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Vet. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 26 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A Canine Gait Analysis Protocol for Back Movement Assessment in German Shepherd Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010026 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Objective—To design and test a motion analysis protocol for the gait analysis of adult German Shepherd (GS) dogs with a focus in the analyses of their back movements. Animals—Eight clinically healthy adult large-sized GS dogs (age, 4 ± 1.3 years; weight, 38.8 ± [...] Read more.
Objective—To design and test a motion analysis protocol for the gait analysis of adult German Shepherd (GS) dogs with a focus in the analyses of their back movements. Animals—Eight clinically healthy adult large-sized GS dogs (age, 4 ± 1.3 years; weight, 38.8 ± 4.2 kg). Procedures—A six-camera stereo-photogrammetric system and two force platforms were used for data acquisition. Experimental acquisition sessions consisted of static and gait trials. During gait trials, each dog walked along a 6 m long walkway at self-selected speed and a total of six gait cycles were recorded. Results—Grand mean and standard deviation of ground reaction forces of fore and hind limbs are reported. Spatial-temporal parameters averaged over gait cycles and subjects, their mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance are analyzed. Joint kinematics for the hip, stifle and tarsal joints and their average range of motion (ROM) values, and their 95% Confidence Interval (CI) values of kinematics curves are reported. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provides normative data of healthy GS dogs to form a preliminary basis in the analysis of the spatial-temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics during quadrupedal stance posture and gait. Also, a new back movement protocol enabling a multi-segment back model is provided. Results show that the proposed gait analysis protocol may become a useful and objective tool for the evaluation of canine treatment with special focus on the back movement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Schirmer Tear Test Value and Corneal Lesions’ Incidence during General Anesthesia for Non-Ophthalmic Surgery in Non-Brachycephalic Dogs: A Pilot Study Comparing Three Different Lubricant Eye Drop Formulations
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010025 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Aim of this blinded, prospective, randomized clinical study was to compare three different lubricant eye drops (LED) in healthy adult dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for non-ophthalmic surgery. Tear production rate was monitored by means of Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), and incidence of [...] Read more.
Aim of this blinded, prospective, randomized clinical study was to compare three different lubricant eye drops (LED) in healthy adult dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for non-ophthalmic surgery. Tear production rate was monitored by means of Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), and incidence of post-operative corneal abrasions/ulcerations was detected by corneal staining. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed before premedication, at extubation time and 24 h after GA in twenty-five non-brachycephalic dogs (fifty eyes) undergoing elective orthopaedic or spinal surgery procedures. Dogs were randomly allocated to one of three groups receiving as prophylactic LED either carmellose sodium (GC), or 1% hyaluronic acid (GH), or 0.25% hyaluronic acid (GL). In each eye STT-1 was repeated every hour during GA, before instilling one drop of the assigned LED. In all groups STT-1 values drastically decreased during GA, while 24 h later nine eyes (18%) had STT-1 values lower than 15 mm/minute. All of the three formulations tested were fully effective in preventing corneal ulceration (0% in all groups), while 10% of eyes reported superficial de-epithelialization. Fluorescein staining demonstrated that hourly prophylactic LED application prevented exposure keratopathy during general anesthesia in 90% of the eyes in non-brachycephalic dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessCase Report
African Swine Fever in Mongolia: Course of the Epidemic and Applied Control Measures
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010024 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 401
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is spreading rapidly in Asia and was confirmed in Mongolia on 10 January 2019. Following the outbreak confirmation, a state emergency committee was established with representation from municipal authorities and other relevant authorities including the General Authority for Veterinary [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is spreading rapidly in Asia and was confirmed in Mongolia on 10 January 2019. Following the outbreak confirmation, a state emergency committee was established with representation from municipal authorities and other relevant authorities including the General Authority for Veterinary Services, National Emergency Management Agency, General Agency for Specialized Inspection, and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. The committee provided recommendations and coordinated closely with the State Central Veterinary Laboratory to ensure quick outbreak investigation and response. In addition to outbreak investigations, sampling took place at farms and food premises and suggests a link between the outbreaks and swill feeding practices among backyard pig farmers. Upon government request, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) deployed an expert team to assist in identifying risk factors for the disease spread and provide recommendations as how to improve disease prevention and response. Following the control measures from the involved agencies, the epidemic was successfully controlled and declared over on 11 April 2019. In total, the epidemic affected 83 pig farming households and led to a total of 2862 dead or culled pigs in eleven districts of seven provinces in Mongolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
Open AccessEditorial
Clinical Sciences—Leading the Way in Competency-Based Biomedical Education
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010023 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
For decades, educators in the clinical sciences have been at the forefront of innovations in educational practices related to science and medicine. Ultimately, such innovations are often translated and implemented as best practices across the breadth of biomedical disciplines. Far from novel, competency-based [...] Read more.
For decades, educators in the clinical sciences have been at the forefront of innovations in educational practices related to science and medicine. Ultimately, such innovations are often translated and implemented as best practices across the breadth of biomedical disciplines. Far from novel, competency-based approaches to higher education have been around since the 1960s. These have their origins in student outcomes-based models that focus on the assessment of demonstrated competencies through students’ applications of theory, learned in the classroom, to perform a task and/or resolve a defined issue or problem. Despite its long history of contributing to human medical education and, more recently, veterinary medical education, competency-based instruction is still rare in undergraduate biomedical education. Herein, we discuss the value of clinical education in leading the way toward competency-based, undergraduate biomedical programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sonographic Evaluation of Medial Iliac Lymph Nodes-to-Aorta Ratio in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010022 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Medial iliac lymph nodes drain many districts and are easy to identify during an ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Since there are no reference values for their size in healthy dogs, the aim of this work was to evaluate the size of the [...] Read more.
Medial iliac lymph nodes drain many districts and are easy to identify during an ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Since there are no reference values for their size in healthy dogs, the aim of this work was to evaluate the size of the medial iliac lymph nodes by using a ratio with the aortic diameter and find a reference range. The population was divided into group A (healthy dogs) and group B, with diseases of the medial iliac lymph nodes. The ratio of length, height and thickness of the medial iliac lymph nodes with the diameter of the aorta were calculated and underwent statistical analysis, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in group A, and 37 in group B. Significant differences were found between the ratio of sick and healthy patients and neoplastic and healthy patients. No significant difference was found between healthy and inflammatory patients. The best cut-off value to discriminate sick and healthy patients was 0.57, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 71%. The cut-off value of neoplastic and healthy patients was 0.69, with a sensitivity of 89.47% and a specificity of 84.13%. This value is highly predictive of neoplasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
Open AccessCommunication
Rapid Resolution of Large Bowel Diarrhea after the Administration of a Combination of a High-Fiber Diet and a Probiotic Mixture in 30 Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010021 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Canine fiber responsive diarrhea is a form of chronic colitis that improves clinically after adding fiber to the diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a combination of a high-fiber, highly digestible, hypoallergenic diet with a probiotic mixture in 30 [...] Read more.
Canine fiber responsive diarrhea is a form of chronic colitis that improves clinically after adding fiber to the diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a combination of a high-fiber, highly digestible, hypoallergenic diet with a probiotic mixture in 30 dogs with chronic colitis that were unresponsive to various dietary and/or pharmacological interventions. Fecal scores, canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) scores, the dysbiosis index (DI), and histologic images of colonic biopsies were evaluated. At baseline (day 0; T0) and after 30 days of treatment (T1), all variables evaluated in our patients (i.e., fecal and CCECAI scores and histopathology) improved significantly at T1, with the exception of DI. However, there was a numerical shift from a state of dysbiosis to one of normobiosis. The combination of the diet and the probiotic used in the present study induced the resolution of clinical signs in a mean of 8.5 days (maximum 15 days) and did not necessitate any other treatments or the further addition of alimentary fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Lab-Made Electronic Nose for Fast Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010020 - 09 Feb 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the performance of a lab-made electronic nose (e-nose) composed of an array of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors in the detection and differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the performance of a lab-made electronic nose (e-nose) composed of an array of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors in the detection and differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) incubated in trypticsoy broth (TSB) media. Conventionally, the detection of L. monocytogenes and B. cereus is often performed by enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These techniques require trained operators and expert, expensive reagents and specific containment. In this study, three types of samples, namely, TSB media, L. monocytogenes (serotype 4b American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 13792), and B. cereus (ATCC) 10876, were used for this experiment. Prior to measurement using the e-nose, each bacterium was inoculated in TSB at 1 × 103–104 CFU/mL, followed by incubation for 48 h. To evaluate the performance of the e-nose, the measured data were then analyzed with chemometric models, namely linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA and QDA), and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, the e-nose coupled with SVM showeda high accuracy of 98% in discriminating between TSB media and L. monocytogenes, and between TSB media and B. cereus. It could be concluded that the lab-made e-nose is able to detect rapidly the presence of bacteria L. monocytogenes and B. cereus on TSB media. For the future, it could be used to identify the presence of L. monocytogenes or B. cereus contamination in the routine and fast assessment of food products in animal quarantine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Transverse Right Ventricle Strain and Strain Rate Assessed by 2-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Dogs with Pulmonary Hypertension
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010019 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Right ventricular (RV) strain analysis using 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) permits practitioners to assess regional and global deformation of the myocardium. Recently, assessment of the longitudinal right ventricle (RV) strain and strain rate using 2D STE has been reported in dogs. [...] Read more.
Right ventricular (RV) strain analysis using 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) permits practitioners to assess regional and global deformation of the myocardium. Recently, assessment of the longitudinal right ventricle (RV) strain and strain rate using 2D STE has been reported in dogs. Although longitudinal deformation is the dominant component of the RV systole, RV myocardial fibers of the superficial layer are oriented circumferentially and these contribute to the RV pump function (radial deformation). Because this strain component has not been investigated in dogs, we have assessed radial RV strain and strain rate using 2D STE in healthy dogs and dogs with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We have recruited 74 dogs (40 healthy dogs and 34 dogs with PH) in which we have analyzed radial RV free wall strain and strain rate using XstrainTM software. We have used the left apical 4-chamber view optimized for the RV for analysis of the radial strain and strain rate variables (XstrainTM software denoted radial strain as “transverse”). Seven dogs were excluded during the analysis for low quality images. Transverse strain and strain rate obtained in healthy dogs showed no relationship with heart rate, body weight or age (r2 < 0.09 and p > 0.05 for all variables). Moreover, no relationship between transverse strain/strain rate variables and left atrial-to-aortic ratios was observed (r2 < 0.06 and p = 0.2, for both). Transverse strain and strain rate obtained in dogs with PH, showed weak negative relationships with tricuspid regurgitation velocity (r2 < 0.25 and p = 0.006, for both). Transverse RV strain and strain rate using 2D STE is feasible in most dogs and decrease with worsening of the PH, but these advanced echocardiographic indices do not help in identifying dogs with PH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Ochratoxin A Exposure in Ornamental and Self-Consumption Backyard Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010018 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that may be present in various food and feed of plant and animal origin, including chicken meat. In Italy, backyard poultry farming is rather widespread. Animals are raised for meat, eggs and for ornamental purpose, and they [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that may be present in various food and feed of plant and animal origin, including chicken meat. In Italy, backyard poultry farming is rather widespread. Animals are raised for meat, eggs and for ornamental purpose, and they are often fed with home-made diets not subject to official controls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure of ornamental and backyard chickens to OTA using biliary ochratoxin A as a biomarker. Therefore, bile samples, in addition to kidney, liver and muscle, were collected from 102 chickens reared in 16 farms located in 6 Italian regions. High-performance liquid chromatography method and fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD) analysis were carried out firstly on bile from all animals, and OTA was detected in 12 chickens (concentration range 3.83–170.42 µg/L). Subsequently, the kidneys of these chickens were also analysed, and the mycotoxin was not detected. The analytical detection limits (LODs) of OTA in bile and kidney were 2.1 µg/L and 0.1 µg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, these animals were exposed to OTA but their meat can be considered safe, given that this mycotoxin, if present, concentrates highest in kidneys. Biliary ochratoxin A confirms its use as a valid biomarker to assess exposure of poultry to OTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
Open AccessPerspective
Plasma Concentration Rise after the Intramuscular Administration of High Dose Medetomidine (0.13 mg/kg) for Semen Collection in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010017 - 03 Feb 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
High dose medetomidine 0.13 mg/kg can be used for semen collection in cats with variable results in terms of quantity and quality. Therefore, a variation in terms of distribution and elimination among patients has been hypothesised. The aim of the study was to [...] Read more.
High dose medetomidine 0.13 mg/kg can be used for semen collection in cats with variable results in terms of quantity and quality. Therefore, a variation in terms of distribution and elimination among patients has been hypothesised. The aim of the study was to characterise the pharmacokinetics of medetomidine (0.13 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly (IM) in healthy male cats. Eighteen male cats undergoing castration were included, and medetomidine (0.13 mg/kg) was administered IM. Venous blood samples were collected at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after medetomidine administration. Before orchiectomy, at T20, sperm collection was attempted. Plasma medetomidine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Semen collection was successful in 15/18 cats. The medetomidine plasma concentration following the IM administration of a bolus was best described using a non-compartment model. Time of maximum concentration was observed at 40 minutes (range 20–90); maximum concentration was 32.8 ng/mL (range 26.8–51.2). The median apparent clearance was 11.9 mL/kg/minute (range 0.7–43.8). In conclusion, medetomidine administered IM at 0.13 mg/kg reached its peak plasma concentration slowly and with variability among patients. In addition, it was characterised by low total body clearance probably due to the cardiovascular alterations associated with medetomidine administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Embryo Recovery in Holstein Cows Treated by Intra-Ovarian Platelet Rich Plasma before Superovulation
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010016 - 01 Feb 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The current research was designed to evaluate if intra-ovarian administration of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) before superovulation could increase the number of follicles responsive to gonadotropin treatment in order to improve embryo recovery in donor cows. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows of proven fertility [...] Read more.
The current research was designed to evaluate if intra-ovarian administration of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) before superovulation could increase the number of follicles responsive to gonadotropin treatment in order to improve embryo recovery in donor cows. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows of proven fertility were employed. After estrous synchronization, at the 18th day of diestrous, the right ovary of each cow was left untreated and served as control while the left ovary was inoculated with 5 mL of PRP. Cows were left to spontaneously return to estrous, and nine days later, a standard superovulation was initiated for every cow. Seven days after artificial insemination (AI), putative embryos were collected by flushing the right and left uterine horns separately. All statistics were calculated by ANOVA. The mean number of follicles, evaluated by transrectal ultrasound scanning, did not statistically differ before PRP treatment between right (control) and left (treated) ovaries (9.18 ± 1.35 and 7.32 ± 1.67, p = 0.28, respectively) as well as at 48 hours after PRP injection (7.67 ± 2.52 and 8.00 ± 2.00, p = 0.73, respectively). A statistical (p = 0.023) difference was found in the average number of follicles at the last gonadotropin injection between control and treated ovaries (11.33 ± 2.89 and 20.00 ± 9.17, respectively). The statistically different (p = 0.0037) number of grade 1-2 blastocysts harvested from the uterine horn ipsilateral to control ovaries in comparison to that collected from the treated ones (6.63 ± 2.92 and 14.75 ± 5.92, respectively) suggests that intra-ovarian injection of PRP before superovulation could exert beneficial effects both in latent follicle growth and in vivo embryo production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
Open AccessArticle
The African Swine Fever Epidemic in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Lithuania (2014–2018)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010015 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 380
Abstract
In January 2014 the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar of the Baltic States was reported from Lithuania. It has been the first occurrence of the disease in Eastern EU member states. Since then, the disease spread further affecting [...] Read more.
In January 2014 the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar of the Baltic States was reported from Lithuania. It has been the first occurrence of the disease in Eastern EU member states. Since then, the disease spread further affecting not only the Baltic States and Poland but also south-eastern Europe, the Czech Republic and Belgium. The spreading pattern of ASF with its long-distance spread of several hundreds of kilometers on the one hand and the endemic situation in wild boar on the other is far from being understood. By analyzing data of ASF cases in wild boar along with implemented control measures in Lithuania from 2014–2018 this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the disease. In brief, despite huge efforts to eradicate ASF, the disease is now endemic in the Lithuanian wild boar population. About 86% of Lithuanian’s territory is affected and over 3225 ASF cases in wild boar have been notified since 2014. The ASF epidemic led to a considerable decline in wild boar hunting bags. Intensified hunting might have reduced the wild boar population but this effect cannot be differentiated from the population decline caused by the disease itself. However, for ASF detection sampling of wild boar found dead supported by financial incentives turned out to be one of the most effective tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
Open AccessReview
Avian Pattern Recognition Receptor Sensing and Signaling
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010014 - 27 Jan 2020
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of immune sensors that play a critical role in detecting and responding to several conserved patterns of microorganisms. As such, they play a major role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and anti-microbial defense. Fundamental knowledge [...] Read more.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of immune sensors that play a critical role in detecting and responding to several conserved patterns of microorganisms. As such, they play a major role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and anti-microbial defense. Fundamental knowledge pertaining to the discovery of PRR functions and their ligands continue to advance the understanding of immune system and disease resistance, which led to the rational design and/or application of various PRR ligands as vaccine adjuvants. In addition, the conserved nature of many PRRs throughout the animal kingdom has enabled the utilization of the comparative genomics approach in PRR identification and the study of evolution, structural features, and functions in many animal species including avian. In the present review, we focused on PRR sensing and signaling functions in the avian species, domestic chicken, mallard, and domestic goose. In addition to summarizing recent advances in the understanding of avian PRR functions, the present review utilized a comparative biology approach to identify additional PRRs, whose functions have been well studied in mammalians but await functional characterization in avian. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Open AccessArticle
Diversity of Diptera Species in Estonian Pig Farms
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010013 - 23 Jan 2020
Viewed by 380
Abstract
In light of the African swine fever outbreaks in Estonian pig farms during the past few years, the question of the vector potential of Diptera in the pig farm environment has risen. However, the arthropod fauna of the pig farm environment is currently [...] Read more.
In light of the African swine fever outbreaks in Estonian pig farms during the past few years, the question of the vector potential of Diptera in the pig farm environment has risen. However, the arthropod fauna of the pig farm environment is currently not well established. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the species diversity in pig farms. In total, 22 Diptera species or species groups were found in Estonian pig farms. There were altogether 186,701 individual arthropods collected, from which 96.6% (180,444) belonged to the order of true flies (Insecta: Diptera). The remaining 3.4% were from other insect orders, arachnids, or just damaged and unidentifiable specimens. The activity density and diversity of dipterans differed significantly between 12 sampled farms but not throughout the sampling period. The present study is amongst the few to provide a large-scale overview of pig-farm-associated Diptera in the temperate climate zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Biological-Derived Silver Nanoparticles: Preliminary Data
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010012 - 23 Jan 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are promising alternatives to antibiotics. The aims of this study were to produce AgNPs using two biological methods and determine their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. AgNPs were biosynthesized from an infusion of Curcuma longa (turmeric) [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are promising alternatives to antibiotics. The aims of this study were to produce AgNPs using two biological methods and determine their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. AgNPs were biosynthesized from an infusion of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and the culture supernatant of E. coli. Characterization was achieved by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The antibacterial properties of NPs from C. longa (ClAgNPs) and E. coli (EcAgNPs), alone and in combination with carbenicillin and ampicillin, were investigated through the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Dimensions of NPs ranged from 11.107 ± 2.705 nm (ClAgNPs) to 27.282 ± 2.68 nm (EcAgNPs). Kirby-Bauer and MIC assays showed great antibacterial abilities for both NPs alone and in combination with antibiotics. EcAgNPs alone showed the most powerful antibacterial activities, resulting in MIC values ranging from 0.438 ± 0.18 µM (P. aeruginosa) to 3.75 ± 3.65 µM (S. pseudintermedius) compared to those of ClAgNPs: 71.8 ± 0 µM (P. aeruginosa) and 143.7 ± 0 µM (S. pseudintermedius). The antibiofilm abilities were strain-dependent, but no statistical differences were found between the two NPs. These results suggest the antibacterial potential of AgNPs for the treatment of infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Veterinary Sciences in 2019
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010011 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Susceptibility of Mastitis Pathogens Isolated from Clinical Mastitis Cases on Northern German Dairy Farms
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010010 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The present research study investigated the susceptibility of common mastitis pathogens—obtained from clinical mastitis cases on 58 Northern German dairy farms—to routinely used antimicrobials. The broth microdilution method was used for detecting the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 51), [...] Read more.
The present research study investigated the susceptibility of common mastitis pathogens—obtained from clinical mastitis cases on 58 Northern German dairy farms—to routinely used antimicrobials. The broth microdilution method was used for detecting the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 51), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 54), Streptococcus uberis (n = 50), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 85), non-aureus staphylococci (n = 88), Escherichia coli (n = 54) and Klebsiella species (n = 52). Streptococci and staphylococci were tested against cefquinome, cefoperazone, cephapirin, penicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefalexin/kanamycin. Besides cefquinome and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Gram-negative pathogens were examined for their susceptibility to marbofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The examined S. dysgalactiae isolates exhibited the comparatively lowest MICs. S. uberis and S. agalactiae were inhibited at higher amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephapirin concentration levels, whereas S. uberis isolates additionally exhibited elevated cefquinome MICs. Most Gram-positive mastitis pathogens were inhibited at higher cloxacillin than oxacillin concentrations. The MICs of Gram-negative pathogens were higher than previously reported, whereby 7.4%, 5.6% and 11.1% of E. coli isolates had MICs above the highest concentrations tested for cefquinome, marbofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. Individual isolates showed MICs at comparatively higher concentrations, leading to the hypothesis that a certain amount of mastitis pathogens on German dairy farms might be resistant to frequently used antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Open AccessCommunication
Investigation of Melioidosis Outbreak in Pig Farms in Southern Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010009 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially life-threatening infection that can affect humans and a wide variety of animals in the tropics. In December 2017, a swine melioidosis case was discovered during a meat inspection at a privately-owned [...] Read more.
Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially life-threatening infection that can affect humans and a wide variety of animals in the tropics. In December 2017, a swine melioidosis case was discovered during a meat inspection at a privately-owned slaughterhouse in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in southern Thailand. The infection, which continued for several months, caused a dispute about where the disease began. An environmental investigation into two farms—both involved in raising the first infected pig—ensued. Through genetic analysis, the investigation revealed that a contaminated water supply at one farm was the probable source of infection. The three local sequence types identified in the investigation were types 51, 298 and 392. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Morphological Effects of Cold-Blade, Electrosurgical, and Plasma Scalpels on Dog Skin
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010008 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological results of the Onemytis® plasma surgery device with Airplasma® technology. We compared the efficacy and the effect on tissues of the new plasma electrocoagulation system with electrosurgery and a scalpel [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological results of the Onemytis® plasma surgery device with Airplasma® technology. We compared the efficacy and the effect on tissues of the new plasma electrocoagulation system with electrosurgery and a scalpel blade. Samples of healthy skin tissue from four dogs that underwent mastectomy were evaluated. Three different incision modes were used, i.e., a cold blade, electrosurgery, and the Onemytis® plasma scalpel were evaluated histologically to assess invasiveness and tissue injuries at different distances from the cutting surface. The histological examinations showed moderate necrosis caused by Onemytis®, compared to the use of the more invasive electrosurgery, which induces thermal damage that extends beyond 1000 µm. Our study shows that the use of the plasma scalpel reduces the extension of the thermal lesion on the skin compared to an electrosurgical scalpel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Alternative Vaccination Routes against Paratuberculosis Modulate Local Immune Response and Interference with Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Laboratory Animal Models
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010007 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteric granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that mainly affects ruminants. Current vaccines have shown to be cost–effective control reagents, although they are restricted due to cross-interference with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are [...] Read more.
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteric granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that mainly affects ruminants. Current vaccines have shown to be cost–effective control reagents, although they are restricted due to cross-interference with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed and this study is focused on evaluating alternative vaccination routes and their effect on the local immune response. The MAP oral challenge rabbit model was used to evaluate and compare an experimental inactivated MAP vaccine through oral (VOR) and intradermal (VID) routes. The VID group presented the highest proportion of animals with no visible lesions and the lowest proportion of animals with MAP positive tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the VID group presented a dominantly M1 polarized response indicating an ability to control MAP infection. In general, all vaccinated groups showed lower calprotectin levels compared to the non-vaccinated challenged group suggesting less active granulomatous lesions. The VID group showed some degree of skin test reactivity, whereas the same vaccine through oral administration was completely negative. These data show that PTB vaccination has an effect on macrophage polarization and that the route influences infection outcome and can also have an impact on bTB diagnosis. Future evaluation of new immunological products against mycobacterial diseases should consider assaying different vaccination routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Postmortem Interval of Wild Boar Carcasses
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010006 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Knowledge on the postmortem interval (PMI) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) carcasses is crucial in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever in a wild boar population. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the decomposition process of this species in [...] Read more.
Knowledge on the postmortem interval (PMI) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) carcasses is crucial in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever in a wild boar population. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the decomposition process of this species in different microhabitats is necessary. We describe the decomposition process of carcasses exposed in cages. Trial 1 compared a wild boar and a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) under similar conditions; Trial 2 was performed with three wild boar piglets in the sunlight, shade, or in a wallow, and Trial 3 with two adult wild boar in the sun or shade. The wild boar decomposed more slowly than the domestic pig, which shows that standards derived from forensic studies on domestic pigs are not directly applicable to wild boar. The carcasses exposed to the sun decomposed faster than those in the shade did, and the decomposition of the carcass in the wallow took longest. To assess the state of decomposition, we adapted an existing total body scoring system originally developed for humans. Based on our studies, we propose a checklist tailored to wild boar carcasses found in the field that includes the most important information for a reliable PMI estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Efficiency of Active and Passive Surveillance in the Detection of African Swine Fever in Wild Boar
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010005 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 621
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs and has a drastic impact on pig industry. Wild boar populations play the role of ASF genotype II virus epidemiological reservoir. Disease surveillance in wild boar is carried out either [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs and has a drastic impact on pig industry. Wild boar populations play the role of ASF genotype II virus epidemiological reservoir. Disease surveillance in wild boar is carried out either by testing all the wild boar found sick or dead for virus detection (passive surveillance) or by testing for virus (and antibodies) all hunted wild boar (active surveillance). When virus prevalence and wild boar density are low as it happens close to eradication, the question on which kind of surveillance is more efficient in detecting the virus is still open. We built a simulation model to mimic the evolution of the host-parasite interaction in the European wild boar and to assess the efficiency of different surveillance strategies. We constructed a deterministic SIR model, which estimated the probability to detect the virus during the 8 years following its introduction, using both passive and active surveillance. Overall, passive surveillance provided a much larger number of ASF detections than active surveillance during the first year. During subsequent years, both active and passive surveillance exhibited a decrease in their probability to detect ASF. Such decrease, though, was more pronounced for passive surveillance. Under the assumption of 50% of carcasses detection, active surveillance became the best detection method when the endemic disease prevalence was lower than 1.5%, when hunting rate was >60% and when population density was lower than 0.1 individuals/km2. In such a situation, though, the absolute probability to detect the disease was very low with both methods, and finding almost every carcass is the only way to ensure virus detection. The sensitivity analysis shows that carcass search effort is the sole parameter that increases proportionally the chance of ASF virus detection. Therefore, an effort should be made to promote active search of dead wild boar also in endemic areas, since reporting wild boar carcasses is crucial to understand the epidemiological situation in any of the different phases of ASF infection at any wild boar density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Open AccessCase Report
A Case of Mortality Caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in Wild-Caught Red-Eyed Crocodile Skinks (Tribolonotus gracilis)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010004 - 29 Dec 2019
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in aquatic environments, is pathogenic to amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. In human medicine, the clinical symptoms of aeromonad infection include not only gastroenteritis but also extraintestinal infections, such as wounds, cellulitis, and septicemia, in immunocompromised [...] Read more.
Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in aquatic environments, is pathogenic to amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. In human medicine, the clinical symptoms of aeromonad infection include not only gastroenteritis but also extraintestinal infections, such as wounds, cellulitis, and septicemia, in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. In this study, ten red-eyed crocodile skinks (Tribolonotus gracilis) that shared the same space were found dead 7 days after being shipped from Indonesia. The necropsy revealed A. hydrophila to be the causative agent, and the isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics, based on an antimicrobial susceptibility test. Seven virulence factors (act, ast, alt, aerA, fla, gcaT, and ahyB) considered to be associated with virulence were detected by PCR. Microscopic examination revealed several necrotic lesions and melano-macrophage centers in the tissue slides. Reptiles caught in the wild for trade experience captivity stress. Furthermore, in the winter, reptiles are easily exposed to the cold atmosphere. These stresses can negatively impact the immunity of these ectotherms, making them vulnerable to A. hydrophila infections. Therefore, to avoid such opportunistic infections and mortality following exposure to severe stress, medical care is recommended. The studies of alternatives, such as bacteriophage and bacteriocin, are needed for a preventive application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessReview
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale: An Update Review about An Emerging Poultry Pathogen
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010003 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Respiratory diseases in birds generate sanitary and economic impacts and may be related to the environment and climate. Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Escherichia coli, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Bordetella avium are among the most [...] Read more.
Respiratory diseases in birds generate sanitary and economic impacts and may be related to the environment and climate. Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Escherichia coli, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Bordetella avium are among the most important avian respiratory pathogens. ORT is responsible for causing ornitobacteriosis, a disease characterized by clinical signs ranging from mild to severe respiratory conditions, with high mortality rates, mainly affecting turkeys and chickens. The first report of ornitobacteriosis was in 1981 in Germany. Despite its importance, few studies on ORT have been published. In addition, the presence of this pathogen has been neglected in poultry farms, mainly due to the lack of appropriate diagnostic protocols. The lack of correct isolation and diagnostic protocols along with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents have been contributing to treatment failure. Due to its economic importance to the poultry industry, ornitobacteriosis should be monitored and included in national programs for the prevention and control of avian respiratory diseases. This review aimed to update and discuss important issues related to ORT since this pathogen has great economic and sanitary implications for the chicken production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
R0 Estimation for the African Swine Fever Epidemics in Wild Boar of Czech Republic and Belgium
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010002 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 741
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious haemorrhagic fever that affects both domesticated and wild pigs. Since ASF reached Europe wild boar populations have been a reservoir for the virus. Collecting reliable data on infected individuals in wild populations is challenging, and this [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious haemorrhagic fever that affects both domesticated and wild pigs. Since ASF reached Europe wild boar populations have been a reservoir for the virus. Collecting reliable data on infected individuals in wild populations is challenging, and this makes it difficult to deploy an effective eradication strategy. However, for diseases with high lethality rate, infected carcasses can be used as a proxy for the number of infected individuals at a certain time. Then R0 parameter can be used to estimate the time distribution of the number of newly infected individuals for the outbreak. We estimated R0 for two ASF outbreaks in wild boar, in Czech Republic and Belgium, using the exponential growth method. This allowed us to estimate both R0 and the doubling time (Td) for those infections. The results are R0 = 1.95, Td = 4.39 for Czech Republic and R0 = 1.65, Td = 6.43 for Belgium. We suggest that, if estimated as early as possible, R0 and Td can provide an expected course for the infection against which to compare the actual data collected in the field. This would help to assess if passive surveillance is properly implemented and hence to verify the efficacy of the applied control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Tibial Tuberosity Fracture/Fissure through the Maquet Hole in Stifle Osteoarthritis after Porous Tibial Tuberosity Advancement in Dogs at Mid-Term Follow-Up
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010001 - 22 Dec 2019
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is used to treat cranial cruciate ligament rupture of the stifle joint in dogs. Tibial tuberosity fracture/fissure is a complication of TTA that may have a favorable prognosis. The aim of this study was to detect how tibial tuberosity [...] Read more.
Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is used to treat cranial cruciate ligament rupture of the stifle joint in dogs. Tibial tuberosity fracture/fissure is a complication of TTA that may have a favorable prognosis. The aim of this study was to detect how tibial tuberosity fracture/fissure through the Maquet hole worsens the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in the stifle joint of dogs treated with porous TTA. Seventeen cases were included in the study, divided into two groups. The first group (n = 10) included subjects that had tibial tuberosity fracture/fissure through the Maquet, and the second group included subjects that had no complications (n = 7). Both groups showed significant progression compared to OA at 3 months after surgery. We observed that at T0, the control group showed a higher level of OA. For this reason, we normalized the OA scores, evaluating the percentage difference from T0 and T1. We verified that there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The results confirm that OA progression in subjects undergoing TTA was not significantly influenced by fracture/fissure of the tibial tuberosity through the Maquet hole. Therefore, fracture fissure through the Maquet hole should be considered as a common minor complication during TTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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