiotics. The aims of this study were to produce AgNPs using two biological methods and determine their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. AgNPs were biosynthesized from an infusion of Curcuma longa (turmeric) [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are promising alternatives to antibiotics. The aims of this study were to produce AgNPs using two biological methods and determine their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. AgNPs were biosynthesized from an infusion of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and the culture supernatant of E. coli. Characterization was achieved by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The antibacterial properties of NPs from C. longa (ClAgNPs) and E. coli (EcAgNPs), alone and in combination with carbenicillin and ampicillin, were investigated through the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Dimensions of NPs ranged from 11.107 ± 2.705 nm (ClAgNPs) to 27.282 ± 2.68 nm (EcAgNPs). Kirby-Bauer and MIC assays showed great antibacterial abilities for both NPs alone and in combination with antibiotics. EcAgNPs alone showed the most powerful antibacterial activities, resulting in MIC values ranging from 0.438 ± 0.18 µM (P. aeruginosa) to 3.75 ± 3.65 µM (S. pseudintermedius) compared to those of ClAgNPs: 71.8 ± 0 µM (P. aeruginosa) and 143.7 ± 0 µM (S. pseudintermedius). The antibiofilm abilities were strain-dependent, but no statistical differences were found between the two NPs. These results suggest the antibacterial potential of AgNPs for the treatment of infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
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Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Veterinary Sciences in 2019
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010011 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Article
In Vitro Susceptibility of Mastitis Pathogens Isolated from Clinical Mastitis Cases on Northern German Dairy Farms
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010010 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
The present research study investigated the susceptibility of common mastitis pathogens—obtained from clinical mastitis cases on 58 Northern German dairy farms—to routinely used antimicrobials. The broth microdilution method was used for detecting the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 51), [...] Read more.
The present research study investigated the susceptibility of common mastitis pathogens—obtained from clinical mastitis cases on 58 Northern German dairy farms—to routinely used antimicrobials. The broth microdilution method was used for detecting the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 51), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 54), Streptococcus uberis (n = 50), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 85), non-aureus staphylococci (n = 88), Escherichia coli (n = 54) and Klebsiella species (n = 52). Streptococci and staphylococci were tested against cefquinome, cefoperazone, cephapirin, penicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefalexin/kanamycin. Besides cefquinome and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Gram-negative pathogens were examined for their susceptibility to marbofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The examined S. dysgalactiae isolates exhibited the comparatively lowest MICs. S. uberis and S. agalactiae were inhibited at higher amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephapirin concentration levels, whereas S. uberis isolates additionally exhibited elevated cefquinome MICs. Most Gram-positive mastitis pathogens were inhibited at higher cloxacillin than oxacillin concentrations. The MICs of Gram-negative pathogens were higher than previously reported, whereby 7.4%, 5.6% and 11.1% of E. coli isolates had MICs above the highest concentrations tested for cefquinome, marbofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. Individual isolates showed MICs at comparatively higher concentrations, leading to the hypothesis that a certain amount of mastitis pathogens on German dairy farms might be resistant to frequently used antimicrobials. Full article
Communication
Investigation of Melioidosis Outbreak in Pig Farms in Southern Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010009 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially life-threatening infection that can affect humans and a wide variety of animals in the tropics. In December 2017, a swine melioidosis case was discovered during a meat inspection at a privately-owned [...] Read more.
Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially life-threatening infection that can affect humans and a wide variety of animals in the tropics. In December 2017, a swine melioidosis case was discovered during a meat inspection at a privately-owned slaughterhouse in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in southern Thailand. The infection, which continued for several months, caused a dispute about where the disease began. An environmental investigation into two farms—both involved in raising the first infected pig—ensued. Through genetic analysis, the investigation revealed that a contaminated water supply at one farm was the probable source of infection. The three local sequence types identified in the investigation were types 51, 298 and 392. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Comparative Morphological Effects of Cold-Blade, Electrosurgical, and Plasma Scalpels on Dog Skin
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010008 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological results of the Onemytis® plasma surgery device with Airplasma® technology. We compared the efficacy and the effect on tissues of the new plasma electrocoagulation system with electrosurgery and a scalpel [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological results of the Onemytis® plasma surgery device with Airplasma® technology. We compared the efficacy and the effect on tissues of the new plasma electrocoagulation system with electrosurgery and a scalpel blade. Samples of healthy skin tissue from four dogs that underwent mastectomy were evaluated. Three different incision modes were used, i.e., a cold blade, electrosurgery, and the Onemytis® plasma scalpel were evaluated histologically to assess invasiveness and tissue injuries at different distances from the cutting surface. The histological examinations showed moderate necrosis caused by Onemytis®, compared to the use of the more invasive electrosurgery, which induces thermal damage that extends beyond 1000 µm. Our study shows that the use of the plasma scalpel reduces the extension of the thermal lesion on the skin compared to an electrosurgical scalpel. Full article
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Article
Alternative Vaccination Routes against Paratuberculosis Modulate Local Immune Response and Interference with Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Laboratory Animal Models
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010007 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteric granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that mainly affects ruminants. Current vaccines have shown to be cost–effective control reagents, although they are restricted due to cross-interference with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are [...] Read more.
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteric granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that mainly affects ruminants. Current vaccines have shown to be cost–effective control reagents, although they are restricted due to cross-interference with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed and this study is focused on evaluating alternative vaccination routes and their effect on the local immune response. The MAP oral challenge rabbit model was used to evaluate and compare an experimental inactivated MAP vaccine through oral (VOR) and intradermal (VID) routes. The VID group presented the highest proportion of animals with no visible lesions and the lowest proportion of animals with MAP positive tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the VID group presented a dominantly M1 polarized response indicating an ability to control MAP infection. In general, all vaccinated groups showed lower calprotectin levels compared to the non-vaccinated challenged group suggesting less active granulomatous lesions. The VID group showed some degree of skin test reactivity, whereas the same vaccine through oral administration was completely negative. These data show that PTB vaccination has an effect on macrophage polarization and that the route influences infection outcome and can also have an impact on bTB diagnosis. Future evaluation of new immunological products against mycobacterial diseases should consider assaying different vaccination routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Estimating the Postmortem Interval of Wild Boar Carcasses
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010006 - 05 Jan 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4292
Abstract
Knowledge on the postmortem interval (PMI) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) carcasses is crucial in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever in a wild boar population. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the decomposition process of this species in [...] Read more.
Knowledge on the postmortem interval (PMI) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) carcasses is crucial in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever in a wild boar population. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the decomposition process of this species in different microhabitats is necessary. We describe the decomposition process of carcasses exposed in cages. Trial 1 compared a wild boar and a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) under similar conditions; Trial 2 was performed with three wild boar piglets in the sunlight, shade, or in a wallow, and Trial 3 with two adult wild boar in the sun or shade. The wild boar decomposed more slowly than the domestic pig, which shows that standards derived from forensic studies on domestic pigs are not directly applicable to wild boar. The carcasses exposed to the sun decomposed faster than those in the shade did, and the decomposition of the carcass in the wallow took longest. To assess the state of decomposition, we adapted an existing total body scoring system originally developed for humans. Based on our studies, we propose a checklist tailored to wild boar carcasses found in the field that includes the most important information for a reliable PMI estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Article
Evaluation of the Efficiency of Active and Passive Surveillance in the Detection of African Swine Fever in Wild Boar
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010005 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs and has a drastic impact on pig industry. Wild boar populations play the role of ASF genotype II virus epidemiological reservoir. Disease surveillance in wild boar is carried out either [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs and has a drastic impact on pig industry. Wild boar populations play the role of ASF genotype II virus epidemiological reservoir. Disease surveillance in wild boar is carried out either by testing all the wild boar found sick or dead for virus detection (passive surveillance) or by testing for virus (and antibodies) all hunted wild boar (active surveillance). When virus prevalence and wild boar density are low as it happens close to eradication, the question on which kind of surveillance is more efficient in detecting the virus is still open. We built a simulation model to mimic the evolution of the host-parasite interaction in the European wild boar and to assess the efficiency of different surveillance strategies. We constructed a deterministic SIR model, which estimated the probability to detect the virus during the 8 years following its introduction, using both passive and active surveillance. Overall, passive surveillance provided a much larger number of ASF detections than active surveillance during the first year. During subsequent years, both active and passive surveillance exhibited a decrease in their probability to detect ASF. Such decrease, though, was more pronounced for passive surveillance. Under the assumption of 50% of carcasses detection, active surveillance became the best detection method when the endemic disease prevalence was lower than 1.5%, when hunting rate was >60% and when population density was lower than 0.1 individuals/km2. In such a situation, though, the absolute probability to detect the disease was very low with both methods, and finding almost every carcass is the only way to ensure virus detection. The sensitivity analysis shows that carcass search effort is the sole parameter that increases proportionally the chance of ASF virus detection. Therefore, an effort should be made to promote active search of dead wild boar also in endemic areas, since reporting wild boar carcasses is crucial to understand the epidemiological situation in any of the different phases of ASF infection at any wild boar density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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